Gene Symbol: cora
Description: coracle
Alias: CG11949, COR, Cor, Cora, Coracle, D4.1, Dmel\CG11949, cor, l(2)k08713, mdcds_14526, coracle, CG11949-PA, CG11949-PB, CG11949-PC, CG11949-PE, CG11949-PF, CG11949-PG, D4.1-Coracle, cora-PA, cora-PB, cora-PC, cora-PE, cora-PF, cora-PG
Species: fruit fly
Products:     cora

Top Publications

  1. Paul S, Ternet M, Salvaterra P, Beitel G. The Na+/K+ ATPase is required for septate junction function and epithelial tube-size control in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2003;130:4963-74 pubmed
  2. Tanentzapf G, Tepass U. Interactions between the crumbs, lethal giant larvae and bazooka pathways in epithelial polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:46-52 pubmed
  3. Laplante C, Paul S, Beitel G, Nilson L. Echinoid regulates tracheal morphology and fusion cell fate in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Tracheal-specific expression of Ed rescues these fusion defects, indicating that Ed acts in trachea to control fusion cell fate. ..
  4. Ward R, Schweizer L, Lamb R, Fehon R. The protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain of Drosophila Coracle, a cytoplasmic component of the septate junction, provides functions essential for embryonic development and imaginal cell proliferation. Genetics. 2001;159:219-28 pubmed
    b>Coracle is a member of the Protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins, whose members include Protein 4.1, the Neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor Merlin, Expanded, the ERM proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and unconventional myosins...
  5. Laplante C, Nilson L. Asymmetric distribution of Echinoid defines the epidermal leading edge during Drosophila dorsal closure. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:335-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The planar polarized distribution of Ed in the DME cells thus provides a spatial cue that polarizes the DME cell actin cytoskeleton, defining the epidermal leading edge and establishing its contractile properties. ..
  6. Tonning A, Hemphälä J, Tång E, Nannmark U, Samakovlis C, Uv A. A transient luminal chitinous matrix is required to model epithelial tube diameter in the Drosophila trachea. Dev Cell. 2005;9:423-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the transient luminal protein/polysaccharide matrix is sensed by the epithelial cells and coordinates cytoskeletal organization to ensure uniform lumen diameter. ..
  7. Kockel L, Zeitlinger J, Staszewski L, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. Jun in Drosophila development: redundant and nonredundant functions and regulation by two MAPK signal transduction pathways. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1748-58 pubmed
    ..The redundant function of Jun in eye development may contribute to the precision of photoreceptor differentiation and ommatidial assembly. ..
  8. BACHMANN A, Draga M, Grawe F, Knust E. On the role of the MAGUK proteins encoded by Drosophila varicose during embryonic and postembryonic development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:55 pubmed publisher
  9. Mitonaka T, Muramatsu Y, Sugiyama S, Mizuno T, Nishida Y. Essential roles of myosin phosphatase in the maintenance of epithelial cell integrity of Drosophila imaginal disc cells. Dev Biol. 2007;309:78-86 pubmed
    ..The requirement of DMBS for the integrity of static epithelial cells in imaginal discs suggests that the regulation of Myosin II by DMBS has a role more general than its previously demonstrated functions in morphogenetic events. ..

More Information


  1. Bellen H, Lu Y, Beckstead R, Bhat M. Neurexin IV, caspr and paranodin--novel members of the neurexin family: encounters of axons and glia. Trends Neurosci. 1998;21:444-9 pubmed
    ..Caspr/paranodin might play an important role in barrier formation, and link neuronal membrane components with the axonal cytoskeletal network. ..
  2. Lamb R, Ward R, Schweizer L, Fehon R. Drosophila coracle, a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, has essential structural functions in the septate junctions and developmental functions in embryonic and adult epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:3505-19 pubmed
    ..1 superfamily have not been as well characterized genetically. Studies of coracle, a Drosophila Protein 4.1 homologue, provide an opportunity to examine the genetic functions of this gene family...
  3. Riesgo Escovar J, Jenni M, Fritz A, Hafen E. The Drosophila Jun-N-terminal kinase is required for cell morphogenesis but not for DJun-dependent cell fate specification in the eye. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2759-68 pubmed
    ..Although DJNK efficiently phosphorylates DJun in vitro, bsk function is not required for the specification of cell fate in the developing eye, a process that requires MAP kinase and DJun function. ..
