Gene Symbol: ChAT
Description: Choline acetyltransferase
Alias: CG12345, CHAT, CLAT_DROME, CT23399, Cat, ChAt, Cha, ChaT, DChAT, Dmel\CG12345, cha, chat, dChAT, l(3)91Cc, choline acetyltransferase, CG12345-PA, CG12345-PB, ChAT-PA, ChAT-PB, Choline-acetyltransferase, cholinacetyltransferase, choline acetyl transferase, choline-O-acetyltransferase
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ChAT

Top Publications

  1. Lee D, O Dowd D. Fast excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila neurons. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5311-21 pubmed
  2. Tripodi M, Evers J, Mauss A, Bate M, Landgraf M. Structural homeostasis: compensatory adjustments of dendritic arbor geometry in response to variations of synaptic input. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e260 pubmed publisher
    ..The growing arbor thus counterbalances naturally occurring variations in synaptic density and activity so as to ensure that an appropriate level of input is achieved. ..
  3. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I. Extraretinal photoreceptors at the compound eye's posterior margin in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1999;412:193-202 pubmed
    ..immunoreactivity, but they also stain with a monoclonal antiserum raised against Drosophila choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), suggesting that the photoreceptors not only may contain histamine but also can synthesize ..
  4. Colodner K, Feany M. Glial fibrillary tangles and JAK/STAT-mediated glial and neuronal cell death in a Drosophila model of glial tauopathy. J Neurosci. 2010;30:16102-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present a genetically tractable model of glial fibrillary tau tangle formation and identify JAK/STAT signaling as mediating the death of both glia and neurons in this model. ..
  5. Yasuyama K, Kitamoto T, Salvaterra P. Localization of choline acetyltransferase-expressing neurons in the larval visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 1995;282:193-202 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is the enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is considered to be a phenotypically specific marker for cholinergic neurons...
  6. Nicolaï L, Ramaekers A, Raemaekers T, Drozdzecki A, Mauss A, Yan J, et al. Genetically encoded dendritic marker sheds light on neuronal connectivity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that DenMark is a powerful tool for revealing novel aspects of the neuroanatomy of developing dendrites, identifying previously unknown dendritic arbors, and elucidating neuronal connectivity. ..
  7. Yasuyama K, Salvaterra P. Localization of choline acetyltransferase-expressing neurons in Drosophila nervous system. Microsc Res Tech. 1999;45:65-79 pubmed
    ..b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is the enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of ACh and is considered to be an excellent phenotypic ..
  8. Suster M, Seugnet L, Bate M, Sokolowski M. Refining GAL4-driven transgene expression in Drosophila with a GAL80 enhancer-trap. Genesis. 2004;39:240-5 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that targeted GAL80 expression could become a useful means of spatially refining transgene expression in Drosophila. ..
  9. Chiang A, Lin C, Chuang C, Chang H, Hsieh C, Yeh C, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain-wide wiring networks in Drosophila at single-cell resolution. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Drosophila brain is assembled from families of multiple LPUs and their interconnections. This provides an essential first step in the analysis of information processing within and between neurons in a complete brain. ..

More Information


  1. Ray K, Perez S, Yang Z, Xu J, Ritchings B, Steller H, et al. Kinesin-II is required for axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:507-18 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the KLP64D gene cause uncoordinated sluggish movement and death, and reduce transport of choline acetyltransferase from cell bodies to the synapse...
  2. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
  3. Malpel S, Klarsfeld A, Rouyer F. Larval optic nerve and adult extra-retinal photoreceptors sequentially associate with clock neurons during Drosophila brain development. Development. 2002;129:1443-53 pubmed
    ..The Hofbauer-Buchner eyelet therefore does not appear to account for the previously described norpA-independent light input to the adult clock. This supports the existence of yet uncharacterized photoreceptive structures in Drosophila. ..
  4. Baines R, Uhler J, Thompson A, Sweeney S, Bate M. Altered electrical properties in Drosophila neurons developing without synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1523-31 pubmed
    ..light chain (TeTxLC) and by reduction of acetylcholine (ACh) using a temperature-sensitive allele of choline acetyltransferase (Cha(ts2))...
  5. Kolodziejczyk A, Sun X, Meinertzhagen I, Nassel D. Glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine signaling components in the lamina of the Drosophila visual system. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2110 pubmed publisher
    ..L-glutamate, a vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT), ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, choline acetyltransferase and a vesicular acetylcholine transporter...
