Gene Symbol: cry
Description: cryptochrome
Alias: CG3772, CRY, Cry, DCry, Dm-CRY1, DmCRY, DmCRY1, DmCry, DmCry1, Dmcry, Dmel\CG3772, anon-WO0140519.17, anon-WO0140519.19, anon-WO0140519.20, anon-WO0172774.15, cryb, dCRY, dCry, dcry, cryptochrome, Blue-light receptor, CG3772-PA, cry-PA, crybaby
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hardin P, Glossop N. Perspectives: neurobiology. The CRYs fo flies and mice. Science. 1999;286:2460-1 pubmed
  2. Levine J, Funes P, Dowse H, Hall J. Advanced analysis of a cryptochrome mutation's effects on the robustness and phase of molecular cycles in isolated peripheral tissues of Drosophila. BMC Neurosci. 2002;3:5 pubmed
    Previously, we reported effects of the cry(b) mutation on circadian rhythms in period and timeless gene expression within isolated peripheral Drosophila tissues...
  3. Hoang N, Schleicher E, Kacprzak S, Bouly J, Picot M, Wu W, et al. Human and Drosophila cryptochromes are light activated by flavin photoreduction in living cells. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e160 pubmed publisher
    ..To resolve these questions, we have expressed both human and Drosophila cryptochrome proteins to high levels in living Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus-derived expression system...
  4. Veleri S, Brandes C, Helfrich Forster C, Hall J, Stanewsky R. A self-sustaining, light-entrainable circadian oscillator in the Drosophila brain. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1758-67 pubmed
    ..can synchronize behavioral rhythms and that light input into these cells involves the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome. Our results suggest that the DNs play a prominent role in controlling locomotor behavior when flies are ..
  5. Lin Y, Han M, Shimada B, Wang L, Gibler T, Amarakone A, et al. Influence of the period-dependent circadian clock on diurnal, circadian, and aperiodic gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9562-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the period-dependent circadian clock regulates only a limited set of rhythmically expressed transcripts. Unexpectedly, period regulates basal and light-regulated gene expression to a very broad extent. ..
  6. VanVickle Chavez S, Van Gelder R. Action spectrum of Drosophila cryptochrome. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10561-6 pubmed
    Cryptochromes are a highly conserved class of UV-A/blue light photoreceptors. In Drosophila, cryptochrome is required for the normal entrainment of circadian rhythms to light dark cycles...
  7. Helfrich Forster C, Winter C, Hofbauer A, Hall J, Stanewsky R. The circadian clock of fruit flies is blind after elimination of all known photoreceptors. Neuron. 2001;30:249-61 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila uses at least three light input pathways for this entrainment: (1) cryptochrome, acting in the pacemaker cells themselves, (2) the compound eyes, and (3) extraocular photoreception, possibly ..
  8. Gegear R, Casselman A, Waddell S, Reppert S. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;454:1014-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the ultraviolet-A/blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (Cry) is necessary for light-dependent magnetosensitive responses in Drosophila melanogaster...
  9. Kumar S, Chen D, Sehgal A. Dopamine acts through Cryptochrome to promote acute arousal in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1224-34 pubmed publisher that increased nighttime activity of Clk mutants is mediated by high levels of the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in large ventral lateral neurons (l-LN(v)s)...

More Information


  1. Yoshii T, Hermann C, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome-positive and -negative clock neurons in Drosophila entrain differentially to light and temperature. J Biol Rhythms. 2010;25:387-98 pubmed publisher
    The blue-light photoreceptive protein Cryptochrome (CRY) plays an important role in the light synchronization of the Drosophila circadian clock...
  2. Stoleru D, Peng Y, Agosto J, Rosbash M. Coupled oscillators control morning and evening locomotor behaviour of Drosophila. Nature. 2004;431:862-8 pubmed
    ..Although the two oscillators can function autonomously, cell-specific rescue experiments with circadian clock mutants indicate that they are functionally coupled. ..
