Gene Symbol: Cdk1
Description: Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
Alias: 5363, CDC2, CDCDm, CDK1, CDK1/CDC2, CG5363, Cdc2, Cdk-1, Dcdc2, Dm cdc2, DmCdc2, DmCdk1, Dmcdc2, Dmel\CG5363, cdc, cdc2, cdc2Dm, cdk1, dCdk1, group 4, l(2)31Eh, Cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CG5363-PA, Cdk1-PA, cdc2, cdc2 kinase, cell division control, cyclin dependent kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein 2
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Cdk1

Top Publications

  1. Royou A, Sullivan W, Karess R. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos: its role in nuclear axial expansion and its regulation by Cdc2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:127-37 pubmed
    ..The cortical myosin cycle does not require microtubules but correlates inversely with Cdc2/cyclinB (mitosis-promoting factor) activity...
  2. Glover D. Mitosis in the Drosophila embryo--in and out of control. Trends Genet. 1991;7:125-32 pubmed
    ..Such regulation is introduced together with a G2 phase in cycle 14, and the network of universal mitotic regulators comes under the overall control of string, a cdc25 homologue, whose transcription is activated within mitotic domains. ..
  3. Jacobs H, Knoblich J, Lehner C. Drosophila Cyclin B3 is required for female fertility and is dispensable for mitosis like Cyclin B. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3741-51 pubmed
    ..Cyclin B3 is coimmunoprecipitated with Cdk1(Cdc2) but not with Cdk2(Cdc2c). It is degraded abruptly during mitosis like Cyclins A and B...
  4. Stumpff J, Kellogg D, Krohne K, Su T. Drosophila Wee1 interacts with members of the gammaTURC and is required for proper mitotic-spindle morphogenesis and positioning. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1525-34 pubmed
    Wee1 kinases delay entry into mitosis by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Loss of this activity in many systems, including Drosophila, leads to premature mitotic entry...
  5. Su T, Sprenger F, DiGregorio P, Campbell S, O Farrell P. Exit from mitosis in Drosophila syncytial embryos requires proteolysis and cyclin degradation, and is associated with localized dephosphorylation. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1495-503 pubmed
    ..divisions of Drosophila embryos, however, occur without detectable oscillations in the total cyclin level or Cdk1 activity...
  6. GONCZY P, Thomas B, DiNardo S. roughex is a dose-dependent regulator of the second meiotic division during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Cell. 1994;77:1015-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that cyclin A-cdc2 kinase at the G2 to M transition of meiosis I activates a target necessary for meiosis II, thereby coupling the two ..
  7. Hériché J, Ang D, Bier E, O Farrell P. Involvement of an SCFSlmb complex in timely elimination of E2F upon initiation of DNA replication in Drosophila. BMC Genet. 2003;4:9 pubmed
    ..We have used genetic and physical interactions to identify the G1/S transcription factor E2F as an SCFSlmb target in Drosophila. These results argue that the SCFSlmb ubiquitin ligase directs E2F destruction in S phase. ..
  8. Foley E, O Farrell P, Sprenger F. Rux is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) specific for mitotic cyclin-Cdk complexes. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1392-402 pubmed
    ..Genetic data show that Rux inhibits the S-phase function of the cyclin A (CycA)-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) complex; in addition, it can prevent the mitotic functions of CycA and CycB when overexpressed...
  9. Hayashi S. A Cdc2 dependent checkpoint maintains diploidy in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:1051-8 pubmed
    ..To elucidate its mechanism, the functions of the escargot and Dmcdc2 genes of Drosophila were studied...

More Information


  1. Lane M, Sauer K, Wallace K, Jan Y, Lehner C, Vaessin H. Dacapo, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, stops cell proliferation during Drosophila development. Cell. 1996;87:1225-35 pubmed
    ..Mutants unable to express the inhibitor fail to arrest cell proliferation after mitosis 16 and progress through an extra division cycle. Conversely, premature dacapo expression in transgenic embryos results in a precocious G1 arrest. ..
