Gene Symbol: cn
Description: cinnabar
Alias: CG1555, Dmel\CG1555, Dmel\cn, KMO, cinnabar, CG1555-PB, cn-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Kornberg T. Engrailed: a gene controlling compartment and segment formation in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:1095-9 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the engrailed locus renders the animal incapable of maintaining the separation between the groups of cells that constitute either the compartments that subdivide each segment or the individual segments themselves. ..
  2. Falk R, Schwartz S. MORGAN's hypothesis of the genetic control of development. Genetics. 1993;134:671-4 pubmed
  3. Nongthomba U, Ramachandra N. A direct screen identifies new flight muscle mutants on the Drosophila second chromosome. Genetics. 1999;153:261-74 pubmed
    ..This mutant screen identifies genes affecting the flight muscles, which are distinct from those identified when screening for flightlessness. ..
  4. Lloyd V, Ramaswami M, Kramer H. Not just pretty eyes: Drosophila eye-colour mutations and lysosomal delivery. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:257-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, classical work describing more than 85 eye-colour mutations and their genetic interactions offers a remarkable, untapped resource for the genetic analysis of protein delivery to lysosomes. ..
  5. Campesan S, Green E, Breda C, Sathyasaikumar K, Muchowski P, Schwarcz R, et al. The kynurenine pathway modulates neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease. Curr Biol. 2011;21:961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) increases levels of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) relative to the neurotoxic metabolite 3-..
  6. Sullivan D, Grillo S, Kitos R. Subcellular localization of the first three enzymes of the ommochrome synthetic pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1974;188:225-33 pubmed
  7. Chanut F, Luk A, Heberlein U. A screen for dominant modifiers of ro(Dom), a mutation that disrupts morphogenetic furrow progression in Drosophila, identifies groucho and hairless as regulators of atonal expression. Genetics. 2000;156:1203-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of their phenotypes in somatic clones suggests that both normally act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina, although they control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern. ..
  8. Sullivan D, Kitos R, Sullivan M. Developmental and genetic studies on kynurenine hydroxylase from Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1973;75:651-61 pubmed
    The level of kynurenine hydroxylase was measured throughout the development of wild type and the eye color mutants v, cn, st, ltd, cd, kar, w, ca, bri and p(P) of Drosophila melanogaster...
  9. Crow J. Why is Mendelian segregation so exact?. Bioessays. 1991;13:305-12 pubmed
    ..This provides a mechanism for removing cheaters and preserving the honesty of the Mendelian gene-shuffle. ..

More Information


  1. Yampolsky L, Allen C, Shabalina S, Kondrashov A. Persistence time of loss-of-function mutations at nonessential loci affecting eye color in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2005;171:2133-8 pubmed
    ..In both cases, deleterious alleles are apparently eliminated by selection against heterozygous individuals, which show no visible phenotypic differences from wild type. ..
  2. Pasyukova E, Roshina N, Mackay T. Shuttle craft: a candidate quantitative trait gene for Drosophila lifespan. Aging Cell. 2004;3:297-307 pubmed
    ..Quantitative genetic analysis of naturally occurring variants with subtle effects on lifespan can identify novel candidate genes and pathways important in the regulation of longevity. ..
  3. Handler A. A current perspective on insect gene transformation. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:111-28 pubmed
  4. Jasinskiene N, Coates C, Benedict M, Cornel A, Rafferty C, James A, et al. Stable transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes element from the housefly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3743-7 pubmed
    ..7-kb fragment of genomic DNA that includes a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar (cn) gene was used to transform a white-eyed recipient strain of Ae. aegypti...
  5. Cornel A, Benedict M, Rafferty C, Howells A, Collins F. Transient expression of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene rescues eye color in the white eye (WE) strain of Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;27:993-7 pubmed
    ..addition, a plasmid clone containing the wild type Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding kynurenine hydroxylase, cinnabar (cn), was also able to complement the kynurenine hydroxylase mutation when it was injected into embryos of the A...
  6. Wright T, Hodgetts R, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Isolation and characterization of deficiencies that delete the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus. Genetics. 1976;84:267-85 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies permit a localization of both the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus, l(2) amd, to the same region, 37B10-37C7. ..
  7. Kusano A, Staber C, Chan H, Ganetzky B. Closing the (Ran)GAP on segregation distortion in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2003;25:108-15 pubmed
    ..This previously mysterious genetic system may now offer unique insights into novel aspects of regulation by Ran. ..
  8. Horowitz N. The sixtieth anniversary of biochemical genetics. Genetics. 1996;143:1-4 pubmed
  9. Kain J, Stokes C, de Bivort B. Phototactic personality in fruit flies and its suppression by serotonin and white. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because we observed behavioral idiosyncrasy in all experimental groups, we suspect it is present in most behaviors of most animals...