  3. Luo W, Chen W, Yue Z, Chen D, Sowcik M, Sehgal A, et al. Old flies have a robust central oscillator but weaker behavioral rhythms that can be improved by genetic and environmental manipulations. Aging Cell. 2012;11:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that a robust molecular timekeeping mechanism persists in the central pacemaker of aged flies, and reducing PKA can strengthen behavioral rhythms. ..
  4. Weber P, Kula Eversole E, Pyza E. Circadian control of dendrite morphology in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4290 pubmed publisher
    ..This rhythm was not present in the arrhythmic per(01) mutant in LD or in DD. In the clock photoreceptor cry(b) mutant the rhythm was maintained but its pattern was different than that observed in wild-type flies...
  5. Krishnan B, Levine J, Lynch M, Dowse H, Funes P, Hall J, et al. A new role for cryptochrome in a Drosophila circadian oscillator. Nature. 2001;411:313-7 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, cryptochrome (CRY) acts as a photoreceptor that mediates light input to circadian oscillators in both brain and peripheral ..
  6. Brown S, Schibler U. The ins and outs of circadian timekeeping. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:588-94 pubmed
    ..In both organisms, the cryptochrome family of photoreceptor-like molecules plays a role in the circadian clock, though their function is ..
  7. Levine J, Funes P, Dowse H, Hall J. Signal analysis of behavioral and molecular cycles. BMC Neurosci. 2002;3:1 pubmed
    ..These methods are shown to be versatile and will also be adaptable to further experiments, owing in part to the non-proprietary nature of the code we have developed. ..
  8. Froy O, Chang D, Reppert S. Redox potential: differential roles in dCRY and mCRY1 functions. Curr Biol. 2002;12:147-52 pubmed
    Cryptochromes (CRYs) are flavoproteins important for the molecular clocks of animals. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a circadian photoreceptor, whereas mouse cryptochromes (mCRY1 and mCRY2) are essential negative elements of ..
  9. Hardin P. The circadian timekeeping system of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R714-22 pubmed
    ..I will also discuss where work remains to be done to give a comprehensive picture of the circadian clock in Drosophila and likely many other organisms. ..
  10. Ivanchenko M, Stanewsky R, Giebultowicz J. Circadian photoreception in Drosophila: functions of cryptochrome in peripheral and central clocks. J Biol Rhythms. 2001;16:205-15 pubmed
    ..lines of evidence indicate that light entrainment of the brain clock involves the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY)...
  11. Ozturk N, Selby C, Annayev Y, Zhong D, Sancar A. Reaction mechanism of Drosophila cryptochrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:516-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue-light sensitive flavoprotein that functions as the primary circadian photoreceptor in Drosophila melanogaster. The mechanism by which it transmits the light signal to the core clock circuitry is not known...
  12. Sandrelli F, Tauber E, Pegoraro M, Mazzotta G, Cisotto P, Landskron J, et al. A molecular basis for natural selection at the timeless locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2007;316:1898-900 pubmed
    ..of the circadian clock and causes decreased dimerization of the mutant TIMELESS protein isoform to CRYPTOCHROME, the circadian photoreceptor. This interaction results in a more stable TIMELESS product...
  13. Picot M, Cusumano P, Klarsfeld A, Ueda R, Rouyer F. Light activates output from evening neurons and inhibits output from morning neurons in the Drosophila circadian clock. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e315 pubmed
    ..Since mutants devoid of functional CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), as opposed to wild-type flies, are rhythmic in constant light, we analyzed transgenic flies expressing ..
  14. Zhu H, Sauman I, Yuan Q, Casselman A, Emery Le M, Emery P, et al. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e4 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly ..