  2. Jin Z, Homola E, Goldbach P, Choi Y, Brill J, Campbell S. Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4075-85 pubmed
    The metazoan Wee1-like kinases Wee1 and Myt1 regulate the essential mitotic regulator Cdk1 by inhibitory phosphorylation...
  3. Sprenger F, Yakubovich N, O Farrell P. S-phase function of Drosophila cyclin A and its downregulation in G1 phase. Curr Biol. 1997;7:488-99 pubmed
    ..Second, inhibitory phosphorylation of cdc2, the kinase partner of cyclin A, reduced the S-phase promoting activity of cyclin A in G1...
  4. Edgar B, Orr Weaver T. Endoreplication cell cycles: more for less. Cell. 2001;105:297-306 pubmed
  5. Sigrist S, Ried G, Lehner C. Dmcdc2 kinase is required for both meiotic divisions during Drosophila spermatogenesis and is activated by the Twine/cdc25 phosphatase. Mech Dev. 1995;53:247-60 pubmed
    We have analyzed the requirement for Drosophila cdc2 kinase during spermatogenesis after generating temperature-sensitive mutant lines (Dmcdc2ts) by re-constructing mutations known to result in temperature sensitivity in fission yeast ..
  6. Zielke N, Querings S, Rottig C, Lehner C, Sprenger F. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is required for rereplication control in endoreplication cycles. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1690-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Geminin is only abundant in cells with high CycE-Cdk2 activity, suggesting that APC/C-Fzr activity is periodically inhibited by CycE-Cdk2, to prevent relicensing in S-phase cells. ..
  7. Archambault V, D Avino P, Deery M, Lilley K, Glover D. Sequestration of Polo kinase to microtubules by phosphopriming-independent binding to Map205 is relieved by phosphorylation at a CDK site in mitosis. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Map205-dependent targeting of Polo to microtubules provides a stable reservoir of Polo that can be rapidly mobilized by the activity of Cdk1 at mitotic entry.
  8. Parry D, O Farrell P. The schedule of destruction of three mitotic cyclins can dictate the timing of events during exit from mitosis. Curr Biol. 2001;11:671-83 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the schedule of degradation of cyclin A, cyclin B, and then cyclin B3 contributes to the temporal coordination of mitotic events. ..
  9. Avedisov S, Krasnoselskaya I, Mortin M, Thomas B. Roughex mediates G(1) arrest through a physical association with cyclin A. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8220-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclin A interacts with both Cdc2 and Cdc2c, the Drosophila Cdk2 homolog, and Roughex inhibits the histone H1 kinase activities of both cyclin A-Cdc2 ..
  10. Stumpff J, Duncan T, Homola E, Campbell S, Su T. Drosophila Wee1 kinase regulates Cdk1 and mitotic entry during embryogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2143-8 pubmed
    ..Wee1 homologs phosphorylate a conserved tyrosine to inhibit the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Loss of Wee1 function in fission or budding yeast causes premature entry into mitosis...
  11. Royou A, McCusker D, Kellogg D, Sullivan W. Grapes(Chk1) prevents nuclear CDK1 activation by delaying cyclin B nuclear accumulation. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are driven by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) activity, yet how cytoplasmic and nuclear CDK1 activities are coordinated is unclear...
  12. Edgar B, Sprenger F, Duronio R, Leopold P, O Farrell P. Distinct molecular mechanism regulate cell cycle timing at successive stages of Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1994;8:440-52 pubmed
    The conserved regulators of cell cycle progression--Cyclins, Cdc2 kinase, and String phosphatase (Cdc25)--accommodate multiple modes of regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis...
  13. Sibon O, Stevenson V, Theurkauf W. DNA-replication checkpoint control at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Nature. 1997;388:93-7 pubmed
    ..This delay may allow both completion of S phase and transcription of genes that initiate the switch to zygotic control of embryogenesis. ..
  14. Larochelle S, Pandur J, Fisher R, Salz H, Suter B. Cdk7 is essential for mitosis and for in vivo Cdk-activating kinase activity. Genes Dev. 1998;12:370-81 pubmed
    ..We show that cdk7 activity is required for the activation of both Cdc2/Cyclin A and Cdc2/Cyclin B complexes, and for cell division...
