Gene Symbol: cid
Description: centromere identifier
Alias: BcDNA:RE21270, CENH3, CENP-A, CENP-A/CID, CENP-A/Cid, CENPA, CG13329, CID, CID/CENP-A, CenH3, CenH3[CID], CenH3[Cid], Cenp-A, CenpA, CenpA/CID, Cid, Cid[Mel], Dmel\CG13329, cenH3, cenpA, centromere identifier, CG13329-PA, centromere identifier protein, centromere protein A, centromeric histone H3, cid-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Przewloka M, Venkei Z, Bolanos Garcia V, Debski J, Dadlez M, Glover D. CENP-C is a structural platform for kinetochore assembly. Curr Biol. 2011;21:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the N-terminal part of Drosophila CENP-C is sufficient to recruit core kinetochore components and acts as the principal linkage between centromere and kinetochore during mitosis. ..
  2. McKee B. Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1677:165-80 pubmed
    ..I cite evidence that may point to a relationship between matrix attachment sites and homologous pairing sites. ..
  3. Vermaak D, Hayden H, Henikoff S. Centromere targeting element within the histone fold domain of Cid. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7553-61 pubmed
    ..Drosophila sp. centromeric nucleosomes contain the Cid H3-like protein...
  4. Wang H, Brust Mascher I, Cheerambathur D, Scholey J. Coupling between microtubule sliding, plus-end growth and spindle length revealed by kinesin-8 depletion. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:715-28 pubmed publisher
  5. Matos I, Pereira A, Lince Faria M, Cameron L, Salmon E, Maiato H. Synchronizing chromosome segregation by flux-dependent force equalization at kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that flux-dependent equalization of kinetochore tensions ensures a timely and uniform maturation of kinetochore-microtubule interfaces necessary for error-free and coordinated segregation of chromosomes in anaphase. ..
  6. Mendiburo M, Padeken J, Fülöp S, Schepers A, Heun P. Drosophila CENH3 is sufficient for centromere formation. Science. 2011;334:686-90 pubmed publisher
    b>CENH3 is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant essential for kinetochore assembly. Despite its central role in centromere function, there has been no conclusive evidence supporting CENH3 as sufficient to determine centromere identity...
  7. Thomas S, Soltani Bejnood M, Roth P, Dorn R, Logsdon J, McKee B. Identification of two proteins required for conjunction and regular segregation of achiasmate homologs in Drosophila male meiosis. Cell. 2005;123:555-68 pubmed
    ..SNM and MNM do not colocalize with SMC1, suggesting that the homolog conjunction mechanism is independent of cohesin...
  8. Raychaudhuri N, Dubruille R, Orsi G, Bagheri H, Loppin B, Lehner C. Transgenerational propagation and quantitative maintenance of paternal centromeres depends on Cid/Cenp-A presence in Drosophila sperm. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001434 pubmed publisher
    ..In proliferating cells, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3), named Cid in Drosophila and Cenp-A in humans, is a crucial component of the epigenetic centromere mark...
  9. Orr B, Sunkel C. Drosophila CENP-C is essential for centromere identity. Chromosoma. 2011;120:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..specialized chromosomal domains that direct mitotic kinetochore assembly and are defined by the presence of CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) and CENP-C...

More Information


  1. Fischer M, Heeger S, Hacker U, Lehner C. The mitotic arrest in response to hypoxia and of polar bodies during early embryogenesis requires Drosophila Mps1. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2019-24 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Mps1 and the mitotic spindle checkpoint are responsible for the developmental cell cycle arrest of the three haploid products of female meiosis that are not used as the female pronucleus. ..
  2. Althoff F, Karess R, Lehner C. Spindle checkpoint-independent inhibition of mitotic chromosome segregation by Drosophila Mps1. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2275-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further expand Mps1's significance for faithful mitotic chromosome segregation and emphasize the importance of its careful regulation...
  3. Adams R, Maiato H, Earnshaw W, Carmena M. Essential roles of Drosophila inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora B in histone H3 phosphorylation, metaphase chromosome alignment, kinetochore disjunction, and chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:865-80 pubmed
    ..These experiments reveal that INCENP is required for aurora B kinase function and confirm that the chromosomal passengers have essential roles in mitosis. ..