  6. Itoh N, Slemmon J, Hawke D, Williamson R, Morita E, Itakura K, et al. Cloning of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:4081-5 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (EC is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine...
  7. Mundiyanapurath S, Chan Y, Leung A, Kravitz E. Feminizing cholinergic neurons in a male Drosophila nervous system enhances aggression. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:179-84 pubmed
    ..Neurons that co-express fruitless and choline acetyl transferase are found in varying numbers within different clusters of fruitless-expressing neurons: together they ..
  8. Gorczyca M, Hall J. Identification of a cholinergic synapse in the giant fiber pathway of Drosophila using conditional mutations of acetylcholine synthesis. J Neurogenet. 1984;1:289-313 pubmed
    Temperature-sensitive mutations of the choline acetyltransferase (Cha) gene, which lead to reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) levels, have been used in an attempt to identify the neurotransmitter at ..
  9. Yasuyama K, Kitamoto T, Salvaterra P. Immunocytochemical study of choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila melanogaster: an analysis of cis-regulatory regions controlling expression in the brain of cDNA-transformed flies. J Comp Neurol. 1995;361:25-37 pubmed
    We have analyzed the cis-regulatory regions in the 5' flanking DNA of the Drosophila melanogaster choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; E.C. gene by using germline transformants...
  10. Varija Raghu S, Reiff D, Borst A. Neurons with cholinergic phenotype in the visual system of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:162-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study and similar ones on other neurotransmitter systems will contribute towards a columnar wiring diagram and foster the functional dissection of the visual circuitry in Drosophila. ..
  11. Salvaterra P, McCaman R. Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine levels in Drosophila melanogaster: a study using two temperature-sensitive mutants. J Neurosci. 1985;5:903-10 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, acetyl-CoA-choline-O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1...
  12. Johard H, Enell L, Gustafsson E, Trifilieff P, Veenstra J, Nassel D. Intrinsic neurons of Drosophila mushroom bodies express short neuropeptide F: relations to extrinsic neurons expressing different neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1479-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is likely that the Kenyon cells utilize an additional neurotransmitter, yet to be identified, and that the neuropeptides described here may represent cotransmitters. ..
  13. Bader R, Colomb J, Pankratz B, Schröck A, Stocker R, Pankratz M. Genetic dissection of neural circuit anatomy underlying feeding behavior in Drosophila: distinct classes of hugin-expressing neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:848-56 pubmed
    ..Our study reveals novel complexity in the morphology of individual hugin neurons, which has functional implication for how they coordinate feeding behavior and growth. ..
  14. Acebes A, Grosjean Y, Everaerts C, Ferveur J. Cholinergic control of synchronized seminal emissions in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:704-10 pubmed
    ..These effects were dissociated only when Abg-MAch neurons were feminized, indicating that their presence is required to synchronize the emission of the male substance(s) that changes reproductive behaviors. ..
  15. Yasuyama K, Kitamoto T, Salvaterra P. Differential regulation of choline acetyltransferase expression in adult Drosophila melanogaster brain. J Neurobiol. 1996;30:205-18 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT,E.C. catalyzes the synthesis of acetylcholine, and is considered to be a phenotypic marker specific for cholinergic neurons...
  16. Kitamoto T, Xie X, Wu C, Salvaterra P. Isolation and characterization of mutants for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurobiol. 2000;42:161-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene (Vacht) is nested within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase gene (Cha)...
  17. Wittmann C, Wszolek M, Shulman J, Salvaterra P, Lewis J, Hutton M, et al. Tauopathy in Drosophila: neurodegeneration without neurofibrillary tangles. Science. 2001;293:711-4 pubmed
    ..This fly model may allow a genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying tau neurotoxicity. ..
  18. Daniels R, Gelfand M, Collins C, DiAntonio A. Visualizing glutamatergic cell bodies and synapses in Drosophila larval and adult CNS. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:131-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This description of the glutamatergic system in Drosophila highlights the prevalence of glutamatergic neurons in the CNS and presents tools for future study and manipulation of glutamatergic transmission. ..
  19. Shang Y, Claridge Chang A, Sjulson L, Pypaert M, Miesenbock G. Excitatory local circuits and their implications for olfactory processing in the fly antennal lobe. Cell. 2007;128:601-12 pubmed
    ..Lateral excitation may boost PN signals and enhance their transmission to third-order neurons in a mechanism akin to stochastic resonance. ..
