Gene Symbol: CecA2
Description: Cecropin A2
Alias: CG1367, Cec, Cec A2, CecA, Dmel\CG1367, cec, cecA, cecA2, crpA2, cecropin A2, CG1367-PA, CecA2-PA, Cecropin-A, Cecropin-A1/A2 precursor, Cecropin-A2, cecropin, cecropin A, cecropinA, cecropinA2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Samakovlis C, Kimbrell D, Kylsten P, Engstrom A, Hultmark D. The immune response in Drosophila: pattern of cecropin expression and biological activity. EMBO J. 1990;9:2969-76 pubmed
    ..A small peak of constitutive cecropin expression in early pupae appears to be caused by bacteria in the food. Cecropin A, the common product of the CecA1 and A2 genes, was identified in the hemolymph of immunized flies at a ..
  2. Hedengren Olcott M, Olcott M, Mooney D, Ekengren S, Geller B, Taylor B. Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21121-7 pubmed
    ..Induction of the Cecropin A1 gene by M. luteus required Relish, whereas induction of the Cecropin A2 gene required Dif. Intact peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary for this differential induction of Cecropin A...
  3. Uttenweiler Joseph S, Moniatte M, Lagueux M, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Bulet P. Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11342-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge. ..
  4. Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
  5. Ekengren S, Hultmark D. Drosophila cecropin as an antifungal agent. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;29:965-72 pubmed
    ..4 and 4 microM. Andropin is less fungicidal than the cecropins, and Drosophila cecropin A is somewhat more potent than cecropin B...
  6. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  7. Hultmark D. Immune reactions in Drosophila and other insects: a model for innate immunity. Trends Genet. 1993;9:178-83 pubmed
    ..The induction of this system, which lacks clonally selected receptors like those of vertebrate B and T cells, may provide a model for innate immune reactions in other animals, including vertebrates. ..
  8. Pletcher S, Macdonald S, Marguerie R, Certa U, Stearns S, Goldstein D, et al. Genome-wide transcript profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:712-23 pubmed
    ..Caloric restriction extends life span by slowing down the rate of normal aging. Transcription levels of genes from a wide variety of biological functions and processes are impacted by age and dietary conditions. ..
  9. Ekengren S, Hultmark D. A family of Turandot-related genes in the humoral stress response of Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:998-1003 pubmed
    ..The induction of the Tot genes differs in important respects from the heat shock response, such as the strong but delayed response to bacterial infection seen for several of the genes. ..

More Information


  1. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
  2. Lemaitre B, Kromer Metzger E, Michaut L, Nicolas E, Meister M, Georgel P, et al. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9465-9 pubmed
    ..These results point to the existence of two different pathways leading to the expression of two types of target genes, encoding either the antibacterial peptides or the antifungal peptide drosomycin. ..
  3. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
  4. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
  5. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  6. Oh C, Moon C, Jeong M, Kwon S, Jang J. Drosophila melanogaster model for Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that mycobacteria induce the production of antimicrobial peptides in D. melanogaster. ..
  7. Anbutsu H, Fukatsu T. Evasion, suppression and tolerance of Drosophila innate immunity by a male-killing Spiroplasma endosymbiont. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that not only immune evasion but also immune suppression and tolerance are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the insect-microbe symbiotic association. ..
  8. Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed
    ..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  9. Moule M, Monack D, Schneider D. Reciprocal analysis of Francisella novicida infections of a Drosophila melanogaster model reveal host-pathogen conflicts mediated by reactive oxygen and imd-regulated innate immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001065 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that there may be more to learn about the fly immune system, as not all of the phenotypes we observe can be readily explained by its interactions with known immune responses. ..
  10. Meng X, Khanuja B, Ip Y. Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:792-7 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that individual members of the NF-kappaB family in Drosophila have distinct roles in immunity and development. ..
  11. Hoffmann J, Hetru C, Reichhart J. The humoral antibacterial response of Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 1993;325:63-6 pubmed
    ..We argue that the Drosophila host defense is homologous to the mammalian acute phase response. ..