  10. Ashburner M, Hoy M, Peloquin J. Prospects for the genetic transformation of arthropods. Insect Mol Biol. 1998;7:201-13 pubmed
  11. Ghosh D, Forrest H. Enzymatic studies on the hydroxylation of kynurenine in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1967;55:423-31 pubmed
  12. Yang H, Tanikawa A, Kondrashov A. Molecular nature of 11 spontaneous de novo mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;157:1285-92 pubmed
    ..melanogaster than in H. sapiens. If so, the per nucleotide mutation rate in D. melanogaster may be lower than in H. sapiens, even if their per locus mutation rates are similar. ..
  13. Meyer N, Oberegelsbacher C, Dürr T, Schäfer A, Huber A. An eGFP-based genetic screen for defects in light-triggered subcelluar translocation of the Drosophila photoreceptor channel TRPL. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:36-46 pubmed
    ..The absence of TRP or rhodopsin in the isolated mutants readily explains the defect in TRPL internalization and proves the feasibility of our genetic screen. ..
  14. Reaume A, Knecht D, Chovnick A. The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster: xanthine dehydrogenase and eye pigments. Genetics. 1991;129:1099-109 pubmed
  15. Papatsenko D, Levine M, Goltsev Y. Clusters of temporal discordances reveal distinct embryonic patterning mechanisms in Drosophila and anopheles. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000584 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that gene clustering by local temporal discordance can be used for the de novo identification of the gene batteries underlying morphological diversity...
  16. MacLellan K, Kwan L, Whitlock M, Rundle H. Dietary stress does not strengthen selection against single deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..General conclusions as to the effects of stress on the strength of selection and the alignment of natural and sexual selection await data from additional mutations, fitness components and stressors. ..
  17. Nekrasova A, Shakhbazov V. [Characteristics of recombination of heterosis hybrids of Drosophila melanogaster in high temperature conditions]. Genetika. 1990;26:879-85 pubmed
    Spontaneous and high temperature-induced crossing over in regions b-cn and cn-vg of chromosome 2 was studied in Drosophila stocks and hybrids differing in fertility level and heat resistance...
  18. Coates C, Jasinskiene N, Miyashiro L, James A. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3748-51 pubmed
    ..transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain...
  19. Kokoza V, Ahmed A, Wimmer E, Raikhel A. Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:1137-43 pubmed crossing the 3xP3-EGFP transformants with the kh(w) white-eye mosquitoes transformed with the Drosophila cinnabar gene...
  20. Beadle G. Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Fat Bodies and Malpighian Tubes in Relation to Diffusible Substances. Genetics. 1937;22:587-611 pubmed
  21. Brandt A, Scharf M, Pedra J, Holmes G, Dean A, Kreitman M, et al. Differential expression and induction of two Drosophila cytochrome P450 genes near the Rst(2)DDT locus. Insect Mol Biol. 2002;11:337-41 pubmed
    ..resistance locus in the insecticide-resistant Drosophila line Rst(2)DDT(Wisconsin) maps between the markers cn and vg on chromosome 2. Six cytochrome P450 genes exist in this region...
  22. Dimitri P, Arca B, Berghella L, Mei E. High genetic instability of heterochromatin after transposition of the LINE-like I factor in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8052-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that I factors transpose with high frequency into pericentric regions of chromosome 2 and may play a role in the evolution of constitutive heterochromatin. ..
  23. Miglani G, Kaur N. Modification by chloramphenicol of diethyl sulphate-induced male recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster. Indian J Exp Biol. 1995;33:401-7 pubmed
    ..diethyl sulphate (DES, a potent mutagen) induced male recombination frequency, the F1 (+/aristaless dumpy black cinnabar, al dp b cn) larvae of D...
  24. Crow J. Unmasking a cheating gene. Science. 1999;283:1651-2 pubmed
  25. Kuo T, Fedina T, Hansen I, Dreisewerd K, Dierick H, Yew J, et al. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002684 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential. ..
  26. Brinzer R, Henderson L, Marchiondo A, Woods D, Davies S, Dow J. Metabolomic profiling of permethrin-treated Drosophila melanogaster identifies a role for tryptophan catabolism in insecticide survival. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;67:74-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The knockdown of some tryptophan catabolism genes (vermilion, cinnabar and CG6950) in the whole fly and in specific tissues including fat body, midgut and Malpighian tubules using ..
  27. Daborn P, Boundy S, Yen J, Pittendrigh B, ffrench Constant R. DDT resistance in Drosophila correlates with Cyp6g1 over-expression and confers cross-resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:556-63 pubmed
    ..We are now testing the hypothesis that resistance to both compounds is associated with over-expression of this P450 gene. ..