  15. Dissel S, Codd V, Fedic R, Garner K, Costa R, Kyriacou C, et al. A constitutively active cryptochrome in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:834-40 pubmed
    Light-activated cryptochrome (CRY) regulates circadian photoresponses in Drosophila melanogaster. Removing the carboxy (C) terminus to create CRYDelta produces, in yeast, a light-independent, constitutively active form...
  16. Hao Zheng -, Ng F, Yixiao Liu -, Hardin P. Spatial and circadian regulation of cry in Drosophila. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:283-95 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, cryptochrome (cry) encodes a blue-light photoreceptor that mediates light input to circadian oscillators and sustains oscillator function in peripheral tissues...
  17. Mazzotta G, Rossi A, Leonardi E, Mason M, Bertolucci C, Caccin L, et al. Fly cryptochrome and the visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (dCRY) is involved in light synchronization of the master circadian clock, and its C terminus plays an ..
  18. Richier B, Michard Vanhée C, Lamouroux A, Papin C, Rouyer F. The clockwork orange Drosophila protein functions as both an activator and a repressor of clock gene expression. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the absence of CWO induces alterations of PER and CLK phosphorylation cycles. Our results indicate that, in vivo, CWO modulates clock gene expression through both repressor and activator transcriptional functions. ..
  19. Zheng X, Koh K, Sowcik M, Smith C, Chen D, Wu M, et al. An isoform-specific mutant reveals a role of PDP1 epsilon in the circadian oscillator. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data support a model in which PDP1epsilon functions in the central circadian oscillator as well as in the output pathway. ..
  20. Hastings M, Maywood E. Circadian clocks in the mammalian brain. Bioessays. 2000;22:23-31 pubmed
    ..BioEssays 22:23-31, 2000. ..
  21. Zhang Y, Liu Y, Bilodeau Wentworth D, Hardin P, Emery P. Light and temperature control the contribution of specific DN1 neurons to Drosophila circadian behavior. Curr Biol. 2010;20:600-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Clk4.1M-GAL4-positive DN1s, or the neurons they target, integrate light and temperature inputs to control locomotor rhythms. Our study therefore reveals a novel mechanism contributing to the plasticity of circadian behavior...
  22. Peschel N, Veleri S, Stanewsky R. Veela defines a molecular link between Cryptochrome and Timeless in the light-input pathway to Drosophila's circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17313-8 pubmed light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless, mediated by the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry)...
  23. Mizrak D, Ruben M, Myers G, Rhrissorrakrai K, Gunsalus K, Blau J. Electrical activity can impose time of day on the circadian transcriptome of pacemaker neurons. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrical state of a clock neuron can impose time of day to its transcriptional program. We propose that this acts as an internal zeitgeber to add robustness and precision to circadian behavioral rhythms. ..
  24. Marley R, Giachello C, Scrutton N, Baines R, Jones A. Cryptochrome-dependent magnetic field effect on seizure response in Drosophila larvae. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5799 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the proposed primary magnetic sensors is the flavoprotein, cryptochrome, which is thought to provide geomagnetic information via a quantum effect in a light-initiated radical pair ..
  25. Yoshii T, Wülbeck C, Sehadova H, Veleri S, Bichler D, Stanewsky R, et al. The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor adjusts period and phase of Drosophila's clock. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2597-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Under natural conditions PDF may be required for adapting Drosophila's clock to varying photoperiods. Indeed, we show here that Pdf(01) mutants are not able to adapt their activity to long photoperiods in a wild-type manner. ..
  26. Cashmore A, Jarillo J, Wu Y, Liu D. Cryptochromes: blue light receptors for plants and animals. Science. 1999;284:760-5 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparison indicates that the plant and animal cryptochrome families have distinct evolutionary histories, with the plant cryptochromes being of ancient evolutionary ..
  27. Zhang L, Lear B, Seluzicki A, Allada R. The CRYPTOCHROME photoreceptor gates PDF neuropeptide signaling to set circadian network hierarchy in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:2050-5 pubmed publisher
    ..light-dark conditions, we examined flies lacking both the PDF receptor (PDFR) and the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY)...