  15. Onischenko E, Gubanova N, Kiseleva E, Hallberg E. Cdk1 and okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases control assembly of nuclear pore complexes in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5152-62 pubmed
    ..We found that in live embryos Cdk1 activity was necessary and sufficient to induce disassembly of NPCs as well as their cytoplasmic mimics: annulate ..
  16. Sibon O, Laurencon A, Hawley R, Theurkauf W. The Drosophila ATM homologue Mei-41 has an essential checkpoint function at the midblastula transition. Curr Biol. 1999;9:302-12 pubmed
    ..of a conserved DNA-replication/damage checkpoint pathway that triggers inhibitory phosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase and mediates resistance to replication inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents...
  17. Thomas B, Zavitz K, Dong X, Lane M, Weigmann K, Finley R, et al. roughex down-regulates G2 cyclins in G1. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1289-98 pubmed
    ..These data argue that Roughex inhibits Cyclin A accumulation in early G1 by targeting Cyclin A for destruction. In late G1, Roughex is destabilized in a Cyclin E-dependent process, releasing Cyclin A for its role in S/G2. ..
  18. Farrell J, Shermoen A, Yuan K, O Farrell P. Embryonic onset of late replication requires Cdc25 down-regulation. Genes Dev. 2012;26:714-25 pubmed publisher
    ..At the MBT, down-regulation of Cdc25 phosphatase and the resulting inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitotic kinase Cdk1 create a G2 pause in interphase 14. However, an earlier change in interphase 14 is the prolongation of S phase...
  19. Lane M, Elend M, Heidmann D, Herr A, Marzodko S, Herzig A, et al. A screen for modifiers of cyclin E function in Drosophila melanogaster identifies Cdk2 mutations, revealing the insignificance of putative phosphorylation sites in Cdk2. Genetics. 2000;155:233-44 pubmed
    ..The corresponding sites in the closely related Cdk1 (Thr 14 and Tyr 15) are of crucial importance for regulation of the G2/M transition by myt1 and wee1 kinases and ..
  20. Knoblich J, Sauer K, Jones L, Richardson H, Saint R, Lehner C. Cyclin E controls S phase progression and its down-regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis is required for the arrest of cell proliferation. Cell. 1994;77:107-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Drosophila cyclin E, which forms a complex with the Dmcdc2c kinase, controls progression through S phase and its down-regulation limits embryonic proliferation. ..
  21. Kitazawa D, Matsuo T, Kaizuka K, Miyauchi C, Hayashi D, Inoue Y. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93669 pubmed publisher
    ..However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases ..
  22. Wang P, Galan J, Normandin K, Bonneil E, Hickson G, Roux P, et al. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:277-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood...
  23. Rascle A, Stowers R, Garza D, Lepesant J, Hogness D. L63, the Drosophila PFTAIRE, interacts with two novel proteins unrelated to cyclins. Mech Dev. 2003;120:617-28 pubmed
    ..Interaction between L63 and PIF-1B was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. The role of this interaction remains to be demonstrated, but our data suggest that PIF-1B might serve as a regulator of L63. ..
  24. Ruggiero R, Kale A, Thomas B, Baker N. Mitosis in neurons: Roughex and APC/C maintain cell cycle exit to prevent cytokinetic and axonal defects in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003049 pubmed publisher
  25. Chia W, Prokopenko S. Cyclin E at the centre of an identity crisis. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:3-5 pubmed
  26. Lehner C, O Farrell P. Drosophila cdc2 homologs: a functional homolog is coexpressed with a cognate variant. EMBO J. 1990;9:3573-81 pubmed
    ..hybridization to polytene chromosomes demonstrated that the isolated cDNAs, were derived from two distinct genes, Dm cdc2 (31E) and Dm cdc2c (92F)...