  28. Eeken J, Romeijn R, de Jong A, Pastink A, Lohman P. Isolation and genetic characterisation of the Drosophila homologue of (SCE)REV3, encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta. Mutat Res. 2001;485:237-53 pubmed
    ..This phenotype of the Drosophila mus205 mutant is strikingly different from the phenotype of the yeast rev3 mutant, which is hypomutable after UV, X-rays, NQO and alkylating agents. ..
  29. Aparisi M, Najera C. Genetic location and biochemical characterization of eye-colour mutants from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1990;33:203-8 pubmed
    ..The eye-colour mutants show large effects on the red and brown pigments. The high variability of the eye-colour loci is discussed in relation to the mutation and selection hypotheses. ..
  30. Warren W, Palmer S, Howells A. Molecular characterization of the cinnabar region of Drosophila melanogaster: identification of the cinnabar transcription unit. Genetica. 1996;98:249-62 pubmed
    Early studies of eye pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster provided compelling evidence that the cinnabar (cn) gene encodes the enzyme kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (EC
  31. Romanova N, Aslanian M, Kim A. [Analysis of spontaneous and ethylmethanesulfonate-induced visible mutations in the genetically unstable MS, w strain of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1996;32:759-66 pubmed
    ..The frequency of induced mutations was estimated in the X chromosome, in five loci of chromosome 2 (b, j, pr, cn, and vg), and in eight loci of chromosome 3 (ru, h, th, st, cu, sr, es, and ca)...
  32. Rongvaux A, Andris F, Van Gool F, Leo O. Reconstructing eukaryotic NAD metabolism. Bioessays. 2003;25:683-90 pubmed
    ..In particular, it is proposed that the development of several NAD biosynthetic routes during evolution has led to partial functional redundancy, allowing a given pathway to freely acquire novel functions unrelated to NAD biosynthesis. ..
  33. Harris D, Kim K, Nakahara K, Vásquez Doorman C, Carthew R. Cargo sorting to lysosome-related organelles regulates siRNA-mediated gene silencing. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative regulation is also not linked to sorting into all LROs but only a specific class of pigment LRO. Thus, regulation of siRNA activity is tied to sorting of specific types of cargo to particular LROs...
  34. Hilliker A, Holm D. Genetic analysis of the proximal region of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Detachment products of compound autosomes. Genetics. 1975;81:705-21 pubmed
    ..The data further demonstrate that rolled, and probably light, are located within the proximal heterochromatin. Thus, functional genetic loci are found in heterochromatin, albeit at low density. ..
  35. Jones W, Bejsovec A. RacGap50C negatively regulates wingless pathway activity during Drosophila embryonic development. Genetics. 2005;169:2075-86 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes suggest that the RacGap50C gene product participates in the negative regulation of Wg pathway activity. ..
  36. Go M, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A genetic screen for novel components of the notch signaling pathway during Drosophila bristle development. Genetics. 1998;150:211-20 pubmed
  37. Watanabe Y, Takahashi A, Itoh M, Takano Shimizu T. Molecular spectrum of spontaneous de novo mutations in male and female germline cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;181:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The high occurrence of NAHR that we observed has important consequences for genome evolution through the production of segmental duplications. ..
  38. Tomlinson A. The origin of the Drosophila subretinal pigment layer. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, experiments that manipulate pigment expression during eye development suggest that the subretinal pigment layer is directly derived from pigment cells in the overlying retina...
  39. Chen X, Burgoyne R. Identification of common genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases from an integrative analysis of diverse genetic screens in model organisms. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:71 pubmed publisher
  40. Schaeffer S, Bhutkar A, McAllister B, Matsuda M, Matzkin L, O Grady P, et al. Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps. Genetics. 2008;179:1601-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events...
  41. Ganetzky B. On the components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:321-55 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion. ..
  42. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  43. Tearle R. Tissue specific effects of ommochrome pathway mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 1991;57:257-66 pubmed
    ..Two mutations affecting the red eye pigments (drosopterins), bw and mal, do not substantially perturb brown pigment synthesis in any of the four organs. ..
  44. Oudman L. A locus in Drosophila melanogaster affecting heat resistance. Hereditas. 1991;114:285-7 pubmed
  45. Phillips J, Simmons J, Bowman J. Terminal synthesis of xanthommatin in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Roles of phenol oxidase and substrate availability. Biochem Genet. 1970;4:481-7 pubmed
  46. Grossbach U. Genes and development: an early chapter in German developmental biology. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:83-7 pubmed
  47. Paton D, Sullivan D. Mutagenesis at the cinnabar locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:855-65 pubmed
  48. Granadino B, San Juan A, Santamaria P, Sanchez L. Evidence of a dual function in fl(2)d, a gene needed for Sex-lethal expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1992;130:597-612 pubmed
    ..The fl(2)d mutations partially suppress the phenotype of the female germ cells homozygous for ovoDIrSI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  49. Keegan K, Pradhan S, Wang J, Allada R. Meta-analysis of Drosophila circadian microarray studies identifies a novel set of rhythmically expressed genes. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e208 pubmed
  50. Billker O, Lindo V, Panico M, Etienne A, Paxton T, Dell A, et al. Identification of xanthurenic acid as the putative inducer of malaria development in the mosquito. Nature. 1998;392:289-92 pubmed
    ..These data could form the basis of the rational development of new methods of interrupting the transmission of malaria using drugs or new refractory mosquito genotypes to block parasite gametogenesis. ..