  28. Koh K, Zheng X, Sehgal A. JETLAG resets the Drosophila circadian clock by promoting light-induced degradation of TIMELESS. Science. 2006;312:1809-12 pubmed
    ..Expression of JET along with the circadian photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) in cultured S2R cells confers light-dependent degradation onto TIM, thereby reconstituting the acute ..
  29. Collins B, Mazzoni E, Stanewsky R, Blau J. Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME is a circadian transcriptional repressor. Curr Biol. 2006;16:441-9 pubmed
    Although most circadian clock components are conserved between Drosophila and mammals, the roles assigned to the CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) proteins are very different: Drosophila CRY functions as a circadian photoreceptor, whereas mammalian CRY ..
  30. Helfrich Forster C, Edwards T, Yasuyama K, Wisotzki B, Schneuwly S, Stanewsky R, et al. The extraretinal eyelet of Drosophila: development, ultrastructure, and putative circadian function. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9255-66 pubmed
    ..both compound eyes and eyelet (so(1);gl(60j)), and retaining eyelet but lacking compound eyes as well as cryptochrome (so(1);cry(b))...
  31. Myers E, Yu J, Sehgal A. Circadian control of eclosion: interaction between a central and peripheral clock in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2003;13:526-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a peripheral clock necessary for a circadian event. ..
  32. Selby C, Sancar A. The second chromophore in Drosophila photolyase/cryptochrome family photoreceptors. Biochemistry. 2012;51:167-71 pubmed publisher
    The photolyase/cryptochrome family of proteins are FAD-containing flavoproteins which carry out blue-light-dependent functions including DNA repair, plant growth and development, and regulation of the circadian clock...
  33. Fujii S, Amrein H. Ventral lateral and DN1 clock neurons mediate distinct properties of male sex drive rhythm in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that DN1s exert their roles in MSDR and SLR via distinct signaling pathways. ..
  34. Panda S, Hogenesch J, Kay S. Circadian rhythms from flies to human. Nature. 2002;417:329-35 pubmed
    ..To gain the initial insights into circadian mechanisms, researchers turned to genetically tractable model organisms such as Drosophila. ..
  35. Berndt A, Kottke T, Breitkreuz H, Dvorsky R, Hennig S, Alexander M, et al. A novel photoreaction mechanism for the circadian blue light photoreceptor Drosophila cryptochrome. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13011-21 pubmed
    ..Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a blue light photoreceptor that is involved in the synchronization of the circadian clock with the ..
  36. Ozturk N, Selby C, Zhong D, Sancar A. Mechanism of photosignaling by Drosophila cryptochrome: role of the redox status of the flavin chromophore. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4634-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptochrome (CRY) is the primary circadian photoreceptor in Drosophila...
  37. Gegear R, Foley L, Casselman A, Reppert S. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism. Nature. 2010;463:804-7 pubmed publisher
    ..magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome (Cry)...
  38. Helfrich Forster C, Shafer O, Wülbeck C, Grieshaber E, Rieger D, Taghert P. Development and morphology of the clock-gene-expressing lateral neurons of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:47-70 pubmed
    ..Both the LN(d) and the l-LN(v) differentiate during midmetamorphosis. They do so in close proximity to one another and the fifth PDF-negative s-LN(v), suggesting that these cell groups may derive from common precursors. ..
  39. Yuan Q, Metterville D, Briscoe A, Reppert S. Insect cryptochromes: gene duplication and loss define diverse ways to construct insect circadian clocks. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:948-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins are components of the central circadian clockwork of metazoans...
  40. Lear B, Zhang L, Allada R. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000154 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors. ..
