Gene Symbol: cta
Description: concertina
Alias: CG17678, CG40010, Cta, Dmel\CG17678, GNA12/13, Galpha[[12/13]], conc, mat(2)cta, mat(2)fog, concertina, CG17678-PA, CG17678-PB, Galpha[[12/13]] subunit, cta-PA, cta-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Wakimoto B, Hearn M. The effects of chromosome rearrangements on the expression of heterochromatic genes in chromosome 2L of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;125:141-54 pubmed
    ..We discuss how the properties of the position effects on heterochromatic genes relate to other proximity-dependent phenomena such as transvection. ..
  2. Leptin M. Gastrulation in Drosophila: the logic and the cellular mechanisms. EMBO J. 1999;18:3187-92 pubmed
  3. Rogers S, Wiedemann U, Hacker U, Turck C, Vale R. Drosophila RhoGEF2 associates with microtubule plus ends in an EB1-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1827-33 pubmed
    ..During Drosophila embryogenesis, a Galpha subunit (Concertina) and a Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor (DRhoGEF2) have been implicated in the dramatic epithelial-..
  4. Yasuhara J, DeCrease C, Wakimoto B. Evolution of heterochromatic genes of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10958-63 pubmed
    ..We conclude that heterochromatin-dependent regulation requires specialized enhancers or higher-order interactions and propose a facilitating role for transposable elements...
  5. Hampoelz B, Hoeller O, Bowman S, Dunican D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Ric-8 is essential for plasma-membrane localization of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1099-105 pubmed
    ..ric-8 mutants also have defects in gastrulation that resemble mutants in the Galpha protein concertina or the extracellular ligand foldedgastrulation...
  6. Leptin M. Drosophila gastrulation: from pattern formation to morphogenesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1995;11:189-212 pubmed
    ..These genes code for transcription factors that regulate cell behavior by controlling expression of target genes whose products modulate the cytoskeleton and other subcellular compartments. ..
  7. Hearn M, Hedrick A, Grigliatti T, Wakimoto B. The effect of modifiers of position-effect variegation on the variegation of heterochromatic genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;128:785-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that these heterochromatic genes have fundamentally different regulatory requirements compared to those typical of euchromatic genes. ..
  8. Parks S, Wieschaus E. The Drosophila gastrulation gene concertina encodes a G alpha-like protein. Cell. 1991;64:447-58 pubmed
    ..Embryos from mothers homozygous for mutations in the concertina (cta) gene begin furrow formation by forming a zone of tightly apposed cells, constrict some cells, and then ..
  9. Nikolaidou K, Barrett K. A Rho GTPase signaling pathway is used reiteratively in epithelial folding and potentially selects the outcome of Rho activation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1822-6 pubmed
    ..Apical myosin localization is also regulated by Concertina (Cta), a Galpha(12/13) family member that is thought to activate DRhoGEF2 and is itself activated by a putative ..

More Information


  1. Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Chromosome rearrangements induce both variegated and reduced, uniform expression of heterochromatic genes in a development-specific manner. Genetics. 1998;149:1451-64 pubmed
    ..We examined PEV of the heterochromatic light (lt) and concertina (cta) genes in order to investigate potential tissue or developmental differences in chromosome structure that ..
  2. Schaefer M, Petronczki M, Dorner D, Forte M, Knoblich J. Heterotrimeric G proteins direct two modes of asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system. Cell. 2001;107:183-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, asymmetric activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a receptor-independent mechanism may orient asymmetric cell divisions in different cell types. ..
  3. Costa M, Wilson E, Wieschaus E. A putative cell signal encoded by the folded gastrulation gene coordinates cell shape changes during Drosophila gastrulation. Cell. 1994;76:1075-89 pubmed
    ..We suggest fog functions as a secreted signal that activates the G protein alpha subunit encoded by concertina in neighboring cells...
  4. Kölsch V, Seher T, Fernandez Ballester G, Serrano L, Leptin M. Control of Drosophila gastrulation by apical localization of adherens junctions and RhoGEF2. Science. 2007;315:384-6 pubmed
    ..Together with G protein signaling, T48 recruits adherens junctions and the cytoskeletal regulator RhoGEF2 to the sites of apical constriction, ensuring rapid and intense changes in cell shape. ..