  4. Moreno Moreno O, Medina Giró S, Torras Llort M, Azorín F. The F box protein partner of paired regulates stability of Drosophila centromeric histone H3, CenH3(CID). Curr Biol. 2011;21:1488-93 pubmed publisher
    Centromere identity and function is determined by the specific localization of CenH3 (reviewed in [1-7])...
  5. Ahmad K, Henikoff S. Histone H3 variants specify modes of chromatin assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99 Suppl 4:16477-84 pubmed
    ..H3 packages the bulk genome, H3.3 marks active chromatin and may be essential for gene regulation, and Cid is the characteristic structural component of centromeric chromatin...
  6. Schuh M, Lehner C, Heidmann S. Incorporation of Drosophila CID/CENP-A and CENP-C into centromeres during early embryonic anaphase. Curr Biol. 2007;17:237-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings uncover a strikingly dynamic behavior of centromere components in anaphase. ..
  7. Pimenta Marques A, Tostões R, Marty T, Barbosa V, Lehmann R, Martinho R. Differential requirements of a mitotic acetyltransferase in somatic and germ line cells. Dev Biol. 2008;323:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, during oogenesis we cannot detect mitotic defects in germ line cells mutant for san. We hypothesize the female germ line stem cells have differential requirements for mitotic sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  8. Orr B, Bousbaa H, Sunkel C. Mad2-independent spindle assembly checkpoint activation and controlled metaphase-anaphase transition in Drosophila S2 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:850-63 pubmed
  9. Williams B, Garrett Engele C, Li Z, Williams E, Rosenman E, Goldberg M. Two putative acetyltransferases, san and deco, are required for establishing sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2025-36 pubmed
    ..At least two diverse acetyltransferases play vital roles in regulating sister chromatid cohesion during Drosophila mitosis. ..
  10. Martins T, Maia A, Steffensen S, Sunkel C. Sgt1, a co-chaperone of Hsp90 stabilizes Polo and is required for centrosome organization. EMBO J. 2009;28:234-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that Sgt1 is involved in the stabilization of Polo allowing normal centrosome maturation, entry and progression though mitosis. ..
  11. Heeger S, Leismann O, Schittenhelm R, Schraidt O, Heidmann S, Lehner C. Genetic interactions of separase regulatory subunits reveal the diverged Drosophila Cenp-C homolog. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2041-53 pubmed
  12. Furuyama T, Henikoff S. Centromeric nucleosomes induce positive DNA supercoils. Cell. 2009;138:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Centromere identity and inheritance require the assembly of nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant in place of canonical H3...
  13. Furuyama T, Dalal Y, Henikoff S. Chaperone-mediated assembly of centromeric chromatin in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6172-7 pubmed
    ..centromeres are universally marked by the presence of a centromeric histone variant, centromeric histone 3 (CenH3), which replaces canonical histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes...
  14. Gause M, Webber H, Misulovin Z, Haller G, Rollins R, Eissenberg J, et al. Functional links between Drosophila Nipped-B and cohesin in somatic and meiotic cells. Chromosoma. 2008;117:51-66 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that direct regulation of cohesin function underlies the diverse functions of Nipped-B and its orthologs...
  15. Dej K, Ahn C, Orr Weaver T. Mutations in the Drosophila condensin subunit dCAP-G: defining the role of condensin for chromosome condensation in mitosis and gene expression in interphase. Genetics. 2004;168:895-906 pubmed
    ..We also identified a role for dCAP-G during interphase in regulating heterochromatic gene expression. ..
  16. Blower M, Sullivan B, Karpen G. Conserved organization of centromeric chromatin in flies and humans. Dev Cell. 2002;2:319-30 pubmed
    ..We show that Drosophila CID and human CENP-A appear at metaphase as a three-dimensional structure that lacks histone H3...
