Gene Symbol: ck
Description: crinkled
Alias: 53D10S, BG:DS00929.11, CG7595, DM7a, DMyoVIIa, Dm 35B, DmVIIA, DmVIIa, Dmel\CG7595, Dro35B, ESTS:53D10S, Mhc35BC, Myo7A, Myo7B, MyoVIIA, anon-35Bb, br27, ck/MyoVIIA, l(1)35Ca, l(2)07130, l(2)35Ca, l(2)br27, l35Ca, myoVIIA, stc, stch, crinkled, CG7595-PA, CG7595-PB, CG7595-PC, CG7595-PD, ck-PA, ck-PB, ck-PC, ck-PD, lethal 27 in the black-reduced region, lethal group D2, myosin 7a, myosin 7a heavy chain, myosin VII, myosin VIIa, myosin heavy chain at 35BC, myosin-VII, mysoin VIIa, stubby chaetae, transcription unit D
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Winter C, Wang B, Ballew A, Royou A, Karess R, Axelrod J, et al. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell. 2001;105:81-91 pubmed
    ..Drosophila myosin VIIA, the homolog of the human Usher Syndrome 1B gene, also functions in conjunction with this newly defined portion ..
  2. Kiehart D, Franke J, Chee M, Montague R, Chen T, Roote J, et al. Drosophila crinkled, mutations of which disrupt morphogenesis and cause lethality, encodes fly myosin VIIA. Genetics. 2004;168:1337-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that mutations in crinkled (ck) disrupt the Drosophila myosin VIIA heavy chain...
  3. Tan C, Stronach B, Perrimon N. Roles of myosin phosphatase during Drosophila development. Development. 2003;130:671-81 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the regulation of the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains, or dynamic activation and inactivation of myosin II, is essential for its various functions during many developmental processes. ..
  4. Todi S, Sivan Loukianova E, Jacobs J, Kiehart D, Eberl D. Myosin VIIA, important for human auditory function, is necessary for Drosophila auditory organ development. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2115 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin VIIA (MyoVIIA) is an unconventional myosin necessary for vertebrate audition [1]-[5]. Human auditory transduction occurs in sensory hair cells with a staircase-like arrangement of apical protrusions called stereocilia...
  5. Todi S, Franke J, Kiehart D, Eberl D. Myosin VIIA defects, which underlie the Usher 1B syndrome in humans, lead to deafness in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:862-8 pubmed
    ..Mutations in myosin VIIA (myoVIIA), an unconventional myosin, lead to deafness and balance anomalies in humans, mice, and zebrafish; ..
  6. O DONNELL J, Mandel H, Krauss M, Sofer W. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:553-66 pubmed
    ..If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco) a total of 16 complemetation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. ..
  7. Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. III. Hypomorphic and hypermorphic mutations affecting the expression of hairless. Genetics. 1982;101:447-59 pubmed
    ..A simple model is proposed to account for the interaction of l(2)br7 and H, assuming that amorphic (or hypomorphic) alleles of l(2)br7 suppress H and that hypermorphic alleles enhance H. ..
  8. Yang Y, Baboolal T, Siththanandan V, Chen M, Walker M, Knight P, et al. A FERM domain autoregulates Drosophila myosin 7a activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4189-94 pubmed publisher
    Full-length Drosophila myosin 7a (myosin 7a-FL) has a complex tail containing a short predicted coiled coil followed by a MyTH4-FERM domain, an SH3 domain, and a C-terminal MyTH4-FERM domain...
  9. Mao Y, Rauskolb C, Cho E, Hu W, Hayter H, Minihan G, et al. Dachs: an unconventional myosin that functions downstream of Fat to regulate growth, affinity and gene expression in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:2539-51 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate Dachs as a crucial downstream component of a Fat signaling pathway that influences growth, affinity and gene expression during development. ..

