Gene Symbol: COX2
Description: cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
Alias: cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Stewart J, Beckenbach A. Characterization of mature mitochondrial transcripts in Drosophila, and the implications for the tRNA punctuation model in arthropods. Gene. 2009;445:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In-frame TAA stop codons immediately preceding both the cox1 and cox2 genes may serve to prevent in-frame translation of these genes prior to the completion of processing, and are ..
  2. Clancy D. Variation in mitochondrial genotype has substantial lifespan effects which may be modulated by nuclear background. Aging Cell. 2008;7:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited mtDNA variation in D. melanogaster makes it an ideal organism for biochemical studies to link genotype and aging phenotype. ..
  3. Lewis D, Farr C, Kaguni L. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: completion of the nucleotide sequence and evolutionary comparisons. Insect Mol Biol. 1995;4:263-78 pubmed
    ..yakuba mtDNA. All genes encoded in the mtDNA of both species are in identical locations and orientations. Nucleotide substitution analysis reveals that tRNA and rRNA genes evolve at less than half the rate of protein coding genes. ..
  4. de Bruijn M. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA, a novel organization and genetic code. Nature. 1983;304:234-41 pubmed
    ..The gene organization differs from that of mammalian mitochondrial DNAs. Evidence is provided for a genetic code in which AGA codes for serine and the quadruplet ATAA is used in initiation of translation. ..
  5. Roberti M, Bruni F, Loguercio Polosa P, Manzari C, Gadaleta M, Cantatore P. MTERF3, the most conserved member of the mTERF-family, is a modular factor involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1199-206 pubmed
    ..This role, likely based on protein-protein interactions, may be exerted either through a direct interaction with the translation machinery or by bridging the mitochondrial transcription and translation apparatus. ..
  6. Bruni F, Manzari C, Filice M, Loguercio Polosa P, Colella M, Carmone C, et al. D-MTERF5 is a novel factor modulating transcription in Drosophila mitochondria. Mitochondrion. 2012;12:492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-regulation by DREF (DNA Replication-related Element binding Factor) of D-MTERF5 and DmTTF implies that expression of the two factors needs to be co-ordinated to ensure fine modulation of Drosophila mitochondrial transcription. ..
  7. Oliveira D, Almeida F, O Grady P, Armella M, DeSalle R, Etges W. Monophyly, divergence times, and evolution of host plant use inferred from a revised phylogeny of the Drosophila repleta species group. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;64:533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordant with our proposed timing of host use shifts, these dates are consistent with the suggested times when the Opuntioideae originated in South America. We discuss the generally accepted South American origin of the repleta group. ..
  8. Sohal R, Toroser D, Bregere C, Mockett R, Orr W. Age-related decrease in expression of mitochondrial DNA encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Ageing Dev. 2008;129:558-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, the stoichiometry of CcO holoprotein is dynamically altered during the aging process in D. melanogaster. ..
  9. Maier D, Farr C, Poeck B, Alahari A, Vogel M, Fischer S, et al. Mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein is required for mitochondrial DNA replication and development in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:821-30 pubmed
    ..lopo(1) is the first mtSSB mutant in higher eukaryotes, and its analysis demonstrates the essential function of this gene in development, providing an excellent model to study mitochondrial biogenesis in animals. ..

More Information


  1. Calleja M, Pena P, Ugalde C, Ferreiro C, Marco R, Garesse R. Mitochondrial DNA remains intact during Drosophila aging, but the levels of mitochondrial transcripts are significantly reduced. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:18891-7 pubmed
    ..The decline in the levels of beta H(+)-ATPase transcript, nuclear-encoded, suggests that not only the mitochondrial machinery, but also the nuclear one involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, is affected during aging. ..
  2. Izumitani H, Kusaka Y, Koshikawa S, Toda M, Katoh T. Phylogeography of the Subgenus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evolutionary History of Faunal Divergence between the Old and the New Worlds. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160051 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene. ..