  17. Logarinho E, Bousbaa H, Dias J, Lopes C, Amorim I, Antunes Martins A, et al. Different spindle checkpoint proteins monitor microtubule attachment and tension at kinetochores in Drosophila cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1757-71 pubmed
  18. Buster D, Zhang D, Sharp D. Poleward tubulin flux in spindles: regulation and function in mitotic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3094-104 pubmed
  19. Gunjan A, Paik J, Verreault A. The emergence of regulated histone proteolysis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:112-8 pubmed
    ..Recent discoveries have highlighted the importance of regulated histone proteolysis in preventing both the accumulation of excess histones and the mis-incorporation of histone variants at inappropriate loci. ..
  20. Blower M, Karpen G. The role of Drosophila CID in kinetochore formation, cell-cycle progression and heterochromatin interactions. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:730-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CID, the Drosophila homologue of the CENP-A centromere-specific H3-like proteins, colocalizes with molecular-..
  21. Khetani R, Bickel S. Regulation of meiotic cohesion and chromosome core morphogenesis during pachytene in Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3123-37 pubmed
    ..We present a model for how chromosome cores are assembled during Drosophila meiosis and the role of ORD in meiotic cohesion, chromosome core maintenance and homologous recombination. ..
  22. Griffis E, Stuurman N, Vale R. Spindly, a novel protein essential for silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint, recruits dynein to the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1005-15 pubmed
    ..However, dynein's nonkinetochore functions are unaffected by Spindly depletion. Our findings indicate that Spindly is a novel regulator of mitotic dynein, functioning specifically to target dynein to kinetochores. ..
  23. Phansalkar R, Lapierre P, Mellone B. Evolutionary insights into the role of the essential centromere protein CAL1 in Drosophila. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:493-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the lack of common ancestry between Scm3 and CAL1, we propose that an optimal CENP-A binding region was independently acquired by CAL1, which caused the loss of an ancestral Scm3 protein from the Diptera lineage. ..
  24. Dubruille R, Orsi G, Delabaere L, Cortier E, Couble P, Marais G, et al. Specialization of a Drosophila capping protein essential for the protection of sperm telomeres. Curr Biol. 2010;20:2090-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that K81 specialized in the maintenance of telomere protection in the highly peculiar chromatin environment of differentiating male gametes...
  25. Schittenhelm R, Chaleckis R, Lehner C. Intrakinetochore localization and essential functional domains of Drosophila Spc105. EMBO J. 2009;28:2374-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Spc105 seems to provide a platform within the outer kinetochore allowing independent assembly of various kinetochore components. ..
  26. Sakai A, Schwartz B, Goldstein S, Ahmad K. Transcriptional and developmental functions of the H3.3 histone variant in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1816-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that the H3.3 variant plays an essential role in chromatin transitions in the male germline. ..
  27. Yan R, Thomas S, Tsai J, Yamada Y, McKee B. SOLO: a meiotic protein required for centromere cohesion, coorientation, and SMC1 localization in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The solo mutant phenotypes and the localization patterns of SOLO and SMC1 indicate that they function together to maintain sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila meiosis...
  28. Goshima G, Vale R. Cell cycle-dependent dynamics and regulation of mitotic kinesins in Drosophila S2 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3896-907 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a diverse spectrum of regulatory mechanisms for controlling the localization and function of five mitotic kinesins at different stages of the cell cycle. ..
  29. Ahmad K, Henikoff S. Centromeres are specialized replication domains in heterochromatin. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:101-10 pubmed
    ..These domains do not appear to assemble conventional H3-containing nucleosomes, and deposition of the Cid centromeric H3-like variant proceeds by a replication-independent pathway...
  30. Vazquez J, Belmont A, Sedat J. The dynamics of homologous chromosome pairing during male Drosophila meiosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1473-83 pubmed
  31. Rogers G, Rogers S, Schwimmer T, Ems McClung S, Walczak C, Vale R, et al. Two mitotic kinesins cooperate to drive sister chromatid separation during anaphase. Nature. 2004;427:364-70 pubmed
    ..The other, KLP10A, is required to depolymerize microtubules at their pole-associated minus ends, thereby moving chromatids by means of poleward flux. ..
  32. Tanneti N, Landy K, Joyce E, McKim K. A pathway for synapsis initiation during zygotene in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the early euchromatic SC initiation events at mid-zygotene may be required for DSBs to be repaired as crossovers. ..