More Information


  1. Yang Y, Kovacs M, Sakamoto T, Zhang F, Kiehart D, Sellers J. Dimerized Drosophila myosin VIIa: a processive motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5746-51 pubmed
    ..We studied the molecular mechanism of Drosophila myosin VIIa, using transient kinetics and single-molecule motility assays...
  2. Watanabe S, Ikebe R, Ikebe M. Drosophila myosin VIIA is a high duty ratio motor with a unique kinetic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7151-60 pubmed
    Mutations of myosin VIIA cause deafness in various species from human and mice to Zebrafish and Drosophila...
  3. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of deficiencies and mapping of ADH and visible mutations. Genetics. 1979;92:117-32 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. ..
  4. Sun L, Chen L, Greil F, Negre N, Li T, Cavalli G, et al. Protein-DNA interaction mapping using genomic tiling path microarrays in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9428-33 pubmed
  5. Yamashita R, Sellers J, Anderson J. Identification and analysis of the myosin superfamily in Drosophila: a database approach. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:491-505 pubmed
    ..In the future comparative genomics will hopefully lead to the placement of these myosins into new classes. ..
  6. de Wit E, Greil F, van Steensel B. Genome-wide HP1 binding in Drosophila: developmental plasticity and genomic targeting signals. Genome Res. 2005;15:1265-73 pubmed
    ..These results provide insights into the mechanisms of HP1 targeting in the natural genomic context. ..
  7. Unckless R, Rottschaefer S, Lazzaro B. The complex contributions of genetics and nutrition to immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005030 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional variation in these genes is segregating in a natural population, providing the substrate for evolutionary response to pathogen pressure in the context of nutritional environment. ..
  8. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. II. Lethal mutations in the region. Genetics. 1979;92:133-49 pubmed
  9. Tzolovsky G, Millo H, Pathirana S, Wood T, Bownes M. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster myosins. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1041-52 pubmed
    ..The fifth myosin shows a unique domain composition and a low homology to any of the existing classes. We propose that this is classified when similar myosins are identified in other species. ..
  10. Mace K, Tugores A. The product of the split ends gene is required for the maintenance of positional information during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:15 pubmed
    ..Wing vein phenotypic alterations are enhanced by mutations in the crinkled (ck) gene, encoding a non-conventional myosin, and correlate with an abnormal spatial expression of Delta, an ..
  11. Boedigheimer M, Nguyen K, Bryant P. Expanded functions in the apical cell domain to regulate the growth rate of imaginal discs. Dev Genet. 1997;20:103-10 pubmed
    ..Overexpressing Ex protein results in a decrease in final cell number in wings, suggesting a direct relationship between Ex function and proliferation rate. ..
  12. Umeki N, Jung H, Watanabe S, Sakai T, Li X, Ikebe R, et al. The tail binds to the head-neck domain, inhibiting ATPase activity of myosin VIIA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8483-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin, responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss. Here, we studied the molecular mechanism of regulation of myosin VIIA, which is currently unknown...
  13. Tamaskovic R, Bichsel S, Hemmings B. NDR family of AGC kinases--essential regulators of the cell cycle and morphogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:73-80 pubmed
    ..melanogaster and C. elegans. In mammalians, the LATS kinase is a tumor suppressor, negatively regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, cell proliferation rate, and modulating cell survival. ..
  14. Tinker R, Silver D, Montell D. Requirement for the vasa RNA helicase in gurken mRNA localization. Dev Biol. 1998;199:1-10 pubmed
  15. Ashburner M, Tsubota S, Woodruff R. The genetics of a small chromosome region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. IV: scutoid, an antimorphic mutation. Genetics. 1982;102:401-20 pubmed
    ..The Sco phenotype is thought to result from a position effect at the newly created noc/l(2)br28 junction. ..
  16. He B, Adler P. The genetic control of arista lateral morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:218-29 pubmed
    ..We also found that mutations that lead to lateral splitting typically alter the stereotypic arrangement of actin filament bundles and microtubules in laterals. ..