  3. Ilinsky Y. Coevolution of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA and Wolbachia genotypes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54373 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster mtDNA pattern of variation. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of biogeographic distribution of D. melanogaster mitotypes all over the world. ..
  4. Commar L, Galego L, Ceron C, Carareto C. Taxonomic and evolutionary analysis of Zaprionus indianus and its colonization of Palearctic and Neotropical regions. Genet Mol Biol. 2012;35:395-406 pubmed publisher
    ..These and other aspects of the evolutionary biology of Z. indianus are addressed in this review, including a description of a probable route for this species' dispersal during its recent expansion. ..
  5. Hatadani L, McInerney J, de Medeiros H, Junqueira A, de Azeredo Espin A, Klaczko L. Molecular phylogeny of the Drosophila tripunctata and closely related species groups (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;51:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most of the basal nodes were unresolved we were able to identify four clusters within the tripunctata radiation. These results suggest the collection of additional data before a proper taxonomic revision could be proposed. ..
  6. Dowling D, Friberg U, Hailer F, Arnqvist G. Intergenomic epistasis for fitness: within-population interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;175:235-44 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of mtDNA (2752 bp) revealed polymorphism within the population, suggesting that the observed cytoplasmic genetic effects may be mitochondrial in origin. ..
  7. Ferguson M, Mockett R, Shen Y, Orr W, Sohal R. Age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiration and electron transport in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem J. 2005;390:501-11 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that impairment of mitochondrial respiration may be a causal factor in the aging process, and that such impairment may result from and contribute to increased H2O2 production in vivo. ..
  8. Galloni M. Bonsaï, a ribosomal protein S15 homolog, involved in gut mitochondrial activity and systemic growth. Dev Biol. 2003;264:482-94 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these observations suggest that mitochondrial activity is regulated at the tissue-specific level and that this regulation has profound implications for growth and development. ..
  9. Tsai H, Lin R, Hsieh T. Drosophila mitochondrial topoisomerase III alpha affects the aging process via maintenance of mitochondrial function and genome integrity. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reported here demonstrate that mitochondrial Top3? ablation results in mitochondrial genome instability and its dysfunction, thereby accelerating the aging process. ..
  10. Humphrey D, Parsons R, Ludlow Z, Riemensperger T, Esposito G, Verstreken P, et al. Alternative oxidase rescues mitochondria-mediated dopaminergic cell loss in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2698-712 pubmed publisher
  11. Peralta S, Clemente P, Sanchez Martinez A, Calleja M, Hernández Sierra R, Matsushima Y, et al. Coiled coil domain-containing protein 56 (CCDC56) is a novel mitochondrial protein essential for cytochrome c oxidase function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. We propose CCDC56 as a candidate factor required for COX biogenesis/assembly. ..
  12. O Grady P, DeSalle R. Out of Hawaii: the origin and biogeography of the genus Scaptomyza (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Biol Lett. 2008;4:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a combination of small body size, rapid generation time and unique ecological and physiological adaptations have allowed this genus to effectively disperse and diversify...
  13. van Velzen R, Weitschek E, Felici G, Bakker F. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30490 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification. ..
  14. Clary D, Wahleithner J, Wolstenholme D. Transfer RNA genes in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA: related 5' flanking sequences and comparisons to mammalian mitochondrial tRNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:2411-25 pubmed
    ..Upstream from this octanucleotide sequence, and separated from it by 3, 4 and 11 nucleotides, respectively, in the 5' flanking regions of the tRNAile, tRNAserUCN and tRNAgly genes occurs the sequence 5'GATGAG...
  15. Dowling D, Maklakov A, Friberg U, Hailer F. Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:818-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP. ..
  16. Durando C, Baker R, Etges W, Heed W, Wasserman M, DeSalle R. Phylogenetic analysis of the repleta species group of the genus Drosophila using multiple sources of characters. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000;16:296-307 pubmed publisher
  17. van der Linde K, Houle D, Spicer G, Steppan S. A supermatrix-based molecular phylogeny of the family Drosophilidae. Genet Res (Camb). 2010;92:25-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that these results support a taxonomic revision of the genus Drosophila...