  12. Werner T, Borge Renberg K, Mellroth P, Steiner H, Hultmark D. Functional diversity of the Drosophila PGRP-LC gene cluster in the response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26319-22 pubmed
    ..Two additional PGRP domains in the gene cluster, z and w, are both included in a single transcript of a separate gene, PGRP-LF. Suppression of this transcript does not block the response to any of the microorganisms tested. ..
  13. Vonkavaara M, Pavel S, Hölzl K, Nordfelth R, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Francisella is sensitive to insect antimicrobial peptides. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Francisella is sensitive to specific fly AMPs, i.e. Attacin, Cecropin, Drosocin and Drosomycin...
  14. Wiklund M, Steinert S, Junell A, Hultmark D, Stoven S. The N-terminal half of the Drosophila Rel/NF-kappaB factor Relish, REL-68, constitutively activates transcription of specific Relish target genes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:690-6 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription of the Diptericin gene, but little constitutive or inducible transcription of Attacin and Cecropin, two other Relish target genes. Their transcription may therefore require additional modifications of Relish...
  15. Martin Blanco E. Regulation of cell differentiation by the Drosophila Jun kinase cascade. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:666-71 pubmed
  16. Luo C, Shen B, Manley J, Zheng L. Tehao functions in the Toll pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: possible roles in development and innate immunity. Insect Mol Biol. 2001;10:457-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, Tehao, alone or with Toll as a multimeric complex, has the potential to participate in both the development and innate immune responses of Drosophila. ..
  17. Heger A, Ponting C. Evolutionary rate analyses of orthologs and paralogs from 12 Drosophila genomes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1837-49 pubmed
    ..Duplications were significantly more frequent among trypsin-like proteases and DM8 putative lipid-binding domain proteins. ..
  18. Marshall K, Sinclair B. Repeated stress exposure results in a survival-reproduction trade-off in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that many environments are not static, this trade-off indicates that investigating the effects of repeated stress exposure is important for understanding and predicting physiological responses in the wild. ..
  19. Rancès E, Ye Y, Woolfit M, McGraw E, O Neill S. The relative importance of innate immune priming in Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002548 pubmed publisher
  20. Boulanger N, Munks R, Hamilton J, Vovelle F, Brun R, Lehane M, et al. Epithelial innate immunity. A novel antimicrobial peptide with antiparasitic activity in the blood-sucking insect Stomoxys calcitrans. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49921-6 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, this AMP exhibits trypanolytic activity to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. We argue that stomoxyn may help to explain why S. calcitrans is not a vector of trypanosomes causing African sleeping sickness and nagana. ..
  21. Ip Y, Levine M. Molecular genetics of Drosophila immunity. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:672-7 pubmed
    ..function as sequence-specific transcription factors that induce the expression of immunity genes, including cecropin and diptericin...
  22. Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  23. Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed
    ..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
  24. Samakovlis C, Kylsten P, Kimbrell D, Engstrom A, Hultmark D. The andropin gene and its product, a male-specific antibacterial peptide in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1991;10:163-9 pubmed
    In our study of the cecropin locus in Drosophila we have found a gene for a new peptide, andropin, with antibacterial properties...
  25. Douglas A, Bouvaine S, Russell R. How the insect immune system interacts with an obligate symbiotic bacterium. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They support the proposed contribution of the Buchnera symbiosis to the evolution of the apparently reduced immune function in the aphid host. ..
  26. Verma P, Tapadia M. Epithelial immune response in Drosophila malpighian tubules: interplay between Diap2 and ion channels. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:1078-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Diap2 seems to be a key regulator of epithelial immune response in MTs, perhaps by modulating ion channels. ..
  27. Wang Z, Berkey C, Watnick P. The Drosophila protein mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2012;188:3993-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, to our knowledge this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus...
  28. Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that IAP gene family members may have acquired other functions, such as the regulation of the tumour necrosis factor-like IMD pathway during innate immune responses. ..
