CecA1

Summary

Gene Symbol: CecA1
Description: Cecropin A1
Alias: CEC, CG1365, Cec, Cec A1, Cec-A1, CecA, DIM 25, Dmel\CG1365, cec, cecA, cecA1, crpA1, cecropin A1, CG1365-PA, CecA1-PA, Cecropin-A1/A2 precursor, CecropinA, cecropin, cecropin A, cecropin-A, cecropin-A1, cecropinA1
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Meister M, Lemaitre B, Hoffmann J. Antimicrobial peptide defense in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:1019-26 pubmed
    ..Recent data on the molecular mechanisms underlying recognition of non-self are also discussed in this review. ..
  2. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed
    ..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila. ..
  3. Ekengren S, Tryselius Y, Dushay M, Liu G, Steiner H, Hultmark D. A humoral stress response in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2001;11:714-8 pubmed
    ..Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1.
  4. Silverman N, Zhou R, Stoven S, Pandey N, Hultmark D, Maniatis T. A Drosophila IkappaB kinase complex required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2461-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, a yet to be identified IkappaB kinase complex must be required for Rel protein activation via the Toll signaling pathway. ..
  5. Hultmark D. Immune reactions in Drosophila and other insects: a model for innate immunity. Trends Genet. 1993;9:178-83 pubmed
    ..The induction of this system, which lacks clonally selected receptors like those of vertebrate B and T cells, may provide a model for innate immune reactions in other animals, including vertebrates. ..
  6. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  7. Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed
    ..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway. ..
  8. Hedengren Olcott M, Olcott M, Mooney D, Ekengren S, Geller B, Taylor B. Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21121-7 pubmed
    ..This Relish-independent Cecropin A induction was blocked in Dif/Relish double mutant flies. Induction of the Cecropin A1 gene by M. luteus required Relish, whereas induction of the Cecropin A2 gene required Dif...
  9. Meng X, Khanuja B, Ip Y. Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:792-7 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that individual members of the NF-kappaB family in Drosophila have distinct roles in immunity and development. ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed
    ..Our genetic demonstration of dTAK1's role in the regulation of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide gene expression suggests an evolutionary conserved role for TAK1 in the activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-mediated host defense reactions. ..
  2. Uttenweiler Joseph S, Moniatte M, Lagueux M, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Bulet P. Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11342-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge. ..
  3. Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role of ubiquitination in IKK activation, and provide new insights into the hierarchy of signaling components in the Drosophila antibacterial immunity pathway. ..
  4. Lemaitre B, Kromer Metzger E, Michaut L, Nicolas E, Meister M, Georgel P, et al. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9465-9 pubmed
    ..These results point to the existence of two different pathways leading to the expression of two types of target genes, encoding either the antibacterial peptides or the antifungal peptide drosomycin. ..
  5. Pletcher S, Macdonald S, Marguerie R, Certa U, Stearns S, Goldstein D, et al. Genome-wide transcript profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:712-23 pubmed
    ..Caloric restriction extends life span by slowing down the rate of normal aging. Transcription levels of genes from a wide variety of biological functions and processes are impacted by age and dietary conditions. ..
  6. Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed
    ..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
  7. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
  8. Huang H, Chen Z, Kunes S, Chang G, Maniatis T. Endocytic pathway is required for Drosophila Toll innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mop and Hrs, which are critical components of the ESCRT-0 endocytosis complex, colocalize with the Toll receptor in endosomes. We conclude that endocytosis is required for the activation of the Toll signaling pathway. ..
  9. Dantoft W, Davis M, Lindvall J, Tang X, Uvell H, Junell A, et al. The Oct1 homolog Nubbin is a repressor of NF-?B-dependent immune gene expression that increases the tolerance to gut microbiota. BMC Biol. 2013;11:99 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Nub protein plays an ancient role, shared with mammalian Oct/POU transcription factors, to moderate responses to immune challenge, thereby increasing the tolerance to biotic stress. ..
  10. Ryu J, Nam K, Oh C, Nam H, Kim S, Yoon J, et al. The homeobox gene Caudal regulates constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila epithelia. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:172-85 pubmed
    ..transcription modulator that is responsible for the constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptides cecropin and drosomycin in a tissue-specific manner...