  33. Schittenhelm R, Althoff F, Heidmann S, Lehner C. Detrimental incorporation of excess Cenp-A/Cid and Cenp-C into Drosophila centromeres is prevented by limiting amounts of the bridging factor Cal1. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3768-79 pubmed publisher
    ..eukaryotes depends critically on the faithful incorporation of a centromere-specific histone H3 variant encoded by CENPA in humans and cid in Drosophila...
  34. Ahmad K, Henikoff S. The histone variant H3.3 marks active chromatin by replication-independent nucleosome assembly. Mol Cell. 2002;9:1191-200 pubmed
    ..RI substitution of H3.3 provides a mechanism for the immediate activation of genes that are silenced by histone modification. Inheritance of newly deposited nucleosomes may then mark sites as active loci. ..
  35. Pandey R, Heeger S, Lehner C. Rapid effects of acute anoxia on spindle kinetochore interactions activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2807-18 pubmed
    ..Although involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-consuming kinases, the spindle checkpoint can therefore be activated by spindle damage in response to acute anoxia and protect against aneuploidies. ..
  36. Maresca T, Salmon E. Intrakinetochore stretch is associated with changes in kinetochore phosphorylation and spindle assembly checkpoint activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs and is involved in SAC regulation, we developed a Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell line expressing centromere identifier-mCherry and Ndc80-green fluorescent protein to mark the inner and outer kinetochore domains, respectively...
  37. Tsai J, Yan R, McKee B. Homolog pairing and sister chromatid cohesion in heterochromatin in Drosophila male meiosis I. Chromosoma. 2011;120:335-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that meiotic sister chromatid cohesion is incomplete within heterochromatin and may occur at specific preferential sites. ..
  38. Chen C, Dechassa M, Bettini E, Ledoux M, Belisario C, Heun P, et al. CAL1 is the Drosophila CENP-A assembly factor. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:313-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this work identifies the "missing" CENP-A chaperone in flies, revealing fundamental conservation between insect and vertebrate centromere-specification mechanisms. ..
  39. Padeken J, Mendiburo M, Chlamydas S, Schwarz H, Kremmer E, Heun P. The nucleoplasmin homolog NLP mediates centromere clustering and anchoring to the nucleolus. Mol Cell. 2013;50:236-49 pubmed publisher
  40. Venkei Z, Przewloka M, Glover D. Drosophila Mis12 complex acts as a single functional unit essential for anaphase chromosome movement and a robust spindle assembly checkpoint. Genetics. 2011;187:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly our results indicate that core structural elements of the inner plate of the kinetochore have a greater contribution to faithful chromosome segregation in anaphase than in earlier stages of mitosis. ..
  41. Jäger H, Rauch M, Heidmann S. The Drosophila melanogaster condensin subunit Cap-G interacts with the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CID. Chromosoma. 2005;113:350-61 pubmed
    ..We chose a genetic approach to identify interactors of the Drosophila CENP-A homolog CID. Overexpression of cid in the proliferating eye imaginal disk results in a rough eye phenotype, which is dependent ..
  42. Smothers J, Henikoff S. The hinge and chromo shadow domain impart distinct targeting of HP1-like proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2555-69 pubmed
    ..We propose that these targeting features allow different HP1 complexes to be distinctly sequestered in organisms that harbor multiple HP1-like proteins. ..
  43. Sullivan B, Karpen G. Centromeric chromatin exhibits a histone modification pattern that is distinct from both euchromatin and heterochromatin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1076-83 pubmed
    ..We speculate that this distinct modification pattern contributes to the unique domain organization and three-dimensional structure of centromeric regions, and/or to the epigenetic information that determines centromere identity. ..
  44. Polo S, Almouzni G. Chromatin assembly: a basic recipe with various flavours. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:104-11 pubmed
    ..New data highlight the importance of histone dimers as deposition entities for de novo nucleosome assembly and identify dedicated machineries involved in histone variant deposition. ..
