Gene Symbol: csw
Description: corkscrew
Alias: 19-106, CG3954, CSW, Csw, Csw/Shp2, Dmel\CG3954, E(sev)1A, EG:BACN25G24.2, SHP-2, Shp-2, Shp2/csw, anon-WO03040301.207, anon-WO03040301.209, anon-WO03040301.219, csw/SHP-2, l(1)2Db, l(1)2Dd, l(1)G0170, l(1)GA114, l(1)csw, corkscrew, CG3954-PA, CG3954-PB, CG3954-PC, CG3954-PD, csw-PA, csw-PB, csw-PC, csw-PD, enhancer of sevenless 1A
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Oishi K, Zhang H, Gault W, Wang C, Tan C, Kim I, et al. Phosphatase-defective LEOPARD syndrome mutations in PTPN11 gene have gain-of-function effects during Drosophila development. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of the commonest LS PTPN11 alleles (Y279C and T468M), we generated LS transgenic fruitflies using corkscrew (csw), the Drosophila orthologue of PTPN11...
  2. Pagani M, Oishi K, Gelb B, Zhong Y. The phosphatase SHP2 regulates the spacing effect for long-term memory induction. Cell. 2009;139:186-98 pubmed publisher
    ..resting intervals required for inducing LTM is regulated by activity levels of the protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew (CSW)...
  3. Johnson Hamlet M, Perkins L. Analysis of corkscrew signaling in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during myogenesis. Genetics. 2001;159:1073-87 pubmed
    The Drosophila nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (Csw), functions positively in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, including signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  4. Freeman R, Plutzky J, Neel B. Identification of a human src homology 2-containing protein-tyrosine-phosphatase: a putative homolog of Drosophila corkscrew. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:11239-43 pubmed
    ..Strong sequence similarity between SH-PTP2 and the Drosophila gene corkscrew (csw) and their similar patterns of expression suggest that SH-PTP2 is the human corkscrew homolog...
  5. Perkins L, Johnson M, Melnick M, Perrimon N. The nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew functions in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1996;180:63-81 pubmed
    b>Corkscrew (csw) encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) that has been implicated in signaling from the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)...
  6. Raabe T, Riesgo Escovar J, Liu X, Bausenwein B, Deak P, Maroy P, et al. DOS, a novel pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein required for signal transduction between sevenless and Ras1 in Drosophila. Cell. 1996;85:911-20 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis demonstrates that DOS functions upstream of Ras1 and defines a signaling pathway that is independent of direct binding of the DRK SH2/SH3 adaptor protein to the SEV receptor tyrosine kinase. ..
  7. Herbst R, Carroll P, Allard J, Schilling J, Raabe T, Simon M. Daughter of sevenless is a substrate of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew and functions during sevenless signaling. Cell. 1996;85:899-909 pubmed
    The SH2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW) is an essential component of the signaling pathway initiated by the activation of the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase (SEV) during Drosophila eye development...
  8. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. Developmental genetics of the 2C-D region of the Drosophila X chromosome. Genetics. 1985;111:23-41 pubmed
    ..eight zygotic lethals has revealed three types of gene requirements: normal activity at two pupal lethal loci (corkscrew and C204) and one larval lethal locus (ultraspiracle) is required for normal embryogenesis; normal activity at ..
  9. Smith R, Carroll P, Allard J, Simon M. MASK, a large ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein involved in Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Development. 2002;129:71-82 pubmed
    ..The protein tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW) is a common component of many RTK signaling pathways, and is required for signaling downstream of SEV and ..

More Information


  1. Botham C, Wandler A, Guillemin K. A transgenic Drosophila model demonstrates that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein functions as a eukaryotic Gab adaptor. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000064 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CagA's ability to promote photoreceptor development requires the SHP-2 phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW)...
  2. Muyskens J, Guillemin K. Helicobacter pylori CagA disrupts epithelial patterning by activating myosin light chain. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17856 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in our transgenic system, CagA is targeted by EPIYA motifs to a specific apical region of the epithelium where it efficiently activates MLC to disrupt epithelial integrity. ..
  3. Bier E. Localized activation of RTK/MAPK pathways during Drosophila development. Bioessays. 1998;20:189-94 pubmed
    ..The ability to visualize the output of RTK signaling also permits detailed establishment of epistatic relationships between signaling components of RTK cascades. ..