  11. Ryu J, Ha E, Oh C, Seol J, Brey P, Jin I, et al. An essential complementary role of NF-kappaB pathway to microbicidal oxidants in Drosophila gut immunity. EMBO J. 2006;25:3693-701 pubmed
    ..This system provides the Drosophila gut immunity the versatility necessary to manage sporadic invasion of virulent pathogens that somehow counteract or evade the ROS-dependent immunity. ..
  12. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
  13. Delaney J, Stoven S, Uvell H, Anderson K, Engstrom Y, Mlodzik M. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. EMBO J. 2006;25:3068-77 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. ..
  14. Hedengren M, Asling B, Dushay M, Ando I, Ekengren S, Wihlborg M, et al. Relish, a central factor in the control of humoral but not cellular immunity in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:827-37 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate the importance of the humoral response in Drosophila immunity and demonstrate that Relish plays a key role in this response. ..
  15. Zhang Z, Palli S. Identification of a cis-regulatory element required for 20-hydroxyecdysone enhancement of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of four other antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes--drosomycin, attacin-A, metchnikowin and cecropin A1. Moreover, in silico promoter analysis using the meme program showed that an eight-nucleotide region of the ..
  16. Tauszig Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:91-7 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic comparison of DmMyD88-mutant flies and MyD88-deficient mice showed essential differences in the control of Gram-negative infection in insects and mammals. ..
  17. Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
  18. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
  19. Han Z, Enslen H, Hu X, Meng X, Wu I, Barrett T, et al. A conserved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates Drosophila immunity gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3527-39 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that one of the functions of D-p38 is to attenuate antimicrobial peptide gene expression following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. ..
  20. Onfelt Tingvall T, Roos E, Engstrom Y. The imd gene is required for local Cecropin expression in Drosophila barrier epithelia. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:239-43 pubmed
    ..the cuticle of larvae respond to infected wounds by local expression of the genes for the antimicrobial peptide cecropin A. Thus, the Drosophila epidermis plays an active role in the innate defence against microorganisms...
  21. Kylsten P, Samakovlis C, Hultmark D. The cecropin locus in Drosophila; a compact gene cluster involved in the response to infection. EMBO J. 1990;9:217-24 pubmed
    ..step towards a molecular study of the induction of this response, we have isolated genomic clones that cover the cecropin locus in Drosophila melanogaster...
  22. Tingvall T, Roos E, Engstrom Y. The GATA factor Serpent is required for the onset of the humoral immune response in Drosophila embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3884-8 pubmed
    ..Immune competence, as monitored by the induction of Cecropin A1-lacZ constructs, was observed first in the embryonic yolk...
  23. Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed
    ..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  24. Chrostek E, Marialva M, Yamada R, O Neill S, Teixeira L. High anti-viral protection without immune upregulation after interspecies Wolbachia transfer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99025 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we prove that stable transinfection with a highly protective Wolbachia is not necessarily associated with general immune activation. ..
  25. Engstrom Y, Kadalayil L, Sun S, Samakovlis C, Hultmark D, Faye I. kappa B-like motifs regulate the induction of immune genes in Drosophila. J Mol Biol. 1993;232:327-33 pubmed
    ..We show that the upstream region of the Cecropin gene CecA1 contains elements responsible for inducible and tissue-specific expression...
  26. Roos E, Bjorklund G, Engstrom Y. In vivo regulation of tissue-specific and LPS-inducible expression of the Drosophila Cecropin genes. Insect Mol Biol. 1998;7:51-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our in vivo data suggests that the distal upstream region contains negatively acting element(s). ..
  27. Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate how the formation of Rel protein dimers differentially regulate target gene expression. ..
  28. Stoven S, Ando I, Kadalayil L, Engstrom Y, Hultmark D. Activation of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish by rapid endoproteolytic cleavage. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:347-52 pubmed
    ..the DNA-binding Rel homology domain, translocates to the nucleus where it binds to the promoter of the Cecropin A1 gene and probably to the promoters of other antimicrobial peptide genes...
  29. Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
  30. Ekengren S, Hultmark D. Drosophila cecropin as an antifungal agent. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;29:965-72 pubmed
    ..4 and 4 microM. Andropin is less fungicidal than the cecropins, and Drosophila cecropin A is somewhat more potent than cecropin B...