  45. Brust Mascher I, Scholey J. Microtubule flux and sliding in mitotic spindles of Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3967-75 pubmed
  46. Coelho P, Queiroz Machado J, Sunkel C. Condensin-dependent localisation of topoisomerase II to an axial chromosomal structure is required for sister chromatid resolution during mitosis. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4763-76 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that condensin is required so that an axial chromatid structure can be organised where topoisomerase II can effectively promote sister chromatid resolution. ..
  47. Zhang W, Colmenares S, Karpen G. Assembly of Drosophila centromeric nucleosomes requires CID dimerization. Mol Cell. 2012;45:263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition and organization of centromeric nucleosomes containing the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a fundamental, unresolved issue...
  48. Pérez Mongiovi D, Malmanche N, Bousbaa H, Sunkel C. Maternal expression of the checkpoint protein BubR1 is required for synchrony of syncytial nuclear divisions and polar body arrest in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2005;132:4509-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that BubR1 is required for normal synchrony and progression of syncytial nuclei through mitosis and to maintain the mitotic arrest of the polar body chromosomes after completion of meiosis. ..
  49. Pauli A, Althoff F, Oliveira R, Heidmann S, Schuldiner O, Lehner C, et al. Cell-type-specific TEV protease cleavage reveals cohesin functions in Drosophila neurons. Dev Cell. 2008;14:239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate essential roles for cohesin in nondividing cells and also introduce a powerful tool by which to investigate protein function in metazoa. ..
  50. Brust Mascher I, Sommi P, Cheerambathur D, Scholey J. Kinesin-5-dependent poleward flux and spindle length control in Drosophila embryo mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, KLP61F activity contributes to normal chromosome congression, kinetochore spacing, and anaphase A rates. Thus, a KLP61F-driven sliding filament mechanism contributes to multiple aspects of mitosis in this system. ..
  51. Dalal Y, Furuyama T, Vermaak D, Henikoff S. Structure, dynamics, and evolution of centromeric nucleosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15974-81 pubmed
    ..which differs from the conventional nucleosome by the presence of a centromere-specific histone variant (CenH3) in place of canonical H3...
  52. Gilliland W, Hughes S, Cotitta J, Takeo S, Xiang Y, Hawley R. The multiple roles of mps1 in Drosophila female meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e113 pubmed
    ..These filaments polymerize during early germinal vesicle breakdown, perhaps as a means of storing excess outer kinetochore kinases during early embryonic development. ..
  53. Vass S, Cotterill S, Valdeolmillos A, Barbero J, Lin E, Warren W, et al. Depletion of Drad21/Scc1 in Drosophila cells leads to instability of the cohesin complex and disruption of mitotic progression. Curr Biol. 2003;13:208-18 pubmed
    ..The observation of SA instability in the absence of Drad21 implies that the expression of cohesin subunits and assembly of the cohesin complex will be tightly regulated. ..
  54. Malik H, Henikoff S. Adaptive evolution of Cid, a centromere-specific histone in Drosophila. Genetics. 2001;157:1293-8 pubmed
    ..Histone H3-like proteins, including Cid in Drosophila melanogaster, are a unique chromatin component of centromeres...
  55. Heun P, Erhardt S, Blower M, Weiss S, Skora A, Karpen G. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CID promotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores. Dev Cell. 2006;10:303-15 pubmed
    The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation...
  56. Laycock J, Savoian M, Glover D. Antagonistic activities of Klp10A and Orbit regulate spindle length, bipolarity and function in vivo. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2354-61 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Klp10A exclusively antagonises Orbit in the regulation of bipolar spindle formation and maintenance. ..
  57. Oliveira R, Hamilton R, Pauli A, Davis I, Nasmyth K. Cohesin cleavage and Cdk inhibition trigger formation of daughter nuclei. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that only two key events, opening of cohesin rings and downregulation of Cdk1, are sufficient to drive proper segregation of chromosomes in anaphase. ..
  58. Dalal Y, Wang H, Lindsay S, Henikoff S. Tetrameric structure of centromeric nucleosomes in interphase Drosophila cells. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e218 pubmed
    ..segregation of chromosomes at mitosis, are epigenetically maintained by a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3). However, the mechanistic basis for centromere maintenance is unknown...