  5. Fuse N, Hisata K, Katzen A, Matsuzaki F. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate daughter cell size asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblast divisions. Curr Biol. 2003;13:947-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the multiple equal cleavages of G beta mutant neuroblasts accompany neural defects; this finding suggests indispensable roles of eccentric division in assuring the stem cell properties of neuroblasts. ..
  6. Morize P, Christiansen A, Costa M, Parks S, Wieschaus E. Hyperactivation of the folded gastrulation pathway induces specific cell shape changes. Development. 1998;125:589-97 pubmed
    ..A similar phenotype is seen in a maternal effect mutant, concertina (cta)...
  7. Fox D, Peifer M. Abelson kinase (Abl) and RhoGEF2 regulate actin organization during cell constriction in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:567-78 pubmed
    ..morphogenetic event during Drosophila gastrulation, have identified a signaling pathway involving the G-protein Concertina (Cta) and the Rho activator RhoGEF2...
  8. Levine S, Sunday S, Dörig R, Suter B, Lasko P. Genetic maps of the proximal half of chromosome arm 2L of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2007;50:137-41 pubmed
    ..trans-heterozygous combinations of deficiencies revealed 5 additional functions, essential for viability or fertility. ..
  9. Gatti M, Pimpinelli S. Functional elements in Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:239-75 pubmed
  10. Ratnaparkhi A, Zinn K. The secreted cell signal Folded Gastrulation regulates glial morphogenesis and axon guidance in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;308:158-68 pubmed
    ..We also found that Ptp52F mutants have early VF phenotypes like those seen in fog mutants. ..
  11. Yao C, Carlson J. Role of G-proteins in odor-sensing and CO2-sensing neurons in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Ggamma30A is also required for normal CO2 response. The simplest interpretation of these results is that Galpha(q) and Ggamma30A play a role in the response of CO2-sensing neurons, but are not required for Or-mediated odor signaling. ..
  12. Katanayeva N, Kopein D, Portmann R, Hess D, Katanaev V. Competing activities of heterotrimeric G proteins in Drosophila wing maturation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12331 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a comprehensive functional analysis of the heterotrimeric G protein proteome in the late stages of Drosophila wing development. ..
  13. Brodland G, Conte V, Cranston P, Veldhuis J, Narasimhan S, Hutson M, et al. Video force microscopy reveals the mechanics of ventral furrow invagination in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VFM shows that in mutants with reduced junction integrity and myosin II activity, the driving forces are reduced, thus accounting for ventral furrow failure. ..
  14. Fuse N, Yu F, Hirose S. Gprk2 adjusts Fog signaling to organize cell movements in Drosophila gastrulation. Development. 2013;140:4246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Gprk2 suppressed the effects of excess Cta, a downstream component of Fog signaling...
  15. Cenci G, Belloni G, Dimitri P. 1(2)41Aa, a heterochromatic gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is required for mitotic and meiotic chromosome condensation. Genet Res. 2003;81:15-24 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that 1(2)41Aa is a novel cell cycle gene required for proper chromosome condensation in both somatic and germ line cells. ..
  16. Ratnaparkhi A. Signaling by Folded gastrulation is modulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:5369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings presented here show that mitochondria, through regulation of fusion and fission, function as downstream effectors and modulators of Fog signaling and Fog-dependent cell shape change. ..
  17. Chaouki A, Salz H. Drosophila SPF45: a bifunctional protein with roles in both splicing and DNA repair. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e178 pubmed
  18. Yip M, Lamka M, Lipshitz H. Control of germ-band retraction in Drosophila by the zinc-finger protein HINDSIGHT. Development. 1997;124:2129-41 pubmed
    ..Second, hindsight might function both to maintain the amnioserosa and to regulate chemical signaling from the amnioserosa to the epidermal ectoderm, thus coordinating the cell shape changes and movements that drive germ-band retraction...