  4. Riesgo Escovar J, Hafen E. Drosophila Jun kinase regulates expression of decapentaplegic via the ETS-domain protein Aop and the AP-1 transcription factor DJun during dorsal closure. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1717-27 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, in vertebrates, transforming growth factor-beta and c-Jun regulate collagenase gene expression during wound healing, a process that also involves the closing of an epithelial sheath. ..
  5. Kohsaka H, Takasu E, Nose A. In vivo induction of postsynaptic molecular assembly by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1289-300 pubmed
    ..We propose that Fas2 mediates trans-synaptic adhesion, which contributes to postsynaptic molecular assembly at the onset of synaptogenesis. ..
  6. Ward R, Lamb R, Fehon R. A conserved functional domain of Drosophila coracle is required for localization at the septate junction and has membrane-organizing activity. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1463-73 pubmed
    ..b>Coracle, a Drosophila protein 4...
  7. Tiklová K, Senti K, Wang S, Gräslund A, Samakovlis C. Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis. ..
  8. Schulte J, Charish K, Que J, Ravn S, MacKinnon C, Auld V. Gliotactin and Discs large form a protein complex at the tricellular junction of polarized epithelial cells in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4391-401 pubmed
    ..Finally this work supports a model where Gliotactin and Dlg are components of a larger protein complex that links the converging SJs with the TCJ to create the transepithelial barrier. ..
  9. Warner S, Longmore G. Distinct functions for Rho1 in maintaining adherens junctions and apical tension in remodeling epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1111-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, depletion of Rho1 in single cells decreases apical tension, and Rok and myosin are necessary, while Dia function also contributes, downstream of Rho1 to sustain apical cell tension. ..
  10. Woods D, Wu J, Bryant P. Localization of proteins to the apico-lateral junctions of Drosophila epithelia. Dev Genet. 1997;20:111-8 pubmed
    ..labeled the site of the adherens junction, whereas antibodies to Discs large (DIg), Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Coracle (Cor) labeled the more basal septate junction...
  11. Schulte J, Tepass U, Auld V. Gliotactin, a novel marker of tricellular junctions, is necessary for septate junction development in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:991-1000 pubmed
    ..In Gli mutants, localization of SJ markers neurexin-IV, discs large, and coracle are disrupted. Furthermore, SJ barrier function is lost as determined by dye permeability assays...
  12. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
  13. Genova J, Fehon R. Neuroglian, Gliotactin, and the Na+/K+ ATPase are essential for septate junction function in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:979-89 pubmed
    ..In addition to the previously known components Coracle (COR) and Neurexin (NRX), we show that four other proteins, Gliotactin, Neuroglian (NRG), and both the alpha and ..
  14. Llimargas M. The Notch pathway helps to pattern the tips of the Drosophila tracheal branches by selecting cell fates. Development. 1999;126:2355-64 pubmed
    ..Both the localised expression and the mutant phenotypes of Delta, a known ligand for Notch, suggest that Delta may activate Notch to specify cell fates at the tips of the developing tracheal branches. ..
  15. Wu V, Schulte J, Hirschi A, Tepass U, Beitel G. Sinuous is a Drosophila claudin required for septate junction organization and epithelial tube size control. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:313-23 pubmed
  16. Venema D, Zeev Ben Mordehai T, Auld V. Transient apical polarization of Gliotactin and Coracle is required for parallel alignment of wing hairs in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;275:301-14 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated a novel role for the septate junction proteins Gliotactin (Gli) and Coracle (Cora) in this process. Prior to prehair extension, Gli and Cora were restricted to basolateral membranes...
  17. Paul S, Palladino M, Beitel G. A pump-independent function of the Na,K-ATPase is required for epithelial junction function and tracheal tube-size control. Development. 2007;134:147-55 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, the rat alpha1 isoform has full junctional activity and can rescue Atpalpha-null mutants to viability, suggesting that the Na,K-ATPase has an evolutionarily conserved role in junction formation and function. ..