  59. Schittenhelm R, Heeger S, Althoff F, Walter A, Heidmann S, Mechtler K, et al. Spatial organization of a ubiquitous eukaryotic kinetochore protein network in Drosophila chromosomes. Chromosoma. 2007;116:385-402 pubmed
    ..Thereby, Cenp-A/Cid, Cenp-C, Mis12 and the Ndc80 complex were mapped along the inter sister kinetochore axis with a resolution below 10 ..
  60. Smith M. Centromeres and variant histones: what, where, when and why?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:279-85 pubmed
    ..Finally, a new report provides a glimpse into the potential regulation of CENP-A through specific post-translational phosphorylation, suggesting a broad level of control through histone tail modifications. ..
  61. Meyer R, Delaage M, Rosset R, Capri M, Ait Ahmed O. A single mutation results in diploid gamete formation and parthenogenesis in a Drosophila yemanuclein-alpha meiosis I defective mutant. BMC Genet. 2010;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..This work paves the way to further investigations on the evolution of the mechanisms that support sexual reproduction. ..
  62. Savvidou E, Cobbe N, Steffensen S, Cotterill S, Heck M. Drosophila CAP-D2 is required for condensin complex stability and resolution of sister chromatids. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2529-43 pubmed
  63. Cullen C, Brittle A, Ito T, Ohkura H. The conserved kinase NHK-1 is essential for mitotic progression and unifying acentrosomal meiotic spindles in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:593-602 pubmed
    ..NHK-1 itself is phosphorylated in mitosis and female meiosis, suggesting that this kinase is part of the regulatory system coordinating progression of mitosis and meiosis. ..
  64. Kramer J, Hawley R. The spindle-associated transmembrane protein Axs identifies a membranous structure ensheathing the meiotic spindle. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:261-3 pubmed
    ..In both meiotic and mitotic cells, Axs is recruited to the microtubules of assembling spindles. We propose that Axs and the sheath represent novel mediators of meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. ..
  65. Moreno Moreno O, Torras Llort M, Azorín F. Proteolysis restricts localization of CID, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of Drosophila, to centromeres. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6247-55 pubmed Drosophila Kc cells, we show that proteasome-mediated degradation restricts localization of Drosophila CENP-A (CID) to centromeres by eliminating mislocalized CID as well as by regulating available CID levels...
  66. Oliveira R, Coelho P, Sunkel C. The condensin I subunit Barren/CAP-H is essential for the structural integrity of centromeric heterochromatin during mitosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8971-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the condensin I complex is required not only to promote sister chromatid resolution but also to maintain the structural integrity of centromeric heterochromatin during mitosis. ..
  67. Klattenhoff C, Xi H, Li C, Lee S, Xu J, Khurana J, et al. The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters. Cell. 2009;138:1137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. ..
  68. Sullivan B, Karpen G. Centromere identity in Drosophila is not determined in vivo by replication timing. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:683-90 pubmed
    ..Two different nucleotide incorporation methods were used to evaluate replication timing of chromatin containing CID, a Drosophila homologue of CENP-A...
  69. Webber H, Howard L, Bickel S. The cohesion protein ORD is required for homologue bias during meiotic recombination. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:819-29 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ORD activity suppresses sister chromatid exchange and stimulates inter-homologue crossovers, thereby promoting homologue bias during meiotic recombination in Drosophila. ..
  70. Olszak A, van Essen D, Pereira A, Diehl S, Manke T, Maiato H, et al. Heterochromatin boundaries are hotspots for de novo kinetochore formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:799-808 pubmed publisher
    The centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 (also known as CENP-A) is considered to be an epigenetic mark for establishment and propagation of centromere identity...
  71. Eichinger C, Kurze A, Oliveira R, Nasmyth K. Disengaging the Smc3/kleisin interface releases cohesin from Drosophila chromosomes during interphase and mitosis. EMBO J. 2013;32:656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cohesin's DNA entry and exit gates are distinct. ..
  72. Erhardt S, Mellone B, Betts C, Zhang W, Karpen G, Straight A. Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle-dependent mechanism controlling centromere propagation. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:805-18 pubmed publisher
    ..propagation using genome-wide RNA interference screening for defects in centromere protein A (CENP-A; centromere identifier [CID]) localization in Drosophila melanogaster...