  29. Petersen A, Rimkus S, Wassarman D. ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E656-64 pubmed publisher
  30. Jin L, Shim J, Yoon J, Kim B, Kim J, Kim Ha J, et al. Identification and functional analysis of antifungal immune response genes in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000168 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a new class of genes involved in antifungal immune responses in Drosophila. ..
  31. Verma P, Tapadia M. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Immunol. 2015;66:325-39 pubmed publisher
    ..and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone...
  32. Dushay M, Roethele J, Chaverri J, Dulek D, Syed S, Kitami T, et al. Two attacin antibacterial genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2000;246:49-57 pubmed
    ..We present a comparison of the promoter regions of the two attacin genes to those cloned from other antimicrobial peptide genes to assist a better understanding of how antimicrobial genes are differentially regulated. ..
  33. Clark A, Wang L. Molecular population genetics of Drosophila immune system genes. Genetics. 1997;147:713-24 pubmed
    ..mauritiana, including Andropin; cecropin genes CecA1, CecA2, CecB, and CecC; and Diptericin...
  34. Date A, Satta Y, Takahata N, Chigusa S. Evolutionary history and mechanism of the Drosophila cecropin gene family. Immunogenetics. 1998;47:417-29 pubmed
    ..b>Cecropin is one such antibacterial protein which is also found in vertebrates...
  35. Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
  36. Chen H, Zheng X, Zheng Y. Age-associated loss of lamin-B leads to systemic inflammation and gut hyperplasia. Cell. 2014;159:829-43 pubmed publisher
    ..paperflick: ..
  37. Kim Y, Han S, Ryu J, Choi K, Hong Y, Chung Y, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-activated kinase, an essential component for the induction of the antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2071-9 pubmed
    ..These results establish that DLAK is a novel LPS-activated kinase, which is an essential signaling component for the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes following LPS treatment in Drosophila cells. ..
  38. Shin S, Kokoza V, Bian G, Cheon H, Kim Y, Raikhel A. REL1, a homologue of Drosophila dorsal, regulates toll antifungal immune pathway in the female mosquito Aedes aegypti. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16499-507 pubmed
    ..bassiana. These results indicate that the homologue of Dl, but not that of Dif, is a key regulator of the Toll antifungal immune pathway in A. aegypti female mosquitoes. ..
  39. Rabel D, Charlet M, Ehret Sabatier L, Cavicchioli L, Cudic M, Otvos L, et al. Primary structure and in vitro antibacterial properties of the Drosophila melanogaster attacin C Pro-domain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14853-9 pubmed
    ..this activity is potentiated when the peptide is used in combination with the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide cecropin A. The synergistic action observed between these two molecules suggests that the truncated post-translationally ..
  40. Ryu J, Nam K, Oh C, Nam H, Kim S, Yoon J, et al. The homeobox gene Caudal regulates constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila epithelia. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:172-85 pubmed
    ..transcription modulator that is responsible for the constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptides cecropin and drosomycin in a tissue-specific manner...
  41. Verma P, Tapadia M. Immune response and anti-microbial peptides expression in Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster is under developmental regulation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40714 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the antimicrobial peptides (AMP) diptericin, cecropinA, drosocin and attacinA are constitutively expressed and are regulated in developmental stage specific manner...
  42. Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Mammalian and Drosophila blood: JAK of all trades?. Cell. 1998;92:697-700 pubmed
  43. Wang L, Zhou C, He Z, Wang Z, Wang J, Wang Y. Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32643 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01)...
  44. Zhou X, Nguyen T, Kimbrell D. Identification and characterization of the Cecropin antibacterial protein gene locus in Drosophila virilis. J Mol Evol. 1997;44:272-81 pubmed
    b>Cecropin is a type of antibacterial peptide that is synthesized in response to infection and has been characterized in many insect species and one mammal...
  45. Samakovlis C, Asling B, Boman H, Gateff E, Hultmark D. In vitro induction of cecropin genes--an immune response in a Drosophila blood cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;188:1169-75 pubmed
    ..The mbn-2 cells respond to microbial substances by the activation of cecropin genes, coding for bactericidal peptides...