  4. Simon M, Bowtell D, Dodson G, Laverty T, Rubin G. Ras1 and a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor perform crucial steps in signaling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase. Cell. 1991;67:701-16 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the stimulation of ras protein activity is a key element in the signaling by sevenless and Ellipse and that this stimulation may be achieved by activating the exchange of GTP for bound GDP by the ras protein. ..
  5. Herbst R, Zhang X, Qin J, Simon M. Recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CSW by DOS is an essential step during signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase. EMBO J. 1999;18:6950-61 pubmed
    ..DOS becomes tyrosine phosphorylated during SEV signaling and collaborates with the protein tyrosine phosphatase CSW. We have investigated this possibility by identifying tyrosine residues 801 and 854 of DOS as the phosphorylated ..
  6. Allard J, Chang H, Herbst R, McNeill H, Simon M. The SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew is required during signaling by sevenless, Ras1 and Raf. Development. 1996;122:1137-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that one of these mutations, E(sev)1Ae0P is a dominantly inhibiting allele of corkscrew, which encodes an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (Perkins et al., 1992)...
  7. Perkins L, Larsen I, Perrimon N. corkscrew encodes a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase that functions to transduce the terminal signal from the receptor tyrosine kinase torso. Cell. 1992;70:225-36 pubmed
    We describe the characterization of the Drosophila gene, corkscrew (csw), which is maternally required for normal determination of cell fates at the termini of the embryo...
  8. Liu Y, Rohrschneider L. The gift of Gab. FEBS Lett. 2002;515:1-7 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the structure/function relationships of Gab proteins and their biological roles during normal growth, differentiation and development programs. ..
  9. Wang Z, Lin H. Sex-lethal is a target of Bruno-mediated translational repression in promoting the differentiation of stem cell progeny during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;302:160-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Sxl MS11 represents a novel target of Bruno-mediated translational repression required for cystoblast differentiation. ..
  10. Weng M, Haenfler J, Lee C. Changes in Notch signaling coordinates maintenance and differentiation of the Drosophila larval optic lobe neuroepithelia. Dev Neurobiol. 2012;72:1376-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, changes in Notch signaling orchestrate a dynamic balance between maintenance and conversion of neuroepithelial cells during optic lobe neurogenesis. ..
  11. Perrimon N. The torso receptor protein-tyrosine kinase signaling pathway: an endless story. Cell. 1993;74:219-22 pubmed
  12. Cooper J, Simon M, Kussick S. Signaling by ectopically expressed Drosophila Src64 requires the protein-tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew and the adapter downstream of receptor kinases. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:1435-41 pubmed
    ..the adapter protein, Downstream of receptor kinases (Drk), and the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (Csw), play in this process...
  13. Perrimon N, Desplan C. Signal transduction in the early Drosophila embryo: when genetics meets biochemistry. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:509-13 pubmed
    ..This pathway involves a membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is similar to other Drosophila RTKs, such as sevenless, and the mammalian RTKs, such as the epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors. ..
  14. Tonks N, Neel B. From form to function: signaling by protein tyrosine phosphatases. Cell. 1996;87:365-8 pubmed
  15. Wilson R, Leptin M. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent morphogenesis of the Drosophila mesoderm. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000;355:891-5 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the function of dof, which encodes a cytoplasmic protein required for FGF signal transduction may provide an insight into these issues. ..
  16. Zeidler M, Bausek N. The Drosophila JAK-STAT pathway. JAKSTAT. 2013;2:e25353 pubmed publisher
  17. Settle M, Gordon M, Nadella M, Dankort D, Muller W, Jacobs J. Genetic identification of effectors downstream of Neu (ErbB-2) autophosphorylation sites in a Drosophila model. Oncogene. 2003;22:1916-26 pubmed
    ..was affected by a haplosufficiency in drk (Grb-2), and in genes thought to function downstream of Grb-2: dab, sos, csw (Shp-2), and dos (Gab-1)...
  18. Takahashi F, Endo S, Kojima T, Saigo K. Regulation of cell-cell contacts in developing Drosophila eyes by Dsrc41, a new, close relative of vertebrate c-src. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1645-56 pubmed
  19. Firth L, Baker N. EGF receptor signaling: a prickly proposition. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R773-4 pubmed
  20. Sauer F, Rivera Pomar R, Hoch M, Jackle H. Gene regulation in the Drosophila embryo. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996;351:579-87 pubmed
  21. Chien C. PY in the fly receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases in axonal pathfinding. Neuron. 1996;16:1065-8 pubmed
  22. Kramer S, West S, Hiromi Y. Cell fate control in the Drosophila retina by the orphan receptor seven-up: its role in the decisions mediated by the ras signaling pathway. Development. 1995;121:1361-72 pubmed
    ..However, a decrease in ras signaling results in enhancement of the phenotype caused by the ro-svp transgene. We discuss the relationship between decisions controlled by seven-up and those controlled by ras signaling. ..