  27. Jimenez J, Alphey L, Nurse P, Glover D. Complementation of fission yeast cdc2ts and cdc25ts mutants identifies two cell cycle genes from Drosophila: a cdc2 homologue and string. EMBO J. 1990;9:3565-71 pubmed
    ..into mitosis to clone the Drosophila melanogaster homologues of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division control (cdc) genes by the complementation of temperature sensitive mutations...
  28. Su T, Parry D, Donahoe B, Chien C, O Farrell P, Purdy A. Cell cycle roles for two 14-3-3 proteins during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3445-54 pubmed
    ..Using mutants of cyclins, Cdk1 and Cdc25(string) to manipulate Cdk1 activity, we found that the localization of 14-3-3 proteins is coupled to Cdk1 ..
  29. Gupta R, Tripathi R, Naidu B, Srinivas U, Shashidhara L. Cell cycle regulation by the pro-apoptotic gene Scotin. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2401-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a larger proportion of cells overexpressing Scotin showed sequestration of Cyclin B1 in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that one of the ways by which Scotin induces apoptosis is by causing cell cycle arrest. ..
  30. Varadarajan R, Ayeni J, Jin Z, Homola E, Campbell S. Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for fusome integrity and premeiotic centriole engagement in Drosophila spermatocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:2051-63 pubmed publisher
    ..signals by mechanisms that control Cyclin B synthesis and inhibitory phosphorylation of the M-phase kinase, Cdk1. In this study, we investigated how inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 by Myt1 kinase regulates premeiotic G2 phase ..
  31. Ashraf S, Ip Y. Transcriptional control: repression by local chromatin modification. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R683-6 pubmed
    ..Recent studies provide new insights into how transcriptional repressors, in addition to blocking activators, may recruit repression complexes that include chromatin modification factors. ..
  32. Meyer C, Jacobs H, Datar S, Du W, Edgar B, Lehner C. Drosophila Cdk4 is required for normal growth and is dispensable for cell cycle progression. EMBO J. 2000;19:4533-42 pubmed
    ..However, the growth of cells and of the organism is reduced in Cdk4 mutants, indicating a role of D-type cyclin-dependent protein kinases in the modulation of growth rates. ..
  33. Liu J, Kipreos E. Evolution of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK-activating kinases (CAKs): differential conservation of CAKs in yeast and metazoa. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:1061-74 pubmed
  34. Meghini F, Martins T, Tait X, Fujimitsu K, Yamano H, Glover D, et al. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12607 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Spd2 is also a novel APC/C(Fzr) substrate. Our study is the first to demonstrate the critical importance of distinct subcellular pools of APC/C activators in the spatiotemporal control of APC/C activity. ..
  35. Weigmann K, Cohen S, Lehner C. Cell cycle progression, growth and patterning in imaginal discs despite inhibition of cell division after inactivation of Drosophila Cdc2 kinase. Development. 1997;124:3555-63 pubmed
    ..blocking cell division at different times and in spatially controlled manner by inactivation of the mitotic kinase Cdc2 in developing imaginal discs...
  36. Takada S, Kwak S, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. grp (chk1) replication-checkpoint mutations and DNA damage trigger a Chk2-dependent block at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Development. 2007;134:1737-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the DNA-replication checkpoint maintains genome integrity during the cleavage divisions, and that checkpoint mutations lead to DNA damage that induces a novel Chk2-dependent block at the MBT...
  37. Hediger F, Gasser S. Heterochromatin protein 1: don't judge the book by its cover!. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:143-50 pubmed
    ..Not only do HP1 isoforms have specific binding sites in both heterochromatic and euchromatic domains but they might also participate in the repression and activation of transcription in both compartments. ..
  38. Etournay R, Popović M, Merkel M, Nandi A, Blasse C, Aigouy B, et al. Interplay of cell dynamics and epithelial tension during morphogenesis of the Drosophila pupal wing. elife. 2015;4:e07090 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a continuum mechanical model that quantitatively describes the relationship between epithelial stresses and cell dynamics, and how their interplay reshapes the wing. ..