  46. Kylsten P, Samakovlis C, Hultmark D. The cecropin locus in Drosophila; a compact gene cluster involved in the response to infection. EMBO J. 1990;9:217-24 pubmed
    ..step towards a molecular study of the induction of this response, we have isolated genomic clones that cover the cecropin locus in Drosophila melanogaster...
  47. Han Z, Enslen H, Hu X, Meng X, Wu I, Barrett T, et al. A conserved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates Drosophila immunity gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3527-39 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that one of the functions of D-p38 is to attenuate antimicrobial peptide gene expression following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. ..
  48. Ramos Onsins S, Aguad M. Molecular evolution of the Cecropin multigene family in Drosophila. functional genes vs. pseudogenes. Genetics. 1998;150:157-71 pubmed
    Approximately 4 kb of the Cecropin cluster region have been sequenced in nine lines of Drosophila melanogaster and one line of the sibling species D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia...
  49. Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
  50. Kadalayil L, Petersen U, Engstr m Y. Adjacent GATA and kappa B-like motifs regulate the expression of a Drosophila immune gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:1233-9 pubmed
    ..for the direct participation of a GATA motif in the expression of the Drosophila antibacterial peptide gene Cecropin A1 . Previously we have shown that a kappaB-like site is necessary for Cecropin A1 gene expression...
  51. Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed
    ..This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants. The 18w mutation particularly affects the induction of AttC, which may be a useful marker for 18w signaling. ..
  52. Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed
    ..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  53. Favrin G, Bean D, Bilsland E, Boyer H, Fischer B, Russell S, et al. Identification of novel modifiers of Aβ toxicity by transcriptomic analysis in the fruitfly. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3512 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we uncovered two new modifiers of the Aβ phenotype, namely Sod3 and PGRP-SC1b. ..
  54. Fedorka K, Linder J, Winterhalter W, Promislow D. Post-mating disparity between potential and realized immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1211-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, estimates of immunity based on gene expression do not appear to reflect an actual ability to defend against pathogens in the hours following copulation. We discuss the possible mechanisms that may account for this pattern. ..
  55. Sackton T, Clark A. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to infection in two species of Drosophila by short-read cDNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:259 pubmed publisher
    ..virilis hemolymph and validate our transcriptional data. These results suggest that the acquisition of novel components of the immune system, and particularly novel effector proteins, may be a common evolutionary phenomenon. ..
  56. Winterhalter W, Fedorka K. Sex-specific variation in the emphasis, inducibility and timing of the post-mating immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that variation in the effectiveness of the immune response between the sexes may be driven by differences in emphasis rather than overall investment. ..
  57. Abdelsadik A, Roeder T. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:265 pubmed publisher
  58. Lowenberger C, Charlet M, Vizioli J, Kamal S, Richman A, Christensen B, et al. Antimicrobial activity spectrum, cDNA cloning, and mRNA expression of a newly isolated member of the cecropin family from the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20092-7 pubmed
    ..This new peptide, named cecropin A, was purified to homogeneity and fully characterized after cDNA cloning. The 34-residue A...
  59. Tryselius Y, Samakovlis C, Kimbrell D, Hultmark D. CecC, a cecropin gene expressed during metamorphosis in Drosophila pupae. Eur J Biochem. 1992;204:395-9 pubmed
    Cecropins are antibacterial peptides, induced in insects in response to bacterial infections. In Drosophila, three cecropin genes have previously been characterized, CecA1, CecA2, and CecB, in a dense cluster at 99E on the third ..
  60. Nicolas E, Nappi A, Lemaitre B. Expression of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by parasitoid wasps in Drosophila. Dev Comp Immunol. 1996;20:175-81 pubmed
    ..blotting technique to examine the expression of three genes encoding either antibacterial peptides (diptericin, cecropin A) or an antifungal peptide (drosomycin) in Drosophila following infection by larval and pupal parasitoids...
  61. Ren C, Webster P, Finkel S, Tower J. Increased internal and external bacterial load during Drosophila aging without life-span trade-off. Cell Metab. 2007;6:144-52 pubmed