Gene Symbol: crm
Description: cramped
Alias: CG2714, Dmel\CG2714, EG:95B7.2, ZW-9, l(1)3C1, l(1)3Ca, l(1)zw9, sta[P], swa, zw-9, zw9, cramped, CG2714-PA, CG2714-PB, crm-PA, crm-PB, sparse-arista, stubarista from P32, swollen-antenna
Species: fruit fly
Products:     crm

Top Publications

  1. Gibert J, Peronnet F, Schlotterer C. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila pigmentation caused by temperature sensitivity of a chromatin regulator network. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of this network may be related to the high evolvability of several secondary sexual characters in the genus Drosophila. ..
  2. Harr B, Kauer M, Schl tterer C. Hitchhiking mapping: a population-based fine-mapping strategy for adaptive mutations in Drosophilamelanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that hitchhiking mapping is a universal approach for the identification of ecologically important mutations...
  3. Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that corto maintains the anterior border of Ubx expression in third-instar larvae. We suggest that this regulation is accomplished through an interaction with the products of the Pc-G and trx-G genes. ..
  4. Yamamoto Y, Girard F, Bello B, Affolter M, Gehring W. The cramped gene of Drosophila is a member of the Polycomb-group, and interacts with mus209, the gene encoding Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. Development. 1997;124:3385-94 pubmed
    We have isolated and molecularly characterized the cramped (crm) gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and show that it can be classified as a Polycomb-group (Pc-G) gene...
  5. Gibert J, Karch F. The Polycomb group protein CRAMPED is involved with TRF2 in the activation of the histone H1 gene. Chromosoma. 2011;120:297-307 pubmed publisher
    b>CRAMPED (CRM), conserved from plants to animals, was previously characterized genetically as a repressive factor involved in the formation of facultative and constitutive heterochromatin (Polycomb silencing, position effect variegation)...
  6. Goldberg M, Colvin R, Mellin A. The Drosophila zeste locus is nonessential. Genetics. 1989;123:145-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the zeste protein normally is either a very weak transcription factor, or that its function can be substituted by that of other regulatory proteins. ..
  7. Shannon M, Kaufman T, Shen M, Judd B. Lethality patterns and morphology of selected lethal and semi-lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;72:615-38 pubmed
    ..These results provide additional evidence that only one function is associated with each chromomere.-The results of the lethality pattern analysis are also compared with previous studies of lethal mutants of Drosophila. ..
  8. Nomura T, Kurokawa N. Comparative study on germ cell mutation induced by urethane (ethyl carbamate) gas and X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:461-7 pubmed
    ..Urethane-induced mutations were strikingly non-random with two hot spots at zw-1 and zw-2, whereas the distribution of X-ray-induced mutations was more nearly random. ..
  9. Paradi E, Vogel E, Szilagyi E. Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1983;111:145-59 pubmed
    ..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG. ..