  20. Barber R, Sugihara H, Lee M, Vaughn J, Salvaterra P. Localization of Drosophila neurons that contain choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA: an in situ hybridization study. J Comp Neurol. 1989;280:533-43 pubmed
    ..complementary RNA (cRNA) probes was used to determine the location of the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in Drosophila nervous system...
  21. Salvaterra P, Kitamoto T. Drosophila cholinergic neurons and processes visualized with Gal4/UAS-GFP. Brain Res Gene Expr Patterns. 2001;1:73-82 pubmed
    ..Three-dimensional reconstructions made from confocal sections of whole-mount preparations reveal the extensive cholinergic connections among various regions of the nervous system. ..
  22. Takagawa K, Salvaterra P. Analysis of choline acetyltransferase protein in temperature sensitive mutant flies using newly generated monoclonal antibody. Neurosci Res. 1996;24:237-43 pubmed
    The protein, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC, was analyzed in wild-type and two different temperature-sensitive ChAT mutants of Drosophila (Cha(ts1) and Cha(ts2)) using newly generated monoclonal antibodies...
  23. Selcho M, Pauls D, Han K, Stocker R, Thum A. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5897 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies of the dopaminergic system need to take into account such cellular dissociations in function in order to be meaningful. ..
  24. Ramaekers A, Magnenat E, Marin E, Gendre N, Jefferis G, Luo L, et al. Glomerular maps without cellular redundancy at successive levels of the Drosophila larval olfactory circuit. Curr Biol. 2005;15:982-92 pubmed
    ..Hence, we propose the Drosophila larva as an "elementary" olfactory model system. ..
  25. Zhou C, Rao Y, Rao Y. A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We carried out genetic rescue experiments that revealed the functional importance of neuronal octopamine and identified a small subset of octopaminergic neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion as being important for aggression. ..
  26. Kitamoto T. Targeted expression of temperature-sensitive dynamin to study neural mechanisms of complex behavior in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:205-28 pubmed
  27. Gorczyca M, Hall J. Immunohistochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase during development and in Chats mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 1987;7:1361-9 pubmed
    The distribution of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster was determined by indirect immunohistochemical procedures using a monoclonal antibody specific to the enzyme...
  28. Chou Y, Spletter M, Yaksi E, Leong J, Wilson R, Luo L. Diversity and wiring variability of olfactory local interneurons in the Drosophila antennal lobe. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal an unexpected degree of complexity and individual variation in an invertebrate neural circuit, a result that creates challenges for solving the Drosophila connectome. ..
  29. Karuppudurai T, Lin T, Ting C, Pursley R, Melnattur K, Diao F, et al. A hard-wired glutamatergic circuit pools and relays UV signals to mediate spectral preference in Drosophila. Neuron. 2014;81:603-615 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that R7s→Dm8→Tm5c form a hard-wired glutamatergic circuit that mediates UV preference by pooling ∼16 R7 signals for transfer to the lobula, a higher visual center. ..
  30. Johard H, Yoishii T, Dircksen H, Cusumano P, Rouyer F, Helfrich Forster C, et al. Peptidergic clock neurons in Drosophila: ion transport peptide and short neuropeptide F in subsets of dorsal and ventral lateral neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2009;516:59-73 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a choline acetyltransferase (Cha) Gal4, we detected Cha expression in the two sNPF producing LN(d)s and in the fifth s-LN(v)...
  31. Kitamoto T, Wang W, Salvaterra P. Structure and organization of the Drosophila cholinergic locus. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2706-13 pubmed
    The Drosophila cholinergic locus is composed of two distinct genetic functions: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC 2.3.1...
  32. Gao S, Takemura S, Ting C, Huang S, Lu Z, Luan H, et al. The neural substrate of spectral preference in Drosophila. Neuron. 2008;60:328-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Dm8 sacrifices spatial resolution for sensitivity by relaying signals from multiple R7s to projection neurons, which then provide output to higher visual centers. ..
  33. Kitamoto T, Ikeda K, Salvaterra P. Regulation of choline acetyltransferase/lacZ fusion gene expression in putative cholinergic neurons of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurobiol. 1995;28:70-81 pubmed
    ..staining of P-element transformed flies carrying a fusion gene consisting of 5' flanking DNA from the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene and lacZ reporter gene...