  19. Montgomery E, Temple B, Peters K, Tolbert C, Booker B, Martin J, et al. G?12 structural determinants of Hsp90 interaction are necessary for serum response element-mediated transcriptional activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:586-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Drosophila G12/13 homolog Concertina was unable to signal to SRE in mammalian cells, and G?12:Concertina chimeras revealed G?12-specific determinants ..
  20. Dimitri P, Corradini N, Rossi F, Vernì F, Cenci G, Belloni G, et al. Vital genes in the heterochromatin of chromosomes 2 and 3 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2003;117:209-15 pubmed
    ..Repetitive loci, such as Responder and the ABO elements, which are also located in the heterochromatin of chromosome 2, are not discussed here because they have been reviewed in detail elsewhere. ..
  21. Grosshans J, Wieschaus E. A genetic link between morphogenesis and cell division during formation of the ventral furrow in Drosophila. Cell. 2000;101:523-31 pubmed
    ..When overexpressed in a microinjection assay, Tribbles directly inhibits mitosis. We propose that Frühstart and Tribbles form a link between the morphogenetic movements and mitotic control. ..
  22. Nie J, Mahato S, Zelhof A. The actomyosin machinery is required for Drosophila retinal lumen formation. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004608 pubmed publisher
  23. van Steensel B, Henikoff S. Identification of in vivo DNA targets of chromatin proteins using tethered dam methyltransferase. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:424-8 pubmed
    ..Using DamID, we identified a number of expected and unexpected target loci for Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1. DamID has potential for genome-wide mapping of in vivo targets of chromatin proteins in various eukaryotes. ..
  24. Vecsey C, P rez N, Griffith L. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2014;111:1033-45 pubmed publisher
  25. Yasuhara J, Marchetti M, Fanti L, Pimpinelli S, Wakimoto B. A strategy for mapping the heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2003;117:217-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss how these mapping studies can be extended to more proximal regions of the heterochromatin to determine the structural patterns and physical dimensions of 2Lh and the relationship of structure to function. ..
  26. Huang H, Yu Z, Zhang S, Liang X, Chen J, Li C, et al. Drosophila CAF-1 regulates HP1-mediated epigenetic silencing and pericentric heterochromatin stability. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila CAF-1 p180 is an essential factor in the epigenetic control of heterochromatin formation and/or maintenance. ..
  27. Bard J. Epithelial rearrangement and Drosophila gastrulation. Bioessays. 1991;13:409-11 pubmed
  28. Im S, Takle K, Jo J, Babcock D, Ma Z, Xiang Y, et al. Tachykinin acts upstream of autocrine Hedgehog signaling during nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e10735 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a conserved role for Tachykinin signaling in regulating nociception and the power of Drosophila for genetic dissection of nociception. ..
  29. Kerridge S, Munjal A, Philippe J, Jha A, de Las Bayonas A, Saurin A, et al. Modular activation of Rho1 by GPCR signalling imparts polarized myosin II activation during morphogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GPCR and G proteins constitute a general pathway for controlling actomyosin contractility in epithelia and that the activity of this pathway is polarized by tissue-specific regulators. ..
  30. Sweeton D, Parks S, Costa M, Wieschaus E. Gastrulation in Drosophila: the formation of the ventral furrow and posterior midgut invaginations. Development. 1991;112:775-89 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the concertina or folded gastrulation genes appear to block the transition to the second phase in both the ventral furrow and ..
  31. Lu X, Wontakal S, Emelyanov A, Morcillo P, Konev A, Fyodorov D, et al. Linker histone H1 is essential for Drosophila development, the establishment of pericentric heterochromatin, and a normal polytene chromosome structure. Genes Dev. 2009;23:452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, linker histone H1 is essential in Drosophila and plays a fundamental role in the architecture and activity of chromosomes in vivo. ..
  32. Bayer C, Halsell S, Fristrom J, Kiehart D, von Kalm L. Genetic interactions between the RhoA and Stubble-stubbloid loci suggest a role for a type II transmembrane serine protease in intracellular signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc morphogenesis. Genetics. 2003;165:1417-32 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that the type II transmembrane serine proteases, a class of proteins linked to human developmental abnormalities and pathology, may be associated with intracellular signaling required for normal development. ..