  23. Chen F, Archambault V, Kar A, Lio P, D Avino P, Sinka R, et al. Multiple protein phosphatases are required for mitosis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:293-303 pubmed
    ..Reduction of several nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatases produced spindle and chromosome behavior defects, and for corkscrew, premature chromatid separation...
  24. Petit V, Nussbaumer U, Dossenbach C, Affolter M. Downstream-of-FGFR is a fibroblast growth factor-specific scaffolding protein and recruits Corkscrew upon receptor activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3769-81 pubmed
    ..Upon receptor activation, tyrosine residue 515 becomes phosphorylated and recruits the phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw)...
  25. den Hertog J. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases in development. Mech Dev. 1999;85:3-14 pubmed
    ..Here I will introduce PTP-mediated signalling and discuss recent findings regarding the function of PTPs in development. ..
  26. Csiszar A, Vogelsang E, Beug H, Leptin M. A novel conserved phosphotyrosine motif in the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor signaling adaptor Dof with a redundant role in signal transmission. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Dof) becomes phosphorylated upon receptor activation at several tyrosine residues, one of which recruits Corkscrew (Csw), the Drosophila homolog of SHP2, which provides a molecular link to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)..
  27. Cleghon V, Gayko U, Copeland T, Perkins L, Perrimon N, Morrison D. Drosophila terminal structure development is regulated by the compensatory activities of positive and negative phosphotyrosine signaling sites on the Torso RTK. Genes Dev. 1996;10:566-77 pubmed
    ..mutation of Y630, a site required for association with and tyrosine phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew, decreases the efficiency of Tor signaling...
  28. Bergwitz C, Wee M, Sinha S, Huang J, Derobertis C, Mensah L, et al. Genetic determinants of phosphate response in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56753 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a number of candidate genes potentially important for the cellular response to phosphate. Evaluation of 51 genes in live flies revealed some that affect larval development, adult life span and hemolymph phosphate levels. ..
  29. Logan M, Hackett R, Doherty J, Sheehan A, Speese S, Freeman M. Negative regulation of glial engulfment activity by Draper terminates glial responses to axon injury. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..undescribed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like domain and the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw)...
  30. James B, Bunch T, Krishnamoorthy S, Perkins L, Brower D. Nuclear localization of the ERK MAP kinase mediated by Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrin and importin-7. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4190-9 pubmed
    ..The Corkscrew (SHP-2) tyrosine phosphatase binds DIM-7, and Corkscrew is required for the cortical localization of DIM-7...
  31. Jarvis L, Toering S, Simon M, Krasnow M, Smith Bolton R. Sprouty proteins are in vivo targets of Corkscrew/SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases. Development. 2006;133:1133-42 pubmed
    Drosophila Corkscrew protein and its vertebrate ortholog SHP-2 (now known as Ptpn11) positively modulate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling during development, but how these tyrosine phosphatases promote tyrosine kinase signaling ..
  32. Van Vactor D, O Reilly A, Neel B. Genetic analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:112-26 pubmed
    ..Several Drosophila receptor PTPs control axonal targeting pathways, whereas the non-receptor PTP Corkscrew (Csw), plays an essential positive signaling role in multiple developmental pathways directed by receptor PTKs...
  33. Wang J, Lee C, Lin S, Lee T. Steroid hormone-dependent transformation of polyhomeotic mutant neurons in the Drosophila brain. Development. 2006;133:1231-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Drosophila Ph is essential for governing neuronal diversity, especially during steroid hormone signaling. ..
  34. Dura J, Randsholt N, Deatrick J, Erk I, Santamaria P, Freeman J, et al. A complex genetic locus, polyhomeotic, is required for segmental specification and epidermal development in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1987;51:829-39 pubmed
    ..We propose a model that may account for this unusual functional organization. ..
  35. Tsuda L, Inoue Y, Yoo M, Mizuno M, Hata M, Lim Y, et al. A protein kinase similar to MAP kinase activator acts downstream of the raf kinase in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;72:407-14 pubmed
    ..Our genetic results demonstrate the connection between raf and the highly conserved protein kinase cascade involving MAP kinase in vivo. ..