  18. Fehon R, Dawson I, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A Drosophila homologue of membrane-skeleton protein 4.1 is associated with septate junctions and is encoded by the coracle gene. Development. 1994;120:545-57 pubmed
    ..1). D4.1 is localized to the septate junctions of epithelial cells and is encoded by the coracle gene, a new locus whose primary mutant phenotype is a failure in dorsal closure...
  19. Ostrowski S, Dierick H, Bejsovec A. Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:171-82 pubmed
  20. Baumgartner S, Littleton J, Broadie K, Bhat M, Harbecke R, Lengyel J, et al. A Drosophila neurexin is required for septate junction and blood-nerve barrier formation and function. Cell. 1996;87:1059-68 pubmed
    ..1 in the red blood cell. Absence of NRX results in mislocalization of Coracle, a Drosophila protein 4...
  21. Laprise P, Paul S, Boulanger J, Robbins R, Beitel G, Tepass U. Epithelial polarity proteins regulate Drosophila tracheal tube size in parallel to the luminal matrix pathway. Curr Biol. 2010;20:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing crb dosage also rescues tracheal size defects caused by mutations in coracle (cora), which encodes an SJ-associated polarity protein...
  22. Laprise P, Lau K, Harris K, Silva Gagliardi N, Paul S, Beronja S, et al. Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature. 2009;459:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the Drosophila FERM proteins Yurt (Yrt) and Coracle (Cora) and the membrane proteins Neurexin IV (Nrx-IV) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase are a new group of functionally ..
  23. Dominguez M, de Celis J. A dorsal/ventral boundary established by Notch controls growth and polarity in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1998;396:276-8 pubmed
  24. Laval M, Bel C, Faivre Sarrailh C. The lateral mobility of cell adhesion molecules is highly restricted at septate junctions in Drosophila. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Varicose (Vari) and Coracle (Cora), that both interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Nrx IV, are scaffolding molecules required for the ..
  25. Bogdanik L, Framery B, Frölich A, Franco B, Mornet D, Bockaert J, et al. Muscle dystroglycan organizes the postsynapse and regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2084 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that synaptic Dg controlled the amount of postsynaptic 4.1 protein Coracle and alpha-Spectrin, as well as the relative subunit composition of glutamate receptors...
  26. Bilder D, Perrimon N. Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature. 2000;403:676-80 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the lateral domain of epithelia, particularly the septate junction, functions in restricting apical membrane identity and correctly placing adherens junctions. ..
  27. Nelson K, Furuse M, Beitel G. The Drosophila Claudin Kune-kune is required for septate junction organization and tracheal tube size control. Genetics. 2010;185:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Double- and triple-mutant combinations of Sinuous and Megatrachea with Kune-kune resemble the Kune-kune single mutant, suggesting that Kune-kune has a more central role in septate junction formation than either Sinuous or Megatrachea. ..
  28. Zeitlinger J, Kockel L, Peverali F, Jackson D, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. Defective dorsal closure and loss of epidermal decapentaplegic expression in Drosophila fos mutants. EMBO J. 1997;16:7393-401 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that D-Fos is required downstream of the Drosophila JNK signal transduction pathway, consistent with a role in heterodimerization with D-Jun, to activate downstream targets such as dpp. ..
  29. Devine W, Lubarsky B, Shaw K, Luschnig S, Messina L, Krasnow M. Requirement for chitin biosynthesis in epithelial tube morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17014-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that chitin regulates epithelial tube morphogenesis, in addition to its classical role protecting mature epithelia. ..
  30. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  31. Dong B, Hannezo E, Hayashi S. Balance between apical membrane growth and luminal matrix resistance determines epithelial tubule shape. Cell Rep. 2014;7:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. ..
  32. Narasimha M, Uv A, Krejci A, Brown N, Bray S. Grainy head promotes expression of septate junction proteins and influences epithelial morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:747-52 pubmed publisher
    ..closure, a process similar to wound closure, and induced robust expression of the septate junction proteins Coracle, Fasciclin 3 and Sinuous...
  33. Laprise P, Beronja S, Silva Gagliardi N, Pellikka M, Jensen A, McGlade C, et al. The FERM protein Yurt is a negative regulatory component of the Crumbs complex that controls epithelial polarity and apical membrane size. Dev Cell. 2006;11:363-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that Yurt is part of an evolutionary conserved negative-feedback mechanism that restricts Crb complex activity in promoting apical membrane formation. ..