  51. Paululat A, Holz A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Essential genes for myoblast fusion in Drosophila embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;83:17-26 pubmed
    ..The molecular characterization of further genes relevant for fusion such as singles bar and sticks and stones will help to elucidate the mechanism of myoblast fusion in Drosophila. ..
  52. Malmanche N, Clark D. Identification of trans-dominant modifiers of Prat expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;164:1419-33 pubmed
    ..Quantification of their effect on endogenous Prat gene expression, using RT-PCR in young adult fly heads, identifies a subset of modifiers that are candidates for genes involved in regulating Prat expression. ..
  53. Warren W, Phillips A, Howells A. Drosophila melanogaster contains both X-linked and autosomal homologues of the gene encoding calcineurin B. Gene. 1996;177:149-53 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analyses indicate that Dm pupae and adults express two different CnB-encoding transcripts that are differentially regulated. ..
  54. Wang B, Sullivan K, Beckingham K. Drosophila calmodulin mutants with specific defects in the musculature or in the nervous system. Genetics. 2003;165:1255-68 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction studies suggest that failed regulation of the muscle calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor, is the major defect underlying the Cam7 phenotype. ..
  55. Handler A. Use of the piggyBac transposon for germ-line transformation of insects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:1211-20 pubmed
    ..This interspecies movement has important implications for the practical use of piggyBac to create transgenic insect strains for field release. ..
  56. Alexandrov I, Alexandrova M, Afanasyeva K. Interchromosomal gene conversion as a regular mechanism of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in early zygote of Drosophila melanogaster. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2015;460:59-61 pubmed publisher
  57. Dworkin I, Tanda S, Larsen E. Are entrenched characters developmentally constrained? Creating biramous limbs in an insect. Evol Dev. 2001;3:424-31 pubmed
    ..We suggest that not all entrenched characters are strongly constrained by developmental processes and that there exists sufficient natural genetic variation to alter highly conserved phenotypes. ..
  58. Homyk T, Pye Q. Some mutations affecting neural or muscular tissues alter the physiological components of the electroretinogram in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1989;5:37-48 pubmed
    ..Mutations bas, rex and sesD delay recovery from the prolonged depolarization afterpotential. The visual defects of mutations elavjl and nbAEE171 are not complemented by lethal mutations, which, presumably, affect other tissues. ..
  59. Irish V, Gelbart W. The decapentaplegic gene is required for dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1987;1:868-79 pubmed
  60. Grau Y, Simpson P. The segment polarity gene costal-2 in Drosophila. I. The organization of both primary and secondary embryonic fields may be affected. Dev Biol. 1987;122:186-200 pubmed
  61. Laurencon A, Gay F, Ducau J, Bregliano J. Evidence for an inducible repair-recombination system in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Correlation between reactivity levels, crossover frequency and repair efficiency. Genetics. 1997;146:1333-44 pubmed
    ..The implications of this biological system in connecting genomic variability and environment may shed new lights on adaptative mechanisms. We propose to call it VAMOS for variability modulation system. ..
  62. Hoyer S, Eckart A, Herrel A, Zars T, Fischer S, Hardie S, et al. Octopamine in male aggression of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Octopamine, a closely related biogenic amine, has been proposed to have a similar function in arthropods. However, the effect of octopamine on aggressive behavior is little understood...
  63. Heitzler P, Coulson D, Saenz Robles M, Ashburner M, Roote J, Simpson P, et al. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the 43A-E region containing the segment polarity gene costa and the cellular polarity genes prickle and spiny-legs in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;135:105-15 pubmed
    ..costa and torso, the morphogenetic locus sine oculis and is bounded on its distal side by the eye-color gene cinnabar. In addition 19 novel lethal complementation groups and two semi-lethal complementation groups with morphogenetic ..
  64. Soanes K, Bell J. Rediscovery and further characterization of the aeroplane (ae) wing posture mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1999;42:403-11 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, a molecular examination revealed that the physical lesion identified in the ae-l mutant is exceptionally close to the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and, indeed, may represent an unusual allele of teashirt. ..
  65. Sturtevant A. Genetic Data on Drosophila Affinis, with a Discussion of the Relationships in the Subgenus Sophophora. Genetics. 1940;25:337-53 pubmed