  33. de Wit E, Greil F, van Steensel B. High-resolution mapping reveals links of HP1 with active and inactive chromatin components. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that HP1-chromatin is transcriptionally active and has extensive links with several other chromatin components. ..
  34. Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:577-605 pubmed
  35. Leptin M, Casal J, Grunewald B, Reuter R. Mechanisms of early Drosophila mesoderm formation. Dev Suppl. 1992;:23-31 pubmed
    ..The events that lead to the cell shape changes mediating ventral furrow formation require the transcription of zygotic genes under the control of twist and snail. Such genes can be isolated by molecular and genetic screens. ..
  36. Magie C, Meyer M, Gorsuch M, Parkhurst S. Mutations in the Rho1 small GTPase disrupt morphogenesis and segmentation during early Drosophila development. Development. 1999;126:5353-64 pubmed
    ..We also show that Rho1 interacts both genetically and physically with concertina, a G(alpha) protein involved in cell shape changes during gastrulation.
  37. Dimitri P. Constitutive heterochromatin and transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1997;100:85-93 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings on the possible impact of heterochromatic TEs on the function and evolution of the host genome are also discussed. ..
  38. Boto T, Gomez Diaz C, Alcorta E. Expression analysis of the 3 G-protein subunits, Galpha, Gbeta, and Ggamma, in the olfactory receptor organs of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Chem Senses. 2010;35:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using RT-polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 6 Galpha (G(s), G(i), G(q), G(o), G(f), and concertina), 3 Gbeta (G(beta5), G(beta13F), and G(beta76C)), and 2 Ggamma genes (G(gamma1) and G(gamma30A))...
  39. Kunwar P, Sano H, Renault A, Barbosa V, Fuse N, Lehmann R. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. ..
  40. Knust E, Muller H. Drosophila morphogenesis: orchestrating cell rearrangements. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R853-5 pubmed
    ..Recent results have shown that, during Drosophila gastrulation, multiple signalling pathways act to orchestrate the complex cell rearrangements. ..
  41. Russell S, Kaiser K. A Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 2L repeat is expressed in the male germ line. Chromosoma. 1994;103:63-72 pubmed
    ..The repeat is conserved in all D. melanogaster strains examined but absent from other Drosophila species studied. The locus does not correspond to any known complementation groups in the region and has yet to be assigned a function. ..
  42. Zhang D, Wang D, Sun F. Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein HP1b plays important roles in transcriptional activation and development. Chromosoma. 2011;120:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study argues that HP1b counteracts HP1a function both in heterochromatin formation and in the transcriptional regulation of euchromatic genes. ..
  43. Manning A, Peters K, Peifer M, Rogers S. Regulation of epithelial morphogenesis by the G protein-coupled receptor mist and its ligand fog. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. ..
  44. Lohe A, Hilliker A. Return of the H-word (heterochromatin). Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1995;5:746-55 pubmed
  45. Krishnan A, Mustafa A, Almén M, Fredriksson R, Williams M, Schiöth H. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2015;91:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further understand the differential roles of GPCR/G protein mediated intracellular signaling system across various metazoan lineages. ..
  46. Dimitri P. Cytogenetic analysis of the second chromosome heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;127:553-64 pubmed
    ..Extensive cell death during imaginal disc development was observed in individuals hemizygous for either the EMS 31 and rolled mutations, leading to a pattern of phenotypic defects of adult structures. ..
  47. Conte V, Ulrich F, Baum B, Munoz J, Veldhuis J, Brodland W, et al. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34473 pubmed publisher
  48. Peters K, Rogers S. Drosophila Ric-8 interacts with the G?12/13 subunit, Concertina, during activation of the Folded gastrulation pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A component of this pathway, the Drosophila G?12/13 subunit, Concertina (Cta), is necessary to trigger actomyosin contractility during gastrulation events...
  49. Wayne M, Kreitman M. Reduced variation at concertina, a heterochromatic locus in Drosophila. Genet Res. 1996;68:101-8 pubmed
    ..We report here the near-complete absence of variation at concertina (cta), a locus located in the beta-heterochromatic base of chromosome 2L, a region of strongly reduced ..