More Information


  1. Bingham P. A novel dominant mutant allele at the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster is mutable. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1981;45 Pt 2:519-25 pubmed
  2. Sekelsky J, Burtis K, Hawley R. Damage control: the pleiotropy of DNA repair genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1998;148:1587-98 pubmed
  3. Rayle R, Green M. A contribution to the genetic fine structure of the region adjacent to white in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1968;39:497-507 pubmed
  4. Liu C, Lim J. Complementation analysis of methyl methane-sulfonate-induced recessive lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;79:601-11 pubmed
  5. Perrimon N, Engstrom L, Mahowald A. The effects of zygotic lethal mutations on female germ-line functions in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1984;105:404-14 pubmed
    ..Three loci were found which, in germ-line clones, produced embryonic phenotypes that resemble maternal effect mutations. The implications of this study for the genetic analysis of early development are discussed. ..
  6. Pelisson A. The I--R system of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: are I factor insertions responsible for the mutator effect of the I--R interaction?. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:123-9 pubmed
  7. Robbins L. Maternal-Zygotic Lethal Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER : Zeste-White Region Single-Cistron Mutations. Genetics. 1983;103:633-48 pubmed
    ..Lethal interactions were found for one or more alleles at 10 of the 13 loci. The implications of these observations with respect to gene regulation and developmental sequence are considered. ..
  8. Yamamoto R, Axton J, Yamamoto Y, Saunders R, Glover D, Henderson D. The Drosophila mus101 gene, which links DNA repair, replication and condensation of heterochromatin in mitosis, encodes a protein with seven BRCA1 C-terminus domains. Genetics. 2000;156:711-21 pubmed
    ..Mus101 also shares sequence similarity with the fission yeast Rad4/Cut5 protein required for repair, replication, and checkpoint control, suggesting that the two proteins may be functional homologs. ..
  9. Gibert J, Karch F, Schlotterer C. Segregating variation in the polycomb group gene cramped alters the effect of temperature on multiple traits. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001280 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we analyze the chromatin regulator crm, identified as a candidate for adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster to northern latitudes...
  10. Dupont C, Dardalhon Cuménal D, Kyba M, Brock H, Randsholt N, Peronnet F. Drosophila Cyclin G and epigenetic maintenance of gene expression during development. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2015;8:18 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss whether Cyclin G fine-tunes transcription by controlling H2A ubiquitination and transcriptional elongation via interaction with the ASX subunit of PR-DUB. ..
  11. Judd B, Shen M, Kaufman T. The anatomy and function of a segment of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;71:139-56 pubmed
    ..The data clearly show one functional group per chromomere. It is postulated that a chromomere is one cistron within which much of the DNA is regulatory in function. ..
  12. Lim J, Snyder L. Cytogenetic and complementation analyses of recessive lethal mutations induced in the X chromosome of Drosophila by three alkylating agents. Genet Res. 1974;24:1-10 pubmed
  13. Montgomery E, Huang S, Langley C, Judd B. Chromosome rearrangement by ectopic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: genome structure and evolution. Genetics. 1991;129:1085-98 pubmed
  14. Pastink A, Schalet A, Vreeken C, Paradi E, Eeken J. The nature of radiation-induced mutations at the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1987;177:101-15 pubmed
    ..In 4 mutants a small deletion could indeed be detected in this way. Thus it seems that by far the main part of X-ray- and neutron-induced white mutants have arisen through large changes in the white gene, especially deletions. ..
  15. Garcia Bellido A, Robbins L. Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1983;103:235-47 pubmed
    ..The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. ..
  16. Sorsa V, Green M, Beermann W. Cytogenetic fine structure and chromosomal localization of the white gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat New Biol. 1973;245:34-7 pubmed
  17. Gersh E. Genetic effects associated with band 3C1 of the salivary gland X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1967;56:309-19 pubmed
  18. Pastink A, Vreeken C, Vogel E, Eeken J. Mutations induced at the white and vermilion loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1990;231:63-71 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by sequence analysis of 25 ENU-induced vermilion mutants. In all mutants the alterations are due to base-pair changes, the majority being GC to AT transitions (61%). ..
  19. DiBello P, Withers D, Bayer C, Fristrom J, Guild G. The Drosophila Broad-Complex encodes a family of related proteins containing zinc fingers. Genetics. 1991;129:385-97 pubmed
    ..We infer that the BR-C directly regulates late gene expression by specifying the synthesis of a family of proteins with DNA binding potential. ..
  20. Chao A, Guild G. Molecular analysis of the ecdysterone-inducible 2B5 "early' puff in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1986;5:143-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, the 4.5-kb RNA represents at least one product from the ecdysterone-responsive 2B5 "early' puff. ..
  21. Gaszner M, Vazquez J, Schedl P. The Zw5 protein, a component of the scs chromatin domain boundary, is able to block enhancer-promoter interaction. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2098-107 pubmed
    ..We show that SBP is encoded by the zeste-white 5 gene and that mutations in zeste-white 5 reduce the enhancer-blocking activity of the multimerized oligonucleotides...
  22. Mazina O, Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Cytogenetical analysis of the 2B3-4-2B11 region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. VII. Influence of the ecs locus on female fertility. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;225:99-105 pubmed
    ..Thus, an ecs product, which controls cell sensitivity to ecdysterone is also necessary for female fertility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  23. Santamaria P. Genesis versus epigenesis: the odd jobs of the Polycomb group of genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:463-9 pubmed
    ..I argue that spatial modulation of the multimeric complexes formed by PcG products has played a role or escorted the genesis of species. ..
  24. Nuzhdin S, Reiwitch S. Are the same genes responsible for intra- and interspecific variability for sex comb tooth number in Drosophila?. Heredity (Edinb). 2000;84 ( Pt 1):97-102 pubmed
    ..One intraspecific QTL mapped to the same interval as the QTL for interspecific differences between D. simulans and D. mauritiana. Whether or not these effects result from the same genes requires further examination. ..
  25. Lin H, Wolfner M. Cloning and analysis of fs(1) Ya, a maternal effect gene required for the initiation of Drosophila embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;215:257-65 pubmed
    ..The transcript is not detected in later stages of embryonic development. This expression pattern correlates closely with the genetic and developmental characteristics expected of the fs(1) Ya gene product. ..
  26. Thierry Mieg D. Paralog, a control mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;100:209-37 pubmed
    ..We interpret the data by postulating that the expression of sets of dispersed genes might be controlled by the local topology of the chromosome, itself constrained by pairing of dispersed repeated elements. We call the mutation paralog. ..
  27. Buscaino A, Legube G, Akhtar A. X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:531-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that MSL-3 localization to the male X chromosome and transcriptional upregulation of X-linked genes are two separable functions of the MSL-3 protein. ..