  41. Rieger D, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome, compound eyes, Hofbauer-Buchner eyelets, and ocelli play different roles in the entrainment and masking pathway of the locomotor activity rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18:377-91 pubmed
    ..clock: (1) the compound eyes, (2) the ocelli, (3) the Hofbauer-Buchner eyelets, (4) the blue-light photopigment cryptochrome, and (5) unknown photopigments in the clock-gene-expressing dorsal neurons...
  42. Dolezelova E, Dolezel D, Hall J. Rhythm defects caused by newly engineered null mutations in Drosophila's cryptochrome gene. Genetics. 2007;177:329-45 pubmed
    Much of the knowledge about cryptochrome function in Drosophila stems from analyzing the cryb mutant...
  43. Stoleru D, Peng Y, Nawathean P, Rosbash M. A resetting signal between Drosophila pacemakers synchronizes morning and evening activity. Nature. 2005;438:238-42 pubmed
    ..morning activity (small LN(v) cells; M-cells), whereas another group of clock neurons controls evening activity (CRY+, PDF- cells; E-cells)...
  44. Fedele G, Green E, Rosato E, Kyriacou C. An electromagnetic field disrupts negative geotaxis in Drosophila via a CRY-dependent pathway. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4391 pubmed publisher
    ..that negative geotaxis in flies, scored as climbing, is disrupted by a static EMF, and this is mediated by cryptochrome (CRY), the blue-light circadian photoreceptor...
  45. Ozturk N, Song S, Selby C, Sancar A. Animal type 1 cryptochromes. Analysis of the redox state of the flavin cofactor by site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3256-63 pubmed
    ..Type 1 CRYs, the prototype of which is the Drosophila CRY, that is known to be a circadian photoreceptor...
  46. Collins B, Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Seasonal behavior in Drosophila melanogaster requires the photoreceptors, the circadian clock, and phospholipase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1945-50 pubmed
    ..This cannot be explained simply by the mutation's effect on the visual pathway and suggests that norpA(P41) is directly involved in thermosensitivity. ..
  47. Cusumano P, Klarsfeld A, Chélot E, Picot M, Richier B, Rouyer F. PDF-modulated visual inputs and cryptochrome define diurnal behavior in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the LN-EO autonomously synchronized to light-dark cycles through either the cryptochrome (CRY) that it expressed or the visual system...
  48. Stoleru D, Nawathean P, Fernández M, Menet J, Ceriani M, Rosbash M. The Drosophila circadian network is a seasonal timer. Cell. 2007;129:207-19 pubmed
    ..Together with the different entraining properties of the two clock centers, the results suggest that the functional organization of the network underlies the behavioral adjustment to variations in daylength and season. ..
  49. Damulewicz M, Pyza E. The clock input to the first optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster expressing neuronal circadian plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21258 pubmed publisher
    ..These rhythms depend on clock gene period (per) and cryptochrome (cry) expression...
  50. Hall J. Cryptochromes: sensory reception, transduction, and clock functions subserving circadian systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:456-66 pubmed
    ..The rhythm system of Drosophila uses one gene's worth of CRY protein to transmit light into a circadian clock within the brain, which controls the fly's sleep-wake cycles...
  51. Emery P, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C, Emery Le M, Hall J, Rosbash M. Drosophila CRY is a deep brain circadian photoreceptor. Neuron. 2000;26:493-504 pubmed
    cry (cryptochrome) is an important clock gene, and recent data indicate that it encodes a critical circadian photoreceptor in Drosophila. A mutant allele, cry(b), inhibits circadian photoresponses...
  52. Scully A, Kay S. Time flies for Drosophila. Cell. 2000;100:297-300 pubmed
  53. Majercak J, Chen W, Edery I. Splicing of the period gene 3'-terminal intron is regulated by light, circadian clock factors, and phospholipase C. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3359-72 pubmed
    ..Our results identify a novel nonphotic role for phospholipase C (no-receptor-potential-A [norpA]) in the temperature regulation of dmpi8 splicing. ..