  31. Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
  32. Lauwers A, Twyffels L, Soin R, Wauquier C, Kruys V, Gueydan C. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Genes Encoding Anti-microbial Peptides in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cecropin A1 (CecA1) constitutes the prototype of this latter class of AMPeps...
  33. Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  34. Rancès E, Ye Y, Woolfit M, McGraw E, O Neill S. The relative importance of innate immune priming in Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002548 pubmed publisher
  35. Manfruelli P, Reichhart J, Steward R, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF. EMBO J. 1999;18:3380-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have used fat body cell clones homozygous for various mutations to show that a linear activation cascade Spaetzle--> Toll-->Cactus-->Dorsal/DIF leads to the induction of the drosomycin gene in larval fat body cells. ..
  36. Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed
    ..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
  37. Levashina E, Ohresser S, Lemaitre B, Imler J. Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:515-27 pubmed
    ..5 kb of metchnikowin gene upstream sequences indicates that this fragment is able to confer full immune inducibility and tissue specificity of expression on the transgene. ..
  38. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  39. Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
  40. Choe K, Lee H, Anderson K. Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1122-6 pubmed
    ..The PGRP-LC cytoplasmic domain can mediate formation of heterodimers between different PGRP-LC isoforms, thereby potentially expanding the diversity of ligands that can be recognized by the receptor. ..
  41. Wong Z, Hedges L, Brownlie J, Johnson K. Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection and immune gene regulation in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25430 pubmed publisher
    ..with Wolbachia showed no upregulation of the antibacterial immune genes TepIV, Defensin, Diptericin B, PGRP-SD, Cecropin A1 and Attacin D compared to paired flies without Wolbachia...
  42. Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that 20E and JH play major roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to immune challenge. ..
  43. Ekengren S, Hultmark D. A family of Turandot-related genes in the humoral stress response of Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:998-1003 pubmed
    ..The induction of the Tot genes differs in important respects from the heat shock response, such as the strong but delayed response to bacterial infection seen for several of the genes. ..
  44. Junell A, Uvell H, Pick L, Engstrom Y. Isolation of regulators of Drosophila immune defense genes by a double interaction screen in yeast. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:202-12 pubmed
    ..screen in yeast to isolate Drosophila cDNAs coding for direct regulators, as well as Dif co-regulators, of the CecropinA1 gene...
  45. Junell A, Uvell H, Davis M, Edlundh Rose E, Antonsson A, Pick L, et al. The POU transcription factor Drifter/Ventral veinless regulates expression of Drosophila immune defense genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3672-84 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues, including the male ejaculatory duct, where its presence overlaps with and drives the expression of cecropin, a potent broad-spectrum AMP...
  46. Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..protein genes PGRP-SB1 and PGRP-SD and the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes Diptericin-A, Attacin-A, Attacin-B, Cecropin-A1, and Drosocin...
  47. Sibley C, Duan K, Fischer C, Parkins M, Storey D, Rabin H, et al. Discerning the complexity of community interactions using a Drosophila model of polymicrobial infections. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000184 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa. ..
  48. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed
    ..We discuss in this light the possibility that NF-KB1/p50 might be required more specifically in the innate immune response against gram-positive bacteria in mammals. ..
  49. Cairrao F, Halees A, Khabar K, Morello D, Vanzo N. AU-rich elements regulate Drosophila gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. Our work reveals that AREs are conserved and functional cis regulators of mRNA decay in Drosophila and highlights this organism as a novel model system to unravel in vivo the contribution of AMD to various processes. ..
  50. Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  51. Gross I, Georgel P, Kappler C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila immunity: a comparative analysis of the Rel proteins dorsal and Dif in the induction of the genes encoding diptericin and cecropin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:1238-45 pubmed
    ..The upstream sequences of the diptericin and cecropin Al genes, which have been investigated in detail, contain two, respectively one sequence element homologous to ..
  52. Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
  53. Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
  54. Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate how specific ligand binding by separate upstream pattern recognition receptors can be translated into a broad-spectrum host response, a hallmark of innate immunity. ..
  55. Braun A, Hoffmann J, Meister M. Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14337-42 pubmed
    ..By working in synergy, they provide Drosophila a highly effective defense against injury and/or infection...
  56. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..