  17. Furukawa T, Maruyama S, Kawaichi M, Honjo T. The Drosophila homolog of the immunoglobulin recombination signal-binding protein regulates peripheral nervous system development. Cell. 1992;69:1191-7 pubmed
    ..The results also imply that the immunoglobulin recombination signal sequence and the target sequence of the Drosophila J kappa RBP protein might have a common evolutionary origin. ..
  18. Glowinski C, Liu R, Chen X, Darabie A, Godt D. Myosin VIIA regulates microvillus morphogenesis and interacts with cadherin Cad99C in Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:4821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the central F-actin bundle and the enveloping plasma membrane, we investigated the expression and function of Myosin VIIA (Myo7A), which is encoded by crinkled (ck), and its interaction with cadherin Cad99C in the microvilli of the ..
  19. Petzoldt A, Coutelis J, Géminard C, Spéder P, Suzanne M, Cerezo D, et al. DE-Cadherin regulates unconventional Myosin ID and Myosin IC in Drosophila left-right asymmetry establishment. Development. 2012;139:1874-84 pubmed publisher
  20. Chung S, Kim S, Yoon J, Adler P, Yim J. The balance between the novel protein target of wingless and the Drosophila Rho-associated kinase pathway regulates planar cell polarity in the Drosophila wing. Genetics. 2007;176:891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic interaction and gain-of-function studies provide evidence that Tow acts downstream of Fz/Dsh and plays a role in restricting the number of hairs that wing cells form...
  21. Fei X, He B, Adler P. The growth of Drosophila bristles and laterals is not restricted to the tip or base. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3797-806 pubmed
    ..The bristle microtubules are less stable. The retrograde movement of the peripheral actin appears to be counterbalanced by the distally directed movement of cytoplasm in the center of the bristle. ..
  22. Bejsovec A, Chao A. crinkled reveals a new role for Wingless signaling in Drosophila denticle formation. Development. 2012;139:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions between the Wingless (Wg) signaling pathway and a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain, encoded by the crinkled (ck) locus in Drosophila...
  23. Grau Y, Carteret C, Simpson P. Mutations and Chromosomal Rearrangements Affecting the Expression of Snail, a Gene Involved in Embryonic Patterning in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1984;108:347-60 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the products of all of these genes function together in the process of specification of pattern in the embryo. ..
  24. Adler P, Lee H. Frizzled signaling and cell-cell interactions in planar polarity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:635-40 pubmed
    ..This cortical mark leads to the local activation of downstream gene products and the subsequent activation of the cytoskeleton to form a hair. ..
  25. Muller U, Littlewood Evans A. Mechanisms that regulate mechanosensory hair cell differentiation. Trends Cell Biol. 2001;11:334-42 pubmed
    ..The studies have also provided new insights into the function of receptors such as integrins and protocadherins, and cytoplasmic proteins such as Rho-type GTPases and unconventional myosins, in organizing the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  26. Turner C, Adler P. Distinct roles for the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in the morphogenesis of epidermal hairs during wing development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1998;70:181-92 pubmed
    ..This is a phenocopy of mutations in crinkled, and suggests mutations that cause branched hairs will be in genes that encode products that interact with the ..
  27. Li T, Giagtzoglou N, Eberl D, Jaiswal S, Cai T, Godt D, et al. The E3 ligase Ubr3 regulates Usher syndrome and MYH9 disorder proteins in the auditory organs of Drosophila and mammals. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..The mono-ubiquitination of Myosin II promotes its physical interaction with Myosin VIIa, a protein responsible for Usher syndrome type IB...
  28. Berg J, Powell B, Cheney R. A millennial myosin census. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:780-94 pubmed
  29. Desai B, Shirolikar S, Ray K. F-actin-based extensions of the head cyst cell adhere to the maturing spermatids to maintain them in a tight bundle and prevent their premature release in Drosophila testis. BMC Biol. 2009;7:19 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to regulate mature sperm release into the seminal vesicle. Overall, this process bears resemblance to mammalian spermiation. ..