  39. Bejarano E, Munoz M, Jimenez J. Functional analysis of the Drosophila CDC2 Dm gene in fission yeast. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:621-8 pubmed
    ..pombe strain in which the yeast cdc2+ gene has been replaced by its Drosophila homologue CDC2Dm (the CDC2Dm strain). This CDC2Dm S...
  40. Yu L, Daniels J, Wu H, Wolf M. Cardiac hypertrophy induced by active Raf depends on Yorkie-mediated transcription. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, crosstalk between Raf and Yki occurs in the heart and can influence Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  41. Althoff F, Viktorinova I, Kastl J, Lehner C. Drosophila Cyclin J is a mitotically stable Cdk1 partner without essential functions. Dev Biol. 2009;333:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin J with EGFP fused at either N- or C-terminus binds to Cdk1 and not to Cdk2...
  42. Novak Z, Wainman A, Gartenmann L, Raff J. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes. Dev Cell. 2016;37:545-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis...
  43. Brunk K, Vernay B, Griffith E, Reynolds N, Strutt D, Ingham P, et al. Microcephalin coordinates mitosis in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3578-88 pubmed
  44. Desplan C, Lecuit T. Developmental biology: Flowers' wings, fruitflies' petals. Nature. 2003;422:123-4 pubmed
  45. Mohd Sarip A, Lagarou A, Doyen C, van der Knaap J, Aslan U, Bezstarosti K, et al. Transcription-independent function of Polycomb group protein PSC in cell cycle control. Science. 2012;336:744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PSC appears to mediate both developmental gene silencing and posttranslational control of mitosis. Direct regulation of cell cycle progression might be a crucial part of the PcG system's function in development and cancer. ..
  46. Basto R, Gergely F, Draviam V, Ohkura H, Liley K, Raff J. Hsp90 is required to localise cyclin B and Msps/ch-TOG to the mitotic spindle in Drosophila and humans. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1278-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that Hsp90 plays a novel role in regulating the localisation of cyclin B and Msps during mitosis. ..
  47. Yuan K, O Farrell P. TALE-light imaging reveals maternally guided, H3K9me2/3-independent emergence of functional heterochromatin in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 2016;30:579-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This differential emergence of heterochromatin on various repetitive sequences changes their replication order and remodels the DNA replication schedule during embryonic development. ..
  48. Mogila V, Xia F, Li W. An intrinsic cell cycle checkpoint pathway mediated by MEK and ERK in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2006;11:575-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, MEK/ERK activation is required for multiple checkpoints and is essential for orderly cell cycle progression. ..
  49. Sotillos S, Campuzano S. DRacGAP, a novel Drosophila gene, inhibits EGFR/Ras signalling in the developing imaginal wing disc. Development. 2000;127:5427-38 pubmed
    ..Hence, control of DRacGAP expression by the EGFR/Ras pathway is a previously undescribed feedback mechanism modulating the intensity and/or duration of its signalling during Drosophila development. ..
  50. Langley A, Smith J, Stemple D, Harvey S. New insights into the maternal to zygotic transition. Development. 2014;141:3834-41 pubmed publisher
  51. Hayashi S, Yamaguchi M. Kinase-independent activity of Cdc2/cyclin A prevents the S phase in the Drosophila cell cycle. Genes Cells. 1999;4:111-22 pubmed
    The Cdc2-dependent inhibition of S phase is required in G2 for the correct ordering of the S and M phases in yeasts and Drosophila...
  52. Nakajima Y, Kuranaga E, Sugimura K, Miyawaki A, Miura M. Nonautonomous apoptosis is triggered by local cell cycle progression during epithelial replacement in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2499-512 pubmed publisher
    ..The replacement boundary, formed as caspase activation is regulated locally by cell-cell communication, may drive the dynamic orchestration of cell replacement during tissue remodeling. ..
  53. Cutforth T, Rubin G. Mutations in Hsp83 and cdc37 impair signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;77:1027-36 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae. Mutations in E(sev)3B also dominantly enhance mutations in Dmcdc2, the gene encoding the p34 protein kinase that regulates the G2/M transition...