  18. Bratic A, Wredenberg A, Gronke S, Stewart J, Mourier A, Ruzzenente B, et al. The bicoid stability factor controls polyadenylation and expression of specific mitochondrial mRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002324 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus report a novel function of BSF in flies and demonstrate that it has an important intra-mitochondrial role, which is essential for maintaining mtDNA gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation. ..
  19. Gustani E, Oliveira A, Santos M, Machado L, Mateus R. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil. Zoolog Sci. 2015;32:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest. ..
  20. Jukes T. Quakes hit California and, perhaps, the central dogma. J Mol Evol. 1990;30:1-2 pubmed
  21. Guitart T, Picchioni D, Piñeyro D, Ribas De Pouplana L. Human mitochondrial disease-like symptoms caused by a reduced tRNA aminoacylation activity in flies. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6595-608 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the fly model generated in this work reproduces typical characteristics of pathologies caused by mutations in the mitochondrial aminoacylation system, and can be useful to assess therapeutic approaches. ..
  22. Szuplewski S, Terracol R. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. Genetics. 2001;158:1629-43 pubmed
    ..A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. ..
  23. Cooper B, Burrus C, Ji C, Hahn M, Montooth K. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:2165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. ..
  24. Barry W, Thummel C. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. ..
  25. Tourmente S, Savre Train I, Berthier F, Renaud M. Expression of six mitochondrial genes during Drosophila oogenesis: analysis by in situ hybridization. Cell Differ Dev. 1990;31:137-49 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis of poly(A)+RNA from ovaries or cultured cells revealed an 1.7 kb extra-mitochondrial RNA, which is probably of nuclear origin. ..
  26. Walker D, Benzer S. Mitochondrial "swirls" induced by oxygen stress and in the Drosophila mutant hyperswirl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10290-5 pubmed
    ..Such mutants can identify genes that are needed to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis throughout the lifespan. ..
  27. Stenico M, Nigro L. Differences in evolutionary rates among amino acid classes in the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome oxidase II in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:777-8 pubmed
  28. Spicer G, Pitnick S. Molecular systematics of the Drosophila hydei subgroup as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. J Mol Evol. 1996;43:281-6 pubmed
    ..bifurca complex is only weakly supported. The evolution of chromosomal change, interspecific crossability, sperm gigantism, and divergence times of the subgroup is discussed in a phylogenetic context. ..
  29. Burnell A, Reaper C, Doherty J. The effect of acclimation temperature on enzyme activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;98:609-14 pubmed
    ..6. The results presented here extend the data on the range of D. melanogaster enzymes which show compensation upon thermal acclimation and on the type of acclimation response which occurs. ..
  30. O Grady P, Clark J, Kidwell M. Phylogeny of the Drosophila saltans species group based on combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:656-64 pubmed publisher
    ..As with previous morphological studies, phylogenetic relationships within the saltans subgroup were not satisfactorily resolved by the molecular data...
  31. Garber E, Margoliash E. Circular dichroism studies of the binding of mammalian and non-mammalian cytochromes c to cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and polyanions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1187:289-95 pubmed
    ..According to this model, the exclusion of solvent changes the relative asymmetry of the environment of the electronic transitions of the heme prosthetic group of cytochrome c, resulting in observed circular dichroic effects. ..
  32. Patel M, Miriyala G, Littleton A, Yang H, Trinh K, Young J, et al. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. ..
  33. Seligmann H. An overlapping genetic code for frameshifted overlapping genes in Drosophila mitochondria: antisense antitermination tRNAs UAR insert serine. J Theor Biol. 2012;298:51-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Parallel genetic systems coded by an additional mitochondrial genetic code in Drosophila confirm similar phenomena in primate mitochondria. ..
  34. Yassin A, Da Lage J, David J, Kondo M, Madi Ravazzi L, Prigent S, et al. Polyphyly of the Zaprionus genus group (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the necessity of taxonomic revisions for some relevant genera and species groups included within the genus Drosophila...