  36. Maside X, Charlesworth B. Patterns of molecular variation and evolution in Drosophila americana and its relatives. Genetics. 2007;176:2293-305 pubmed
    ..americana and D. virilis. We also find that base composition at neutral sites appears to be in overall equilibrium among these species, but there is evidence for departure from equilibrium for codon usage in some lineages. ..
  37. Lorenzen J, Baker S, Denhez F, Melnick M, Brower D, Perkins L. Nuclear import of activated D-ERK by DIM-7, an importin family member encoded by the gene moleskin. Development. 2001;128:1403-14 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the Drosophila Importin beta homolog Ketel, also reduce the nuclear localization of activated D-ERK. Together, these data indicate that DIM-7 and Ketel are components of the nuclear import machinery for activated D-ERK. ..
  38. Walchli S, Colinge J, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R. MetaBlasts: tracing protein tyrosine phosphatase gene family roots from Man to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes. Gene. 2000;253:137-43 pubmed
    ..We have used this 'MetaBlast' approach to compile lists of human PTPs and their worm and fly orthologs. Many of these PTP orthologs had not been previously identified as such. ..
  39. Allard J, Herbst R, Carroll P, Simon M. Mutational analysis of the SRC homology 2 domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13129-35 pubmed
    The SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (CSW) is required for signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase (SEV), which directs Drosophila R7 photoreceptor cell ..
  40. Fitzpatrick K, Gorski S, Ursuliak Z, Price J. Expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase genes during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 1995;53:171-83 pubmed
    ..DPTP99A and corkscrew transcripts are expressed in follicle cells, consistent with possible roles in the EGF receptor signaling ..
  41. Duffy J, Harrison D, Perrimon N. Identifying loci required for follicular patterning using directed mosaics. Development. 1998;125:2263-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, using different UAS-FLP, GAL4 and existing FRT lines, we have built stocks that permit the analysis of approximately 95% of the genome in follicular mosaics. ..
  42. Beisswanger S, Stephan W, De Lorenzo D. Evidence for a selective sweep in the wapl region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;172:265-74 pubmed
    ..Evidence that this sweep may have originated in an ancestral population in Africa is presented. ..
  43. Andersen J, Del Vecchio R, Kannan N, Gergel J, Neuwald A, Tonks N. Computational analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases: practical guide to bioinformatics and data resources. Methods. 2005;35:90-114 pubmed
    ..Our annotated sequences, along with a web service for phylogenetic classification of PTP domains, are available online (http://ptp.cshl.edu and http://science.novonordisk.com/ptp). ..
  44. Jindal G, Goyal Y, Burdine R, Rauen K, Shvartsman S. RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:769-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishing these connections is essential for advancing our understanding of RASopathies and for devising rational strategies for their management and treatment. ..
  45. Feng G. Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase: signaling one cell or many. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:47-54 pubmed
    ..made in understanding the structure and function of this phosphatase, together with its Drosophila homologue, Corkscrew, as well as the close relative Shp-1 tyrosine phosphatase...
  46. Maside X, Lee A, Charlesworth B. Selection on codon usage in Drosophila americana. Curr Biol. 2004;14:150-4 pubmed
    ..americana lineage are in approximate equilibrium. Biased gene conversion may also contribute to the observed patterns. ..
  47. Casci T, Vinós J, Freeman M. Sprouty, an intracellular inhibitor of Ras signaling. Cell. 1999;96:655-65 pubmed
    ..Sprouty binds to two intracellular components of the Ras pathway, Drk and Gap1. Our results indicate that Sprouty is a widespread inhibitor of Ras pathway signal transduction. ..
  48. MacDougall L, Waterfield M. Receptor signalling: to sevenless, a daughter. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1250-3 pubmed
    ..But the discovery of a substrate for the Sevenless receptor indicates that the concept of a single, linear pathway may be an oversimplification. ..
  49. Lu X, Chou T, Williams N, Roberts T, Perrimon N. Control of cell fate determination by p21ras/Ras1, an essential component of torso signaling in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:621-32 pubmed
    ..This signaling pathway is mediated by the serine/threonine kinase D-raf and a protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew (csw)...
  50. Li J, Li W. Drosophila gain-of-function mutant RTK torso triggers ectopic Dpp and STAT signaling. Genetics. 2003;164:247-58 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an essential requirement of noncanonical signaling pathways for a persistently activated RTK to cause pathological defects in an organism. ..