  34. Araújo S, Aslam H, Tear G, Casanova J. mummy/cystic encodes an enzyme required for chitin and glycan synthesis, involved in trachea, embryonic cuticle and CNS development--analysis of its role in Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;288:179-93 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these new data in the mechanism of size control in the Drosophila trachea. ..
  35. Bilder D, Schober M, Perrimon N. Integrated activity of PDZ protein complexes regulates epithelial polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:53-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model in which the maturation of epithelial cell polarity is driven by integration of the sequential activities of PDZ-based protein complexes. ..
  36. Chen K, Merino C, Sigrist S, Featherstone D. The 4.1 protein coracle mediates subunit-selective anchoring of Drosophila glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6667-75 pubmed
    ..We identified coracle, a homolog of mammalian brain 4...
  37. Llimargas M, Strigini M, Katidou M, Karagogeos D, Casanova J. Lachesin is a component of a septate junction-based mechanism that controls tube size and epithelial integrity in the Drosophila tracheal system. Development. 2004;131:181-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutations in genes encoding other components of the SJs produce a similar tracheal phenotype. These results point out a new role of the SJs in morphogenesis regulating cell adhesion and cell size. ..
  38. Hough C, Woods D, Park S, Bryant P. Organizing a functional junctional complex requires specific domains of the Drosophila MAGUK Discs large. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3242-53 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the functional modularity of Dlg and clarify the functions of individual MAGUK domains in regulating the structure and growth of epithelial tissue. ..
  39. Stork T, Engelen D, Krudewig A, Silies M, Bainton R, Klämbt C. Organization and function of the blood-brain barrier in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:587-97 pubmed publisher
  40. Budnik V. Synapse maturation and structural plasticity at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:858-67 pubmed
    ..The manipulation of the genes encoding ion channels, components of second-messenger cascades, and cell adhesion molecules is beginning to tease apart the mechanisms underlying structural synaptic plasticity. ..
  41. Gertler F, Comer A, Juang J, Ahern S, Clark M, Liebl E, et al. enabled, a dosage-sensitive suppressor of mutations in the Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase, encodes an Abl substrate with SH3 domain-binding properties. Genes Dev. 1995;9:521-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a critical function of Drosophila Abl is to phosphorylate and negatively regulate ena protein during neural development. ..
  42. Wu V, Beitel G. A junctional problem of apical proportions: epithelial tube-size control by septate junctions in the Drosophila tracheal system. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:493-9 pubmed
    ..Possible tube-size functions of septate junctions include patterning of the apical extracellular matrix and regulation of conserved cell polarity genes such as Scribble and Discs Large. ..
  43. Behr M, Riedel D, Schuh R. The claudin-like megatrachea is essential in septate junctions for the epithelial barrier function in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:611-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, we present evidence that Mega is essential for localization of the septate junction protein complex Coracle/Neurexin...
  44. Riesgo Escovar J, Hafen E. Common and distinct roles of DFos and DJun during Drosophila development. Science. 1997;278:669-72 pubmed
  45. Bonnay F, Cohen Berros E, Hoffmann M, Kim S, Boulianne G, Hoffmann J, et al. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2957-62 pubmed publisher
  46. Fares H, Peifer M, Pringle J. Localization and possible functions of Drosophila septins. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:1843-59 pubmed
    ..Both immunolocalization and biochemical experiments show that Sep1 is intimately associated with Pnut, suggesting that the Drosophila septins, like those in yeast, function as part of a complex. ..
  47. Chung S, Andrew D. Cadherin 99C regulates apical expansion and cell rearrangement during epithelial tube elongation. Development. 2014;141:1950-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Cad99C or SAS results in similar, but distinct effects, suggesting both shared and unique roles for these proteins in conferring apical identity. ..
  48. Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. Drosophila nicastrin is essential for the intramembranous cleavage of notch. Dev Cell. 2002;2:79-89 pubmed
    ..nicastrin and presenilin mutations also disrupt the spectrin cytoskeleton, suggesting that the gamma-secretase complex has another function in Drosophila in addition to its role in processing Notch and APP. ..