  34. Vömel M, Wegener C. Neurotransmitter-induced changes in the intracellular calcium concentration suggest a differential central modulation of CCAP neuron subsets in Drosophila. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:792-808 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that N(CCAP) express functional receptors for ACh, glutamate, and GABA, and indicate that these transmitters are involved in a context-dependent regulation of functionally distinct N(CCAP) subsets. ..
  35. Thum A, Leisibach B, Gendre N, Selcho M, Stocker R. Diversity, variability, and suboesophageal connectivity of antennal lobe neurons in D. melanogaster larvae. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3415-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with reports from adult Drosophila, these data suggest that wiring variability may be another principle of insect brain organization, in parallel with stereotypy. ..
  36. Yu J, Kanai M, Demir E, Jefferis G, Dickson B. Cellular organization of the neural circuit that drives Drosophila courtship behavior. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex-specific behavior may instead arise through dimorphic circuits in the brain and nerve cord that differentially couple sensory input to motor output. ..
  37. Pauls D, Selcho M, Gendre N, Stocker R, Thum A. Drosophila larvae establish appetitive olfactory memories via mushroom body neurons of embryonic origin. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this approach, we define 10 subdomains of the larval mushroom body that may be implicated in mediating specific interactions between the olfactory pathway, modulatory neurons, and neuronal output. ..
  38. Sugihara H, Andrisani V, Salvaterra P. Genomic organization of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem. 1991;57:1636-42 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline-O-acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1...
  39. Hasegawa E, Kitada Y, Kaido M, Takayama R, Awasaki T, Tabata T, et al. Concentric zones, cell migration and neuronal circuits in the Drosophila visual center. Development. 2011;138:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, genes that show the concentric zones may form a genetic hierarchy to establish neuronal circuits in the medulla. ..
  40. Barnstedt O, Owald D, Felsenberg J, Brain R, Moszynski J, Talbot C, et al. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic. Neuron. 2016;89:1237-1247 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior...
  41. Baines R. Synaptic strengthening mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-dependent retrograde signaling in the Drosophila CNS. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6904-11 pubmed
  42. Sanyal S, Narayanan R, Consoulas C, Ramaswami M. Evidence for cell autonomous AP1 function in regulation of Drosophila motor-neuron plasticity. BMC Neurosci. 2003;4:20 pubmed
    ..The approach described here may serve as a useful experimental paradigm for analyzing cell autonomy of genes found to influence structure and function of Drosophila motor neurons. ..
  43. Allen M, Murphey R. The chemical component of the mixed GF-TTMn synapse in Drosophila melanogaster uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:439-45 pubmed
    ..We have used a temperature-sensitive allele of the choline acetyltransferase gene (cha(ts2)) to block cholinergic synapses in adult flies and this also abolished the long latency ..
  44. Fradkin L, Baines R, van der Plas M, Noordermeer J. The dystrophin Dp186 isoform regulates neurotransmitter release at a central synapse in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the possibility that Dp186 modulates other non-Gbb/Wit-dependent retrograde signaling pathways required to maintain normal synaptic physiology. ..
  45. Chen C, Wu J, Lin H, Pai T, Fu T, Wu C, et al. Visualizing long-term memory formation in two neurons of the Drosophila brain. Science. 2012;335:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an extra-MB memory circuit in Drosophila: LTM consolidation (MB to DAL), storage (DAL), and retrieval (DAL to MB)...
  46. Ghezzi A, Al Hasan Y, Krishnan H, Wang Y, Atkinson N. Functional mapping of the neuronal substrates for drug tolerance in Drosophila. Behav Genet. 2013;43:227-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Using spatially-controlled induction of slo expression we identify the mushroom bodies, the ellipsoid body and a subset of the circadian clock neurons as pivotal regions for the control of recovery from sedation. ..
  47. Keene A, Stratmann M, Keller A, Perrat P, Vosshall L, Waddell S. Diverse odor-conditioned memories require uniquely timed dorsal paired medial neuron output. Neuron. 2004;44:521-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DPM neurons are required to consolidate memory and are differently involved in memory of a volatile that requires multisensory integration. ..
  48. Chin A, Lin C, Fu T, Dickson B, Chiang A. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:3795-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. ..
  49. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I, Schürmann F. Synaptic organization of the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2002;445:211-26 pubmed
    ..three major neuronal elements: extrinsic projection neurons, presumed cholinergic, immunoreactive to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-ir) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-ir) antisera; presumed gamma-aminobutyric acid (..