  54. Hemsley M, Mazzotta G, Mason M, Dissel S, Toppo S, Pagano M, et al. Linear motifs in the C-terminus of D. melanogaster cryptochrome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:531-7 pubmed
    The C-terminus of cryptochrome (CRY) regulates light responses in Drosophila...
  55. Todo T. Functional diversity of the DNA photolyase/blue light receptor family. Mutat Res. 1999;434:89-97 pubmed
  56. Ishikawa T, Matsumoto A, Kato T, Togashi S, Ryo H, Ikenaga M, et al. DCRY is a Drosophila photoreceptor protein implicated in light entrainment of circadian rhythm. Genes Cells. 1999;4:57-65 pubmed
    ..The members of the photolyase/cryptochrome family contain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as chromophore and are involved in two diverse functions, DNA ..
  57. Emery P, So W, Kaneko M, Hall J, Rosbash M. CRY, a Drosophila clock and light-regulated cryptochrome, is a major contributor to circadian rhythm resetting and photosensitivity. Cell. 1998;95:669-79 pubmed
    ..We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly photosensitive and include plant blue light photoreceptors...
  58. Kistenpfennig C, Hirsh J, Yoshii T, Helfrich Forster C. Phase-shifting the fruit fly clock without cryptochrome. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:117-25 pubmed publisher
    The blue light photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) is thought to be the main circadian photoreceptor of Drosophila melanogaster. Nevertheless, entrainment to light-dark cycles is possible without functional CRY...
  59. Ceriani M, Darlington T, Staknis D, Mas P, Petti A, Weitz C, et al. Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME. Science. 1999;285:553-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), a protein involved in circadian photoperception in Drosophila, is shown to block the function of PERIOD/..
  60. Czarna A, Berndt A, Singh H, Grudziecki A, Ladurner A, Timinszky G, et al. Structures of Drosophila cryptochrome and mouse cryptochrome1 provide insight into circadian function. Cell. 2013;153:1394-405 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a FAD-dependent circadian photoreceptor, whereas mammalian cryptochromes (CRY1/2) are integral clock components that repress mCLOCK/mBMAL1-dependent transcription...
  61. Rieger D, Shafer O, Tomioka K, Helfrich Forster C. Functional analysis of circadian pacemaker neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2531-43 pubmed
  62. Mealey Ferrara M, Montalvo A, Hall J. Effects of combining a cryptochrome mutation with other visual-system variants on entrainment of locomotor and adult-emergence rhythms in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2003;17:171-221 pubmed
    ..H-B) eyelet and light reception carried out by pacemaker neurons themselves, mediated by a substance called cryptochrome. All photoreceptor cells including the H-B eyelet have been surmised to be removed by glass-null mutations...
  63. Busza A, Emery Le M, Rosbash M, Emery P. Roles of the two Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME structural domains in circadian photoreception. Science. 2004;304:1503-6 pubmed
    b>CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is the primary circadian photoreceptor in Drosophila. We show that CRY binding to TIMELESS (TIM) is light-dependent in flies and irreversibly commits TIM to proteasomal degradation...
  64. Benito J, Houl J, ROMAN G, Hardin P. The blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME is expressed in a subset of circadian oscillator neurons in the Drosophila CNS. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:296-307 pubmed publisher
    In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) functions as a photoreceptor to entrain circadian oscillators to light-dark cycles and as a transcription factor to maintain circadian oscillator function in certain peripheral ..
  65. Kula Eversole E, Nagoshi E, Shang Y, Rodriguez J, Allada R, Rosbash M. Surprising gene expression patterns within and between PDF-containing circadian neurons in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that RNA cycling is much more prominent in circadian neurons than elsewhere in heads and may be particularly important for the functioning of these neurons. ..
  66. Yoshii T, Ahmad M, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000086 pubmed publisher
    ..photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity...