  30. Pérez Garijo A, Shlevkov E, Morata G. The role of Dpp and Wg in compensatory proliferation and in the formation of hyperplastic overgrowths caused by apoptotic cells in the Drosophila wing disc. Development. 2009;136:1169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In compartments containing undead cells, the adventitious Dpp/Wg signalling results in hyperplastic overgrowths. ..
  31. Demontis F, Dahmann C. Characterization of the Drosophila ortholog of the human Usher Syndrome type 1G protein sans. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4753 pubmed publisher
    ..USH1, the most severe subtype, is associated with mutations in genes encoding myosin VIIa, harmonin, cadherin 23, protocadherin 15, and sans...
  32. Orme M, Liccardi G, Moderau N, Feltham R, Wicky John S, Tenev T, et al. The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10972 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that the Drosophila unconventional myosin CRINKLED (CK) selectively interacts with the initiator caspase DRONC and regulates some of its non-apoptotic functions...
  33. Schweisguth F, Posakony J. Suppressor of Hairless, the Drosophila homolog of the mouse recombination signal-binding protein gene, controls sensory organ cell fates. Cell. 1992;69:1199-212 pubmed
    ..The Su(H) and J kappa RBP proteins are 82% identical over most of their length, and share with bacteriophage integrates and yeast recombinases a motif that includes residues directly involved in catalyzing recombination. ..
  34. Agrawal N, Kango M, Mishra A, Sinha P. Neoplastic transformation and aberrant cell-cell interactions in genetic mosaics of lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;172:218-29 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that neoplastic transformation of imaginal discs involves loss of their normal cell-cell interactions and signaling. ..
  35. Louis C, Madueno E, Modolell J, Omar M, Papagiannakis G, Saunders R, et al. One-hundred and five new potential Drosophila melanogaster genes revealed through STS analysis. Gene. 1997;195:187-93 pubmed
    ..The data reveal a substantial number of previously undescribed potential genes, amounting to 6.1% of the number of Drosophila genes already in the sequence databases. ..
  36. Jafar Nejad H, Tien A, Acar M, Bellen H. Senseless and Daughterless confer neuronal identity to epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing margin. Development. 2006;133:1683-92 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that transcription factors other than bHLH proteins can also perform the proneural function in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. ..
  37. Franke J, Montague R, Kiehart D. Nonmuscle myosin II is required for cell proliferation, cell sheet adhesion and wing hair morphology during wing morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;345:117-32 pubmed publisher
    ..and extend genetic interaction studies to show that nonmuscle myosin II and an unconventional myosin, encoded by crinkled (ck/MyoVIIA), act antagonistically in multiple processes necessary for wing development...
  38. Cai Y, Chia W, Yang X. A family of snail-related zinc finger proteins regulates two distinct and parallel mechanisms that mediate Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. EMBO J. 2001;20:1704-14 pubmed
  39. Marquez R, Singer M, Takaesu N, Waldrip W, Kraytsberg Y, Newfeld S. Transgenic analysis of the Smad family of TGF-beta signal transducers in Drosophila melanogaster suggests new roles and new interactions between family members. Genetics. 2001;157:1639-48 pubmed
    ..Overall, the study demonstrates that transgenic methods in Drosophila can provide new information about non-Drosophila members of developmentally important multigene families. ..
  40. Wright A, Jackson I. Myosin diversity and disease. Trends Genet. 1996;12:206-9 pubmed
  41. Franke J, Boury A, Gerald N, Kiehart D. Native nonmuscle myosin II stability and light chain binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:604-22 pubmed
    ..We identify four myosins (myosin II, myosin V, myosin VI and myosin VIIA) and a microtubule-associated protein (asp/Abnormal spindle) as binding partners for the essential light chain (..
  42. Morgan N. The myosin superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1995;273:104-17 pubmed
  43. Jiang J, Struhl G. Protein kinase A and hedgehog signaling in Drosophila limb development. Cell. 1995;80:563-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that the basal activity of PKA imposes a block on the transcription of dpp and wg and that hh exerts its organizing influence by alleviating this block. ..