  50. Gailey D, Hall J. Behavior and cytogenetics of fruitless in Drosophila melanogaster: different courtship defects caused by separate, closely linked lesions. Genetics. 1989;121:773-85 pubmed
    ..These included combinations of deficiencies, each with a breakpoint in 91B, and a transposon inserted in 91B. ..
  51. Pahud G, Salem N, van de Goor J, Medilanski J, Pellegrinelli N, Eder Colli L. Study of subcellular localization of membrane-bound choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila central nervous system and its association with membranes. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:1644-53 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme which catalyses the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, exists in a soluble and membrane-bound form in cholinergic nerve terminals of different animal species...
  52. Diao F, Ironfield H, Luan H, Diao F, Shropshire W, Ewer J, et al. Plug-and-play genetic access to drosophila cell types using exchangeable exon cassettes. Cell Rep. 2015;10:1410-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. ..
  53. Ashraf S, McLoon A, Sclarsic S, Kunes S. Synaptic protein synthesis associated with memory is regulated by the RISC pathway in Drosophila. Cell. 2006;124:191-205 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that degradative control of the RISC pathway underlies the pattern of synaptic protein synthesis associated with a stable memory. ..
  54. Bowman A, Patel King R, Benashski S, McCaffery J, Goldstein L, King S. Drosophila roadblock and Chlamydomonas LC7: a conserved family of dynein-associated proteins involved in axonal transport, flagellar motility, and mitosis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:165-80 pubmed
    ..We propose that roadblock/LC7 family members may modulate specific dynein functions. ..
  55. Beramendi A, Peron S, Casanova G, Reggiani C, Cantera R. Neuromuscular junction in abdominal muscles of Drosophila melanogaster during adulthood and aging. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:498-508 pubmed
  56. Liu Z, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Chen D, Zhang Y. Drosophila Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 regulates axonal transport of synaptic vesicles and is required for synaptic development and transmission. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2052-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects in axonal transport and synaptic function may account, at least in part, for the pathogenesis of ACSL4-related mental retardation. ..
  57. Keene A, Mazzoni E, Zhen J, Younger M, Yamaguchi S, Blau J, et al. Distinct visual pathways mediate Drosophila larval light avoidance and circadian clock entrainment. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide insights into the coding of sensory information for distinct behavioral functions and the underlying molecular and neuronal circuitry. ..
  58. Hekmat Scafe D, Mercado A, Fajilan A, Lee A, Hsu R, Mount D, et al. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain. Genetics. 2010;184:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. ..
  59. LaJeunesse D, Johnson B, Presnell J, Catignas K, Zapotoczny G. Peristalsis in the junction region of the Drosophila larval midgut is modulated by DH31 expressing enteroendocrine cells. BMC Physiol. 2010;10:14 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila model system will allow for a further dissection of the digestion process and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate digestion in all organisms. ..
  60. Honjo K, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Distinctive neuronal networks and biochemical pathways for appetitive and aversive memory in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2009;29:852-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results as a whole suggest that the genetically programmed memory circuitries might provide predisposition in the efficacy of inducing longer-lived memory components in associative learning. ..
  61. Sadananda A, Hamid R, Doodhi H, Ghosal D, Girotra M, Jana S, et al. Interaction with a kinesin-2 tail propels choline acetyltransferase flow towards synapse. Traffic. 2012;13:979-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a soluble enzyme catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, propagates toward the synapse at an ..
  62. Meissner G, Manoli D, Chavez J, Knapp J, Lin T, Stevens R, et al. Functional dissection of the neural substrates for sexual behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;189:195-211 pubmed publisher
    ..From associations between the screened behaviors, we propose a functional model for courtship initiation. ..
  63. Pech U, Pooryasin A, Birman S, Fiala A. Localization of the contacts between Kenyon cells and aminergic neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster brain using SplitGFP reconstitution. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3992-4026 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the technique enables us to localize precisely a segmentation of the mushroom body by differential contacts with aminergic neurons...
  64. Crawford G, Slemmon J, Salvaterra P. Monoclonal antibodies selective for Drosophila melanogaster choline acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:3853-6 pubmed
    ..antibody technology was applied to the production of antibodies selective for Drosophila melanogaster choline acetyltransferase (EC
  65. Yang H, Kunes S. Nonvesicular release of acetylcholine is required for axon targeting in the Drosophila visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15213-8 pubmed
    ..These observations support the notion that a form of acetylcholine secretion mediates the behavior of growth cones during axon pathfinding. ..