  51. Chou T, Perrimon N. Use of a yeast site-specific recombinase to produce female germline chimeras in Drosophila. Genetics. 1992;131:643-53 pubmed
    ..We describe the parameters of FLP-recombinase induced germline mitotic recombination and the use of the "FLP-DFS" technique to analyze the maternal effect of X-linked zygotic lethal mutations. ..
  52. Reid D, Muyskens J, Neal J, Gaddini G, Cho L, Wandler A, et al. Identification of genetic modifiers of CagA-induced epithelial disruption in Drosophila. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results point to new cellular pathways whose disruption by CagA are likely to contribute to H. pylori-associated disease pathology. ..
  53. Rutherford S. From genotype to phenotype: buffering mechanisms and the storage of genetic information. Bioessays. 2000;22:1095-105 pubmed
    ..Thus, buffering mechanisms modulate evolution and regulate a balance between evolutionary stasis and change. Recent work provides a glimpse of the molecular details governing some types of genetic buffering. ..
  54. Cleghon V, Feldmann P, Ghiglione C, Copeland T, Perrimon N, Hughes D, et al. Opposing actions of CSW and RasGAP modulate the strength of Torso RTK signaling in the Drosophila terminal pathway. Mol Cell. 1998;2:719-27 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW), which associates with pY630, specifically dephosphorylates the negative pY918 Torso signaling site, thus ..
  55. Gabay L, Seger R, Shilo B. In situ activation pattern of Drosophila EGF receptor pathway during development. Science. 1997;277:1103-6 pubmed
    ..This in situ approach can be used to monitor other receptor-triggered pathways in a wide range of organisms. ..
  56. Doyle H, Bishop J. Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase required for embryonic pattern formation, shares substrates with the sevenless and EGF-R pathways in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:633-46 pubmed
    ..l(1)pole hole, the Drosophila raf-1 serine-threonine kinase homolog, and corkscrew, a tyrosine phosphatase, have been shown previously to function in this signal transduction pathway...
  57. Simon M. Signal transduction during the development of the Drosophila R7 photoreceptor. Dev Biol. 1994;166:431-42 pubmed
  58. Muda M, Worby C, Simonson Leff N, Clemens J, Dixon J. Use of double-stranded RNA-mediated interference to determine the substrates of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Biochem J. 2002;366:73-7 pubmed
    ..The present study illustrates the versatility of RNAi in the identification of the physiological substrates for protein kinases and phosphatases. ..
  59. Ghiglione C, Perrimon N, Perkins L. Quantitative variations in the level of MAPK activity control patterning of the embryonic termini in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1999;205:181-93 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate, using a series of mutations in the signal transducers Corkscrew/SHP-2 and D-Raf, that quantitative variations in the magnitude of MAPK activity trigger both qualitatively and ..
  60. Gandhi R, Varak E, Goldberg M. Molecular analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene of family 4 on the Drosophila X chromosome. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:397-404 pubmed
    ..This transduced fragment does not rescue any of the lethal mutations that have been identified in this genetically well-characterized region of the Drosophila genome. ..
  61. Lim B, Dsilva C, Levario T, Lu H, Schüpbach T, Kevrekidis I, et al. Dynamics of Inductive ERK Signaling in the Drosophila Embryo. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative approach that led to this model, based on the integration of data from fixed embryos and live imaging, can be extended to other developmental systems patterned by transient inductive signals. ..
  62. Lu X, Perkins L, Perrimon N. The torso pathway in Drosophila: a model system to study receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction. Dev Suppl. 1993;:47-56 pubmed
    ..Also involved in tor signaling is the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew (csw). Here, we review the current model and discuss future research directions in this field.
  63. Perrimon N, Perkins L. There must be 50 ways to rule the signal: the case of the Drosophila EGF receptor. Cell. 1997;89:13-6 pubmed
  64. Bray S, Stein D. Developmental biology. Post-expressionist flies. Nature. 2000;407:314-5 pubmed
  65. Baker S, Lorenzen J, Miller S, Bunch T, Jannuzi A, Ginsberg M, et al. Genetic interaction between integrins and moleskin, a gene encoding a Drosophila homolog of importin-7. Genetics. 2002;162:285-96 pubmed
    ..homolog of vertebrate importin-7, has recently been shown to bind the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase homolog Corkscrew and to be important in the nuclear translocation of activated D-ERK...