  49. Skwarek L, Windler S, de Vreede G, Rogers G, Bilder D. The F-box protein Slmb restricts the activity of aPKC to polarize epithelial cells. Development. 2014;141:2978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the Slmb E3 ligase in epithelial polarity, specifically limiting Par complex activity to distinguish the basolateral domain, points to parallels with polarization of the C. elegans zygote. ..
  50. Kallsen K, Zehethofer N, Abdelsadik A, Lindner B, Kabesch M, Heine H, et al. ORMDL deregulation increases stress responses and modulates repair pathways in Drosophila airways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1105-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Swanson L, Yu M, Nelson K, Laprise P, Tepass U, Beitel G. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization. Genetics. 2009;181:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we present evidence indicating that Conv/dALS has a novel, IGF-signaling independent function in tracheal morphogenesis. ..
  52. Lawrence N, Klein T, Brennan K, Martinez Arias A. Structural requirements for notch signalling with delta and serrate during the development and patterning of the wing disc of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3185-95 pubmed
    ..They also indicate, however, that delta and Serrate utilise EGF-like repeats 24-26 of Notch for signalling, but there are significant differences in the way they utilise these repeats. ..
  53. Kapelnikov A, Rivlin P, Hoy R, Heifetz Y. Tissue remodeling: a mating-induced differentiation program for the Drosophila oviduct. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:114 pubmed publisher
    ..Since many of these molecules (e.g. Muscle LIM protein 84B, Coracle, Neuroglian) have known roles in the differentiation of muscle and epithelia of other organs, mating may trigger ..
  54. LaJeunesse D, McCartney B, Fehon R. A systematic screen for dominant second-site modifiers of Merlin/NF2 phenotypes reveals an interaction with blistered/DSRF and scribbler. Genetics. 2001;158:667-79 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Merlin, blistered, and scribbler function together in a common pathway to regulate Drosophila wing epithelial development. ..
  55. Sen A, Nagy Zsvér Vadas Z, Krahn M. Drosophila PATJ supports adherens junction stability by modulating Myosin light chain activity. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:685-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, weakening of AJ in a PATJ mutant epithelium led first to a loss of Myosin from the AJ, subsequently to a disassembly of the AJ, and finally, to a loss of apical-basal polarity and disruption of the tissue. ..
  56. Gardiol A, St Johnston D. Staufen targets coracle mRNA to Drosophila neuromuscular junctions and regulates GluRIIA synaptic accumulation and bouton number. Dev Biol. 2014;392:153-67 pubmed publisher
    ..postsynaptic side of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), where it is required for the localisation of coracle mRNA and protein...
  57. Kim M, McGinnis W. Phosphorylation of Grainy head by ERK is essential for wound-dependent regeneration but not for development of an epidermal barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide mechanistic insight into how tissue repair can be initiated by posttranslational modification of a key transcription factor that normally mediates the developmental generation of that tissue. ..
  58. Zeitler J, Hsu C, Dionne H, Bilder D. Domains controlling cell polarity and proliferation in the Drosophila tumor suppressor Scribble. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:1137-46 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model in which Scrib, via the activity of the LRR, governs proliferation primarily by regulating apicobasal polarity. ..
  59. Konsolaki M, Schupbach T. windbeutel, a gene required for dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila, encodes a protein that has homologies to vertebrate proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum. Genes Dev. 1998;12:120-31 pubmed
    ..We propose that Windbeutel is responsible for the folding and/or modification of a specific factor that is secreted from the follicle cells and participates in the activation of the ventralizing signal. ..
  60. Williams M, Ando I, Hultmark D. Drosophila melanogaster Rac2 is necessary for a proper cellular immune response. Genes Cells. 2005;10:813-23 pubmed
    ..1 homolog Coracle. Finally, larger cells known as lamellocytes attach to the capsule but also fail to spread, and there is a lack ..
  61. Mack N, Georgiou M. The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity. Small Gtpases. 2014;5:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease. ..
  62. Phillips M, Thomas G. Brush border spectrin is required for early endosome recycling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1361-70 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the location of spectrin in the terminal web, and suggest that this molecule is required for correct sorting decisions at the early endosome. ..