  67. Roenneberg T, Merrow M. The network of time: understanding the molecular circadian system. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R198-207 pubmed
  68. Klarsfeld A, Malpel S, Michard Vanhée C, Picot M, Chélot E, Rouyer F. Novel features of cryptochrome-mediated photoreception in the brain circadian clock of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1468-77 pubmed
    ..One of them relies on the visual phototransduction cascade. The other involves a presumptive photopigment, cryptochrome (cry), expressed in lateral brain neurons that control behavioral rhythms...
  69. Yoshii T, Funada Y, Ibuki Ishibashi T, Matsumoto A, Tanimura T, Tomioka K. Drosophila cryb mutation reveals two circadian clocks that drive locomotor rhythm and have different responsiveness to light. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:479-88 pubmed
    b>Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue-light-absorbing protein involved in the photic entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster...
  70. Glaser F, Stanewsky R. Temperature synchronization of the Drosophila circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1352-63 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that it involves a cell-autonomous signal-transduction cascade from a thermal receptor to the circadian clock. This process includes the function of phospholipase C and the product specified by the novel mutation nocte. ..
  71. Murad A, Emery Le M, Emery P. A subset of dorsal neurons modulates circadian behavior and light responses in Drosophila. Neuron. 2007;53:689-701 pubmed
    ..Wild-type flies are arrhythmic under constant illumination, but flies defective for the circadian photoreceptor CRY remain rhythmic...
  72. Szular J, Sehadova H, Gentile C, Szabo G, Chou W, Britt S, et al. Rhodopsin 5- and Rhodopsin 6-mediated clock synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster is independent of retinal phospholipase C-? signaling. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:25-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, both the visual photoreceptors in the compound eyes as well as the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome expressed within the brain clock neurons contribute to this clock synchronization...
  73. Yuan Q, Lin F, Zheng X, Sehgal A. Serotonin modulates circadian entrainment in Drosophila. Neuron. 2005;47:115-27 pubmed
    ..Effects of d5-HT1B are synergistic with a mutation in the circadian photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) and are mediated by SHAGGY (SGG), Drosophila glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), which ..
  74. Zoltowski B, Vaidya A, Top D, Widom J, Young M, Crane B. Structure of full-length Drosophila cryptochrome. Nature. 2011;480:396-9 pubmed publisher
    The cryptochrome/photolyase (CRY/PL) family of photoreceptors mediates adaptive responses to ultraviolet and blue light exposure in all kingdoms of life...
  75. Yoshii T, Todo T, Wülbeck C, Stanewsky R, Helfrich Forster C. Cryptochrome is present in the compound eyes and a subset of Drosophila's clock neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:952-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptochrome (CRY) is intimately associated with the circadian clock of many organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, CRY seems to be involved in photoreception as well as in the core clockwork...
  76. Im S, Li W, Taghert P. PDFR and CRY signaling converge in a subset of clock neurons to modulate the amplitude and phase of circadian behavior in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18974 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the neuropeptide PDF receptor and the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCROME (CRY) are precisely co-expressed in a subset of pacemakers, and that these pathways together provide a requisite drive ..
  77. Lamaze A, Lamouroux A, Vias C, Hung H, Weber F, Rouyer F. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CTRIP controls CLOCK levels and PERIOD oscillations in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The control of CLOCK protein levels does not require PERIOD. Thus, CTRIP seems to regulate the pace of the oscillator by controlling the stability of both the activator and the repressor of the feedback loop. ..
  78. Peschel N, Chen K, Szabo G, Stanewsky R. Light-dependent interactions between the Drosophila circadian clock factors cryptochrome, jetlag, and timeless. Curr Biol. 2009;19:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry) mediates a rapid light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (Tim) via the F box protein ..
  79. Peng Y, Stoleru D, Levine J, Hall J, Rosbash M. Drosophila free-running rhythms require intercellular communication. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E13 pubmed expectation, we found that all brain clock neurons manifest robust circadian oscillations of timeless and cryptochrome RNA for many days in DD...