  54. Warbrick E, Glover D. A Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the TIS11 family of immediate early genes that can rescue a cdr1 cdc25 mutant strain of fission yeast. Gene. 1994;151:243-6 pubmed
    ..One class encodes the Dm Cdc2 protein...
  55. Secombe J, Pispa J, Saint R, Richardson H. Analysis of a Drosophila cyclin E hypomorphic mutation suggests a novel role for cyclin E in cell proliferation control during eye imaginal disc development. Genetics. 1998;149:1867-82 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, mutations in G2/M phase regulators cyclin A and string (cdc25), but not cyclin B1, B3, or cdc2, enhanced the DmcycEJP phenotype without affecting the number of cells entering S phase, but by decreasing the ..
  56. Reber A, Lehner C, Jacobs H. Terminal mitoses require negative regulation of Fzr/Cdh1 by Cyclin A, preventing premature degradation of mitotic cyclins and String/Cdc25. Development. 2006;133:3201-11 pubmed
    ..In the absence of Cyclin A, premature Fizzy-related/Cdh1 activity results in the premature degradation of the Cdk1 activators Cyclin B and Cyclin B3, and apparently of String/Cdc25 phosphatase as well...
  57. Wang P, Larouche M, Normandin K, Kachaner D, Mehsen H, Emery G, et al. Spatial regulation of greatwall by Cdk1 and PP2A-Tws in the cell cycle. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:528-39 pubmed publisher
    Entry into mitosis requires the phosphorylation of multiple substrates by cyclin B-Cdk1, while exit from mitosis requires their dephosphorylation, which depends largely on the phosphatase PP2A in complex with its B55 regulatory subunit (..
  58. Stowers R, Garza D, Rascle A, Hogness D. The L63 gene is necessary for the ecdysone-induced 63E late puff and encodes CDK proteins required for Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2000;221:23-40 pubmed
    ..L63 proteins are widely distributed among late larval and prepupal tissues and are unlikely to be involved in cell cycle functions. ..
  59. Smith A, King J, Orr Weaver T. Identification of genomic regions required for DNA replication during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genetics. 1993;135:817-29 pubmed
    ..Deficiencies that removed one of the Drosophila cdc2 genes and the cyclin A gene had no effect on replication during embryogenesis...
  60. do Carmo Avides M, Tavares A, Glover D. Polo kinase and Asp are needed to promote the mitotic organizing activity of centrosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:421-4 pubmed
    ..Extracts of polo-derived embryos are unable to restore the ability of salt-stripped centrosomes to nucleate microtubule asters. This can be rescued by addition of phosphorylated Asp or active Polo kinase. ..
  61. Schaefer M, Knoblich J. Protein localization during asymmetric cell division. Exp Cell Res. 2001;271:66-74 pubmed
  62. Coelho C, Leevers S. Do growth and cell division rates determine cell size in multicellular organisms?. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 17):2927-34 pubmed
    ..These interactions may provide a means of coordinating growth and cell division, such that cells divide only when they are above a minimum size. ..
  63. Clegg N, Whitehead I, Williams J, Spiegelman G, Grigliatti T. A developmental and molecular analysis of Cdc2 mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1993;36:676-85 pubmed
    In fission yeast, the product of the cdc2 gene is required both for entry into S phase and mitosis. Homologs of cdc2 have been isolated from a number of metazoans, but in general they have not been amenable to genetic analysis...
  64. Su T, O Farrell P. Size control: cell proliferation does not equal growth. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R687-9 pubmed
    ..Both classic and recent experiments confirm this simple rationale: altering proliferation produces normally sized body structures with either especially small or exceptionally large cells. ..
  65. Beam C, MOBERG K. The gang of four gene regulates growth and patterning of the developing Drosophila eye. Fly (Austin). 2010;4:104-16 pubmed
    ..Genetic reduction of bru-3 suppresses phenotypes caused by gfr alleles, and like gfr alleles, overexpression of bru-3 depresses levels of Cic protein, indicating that overexpression of bru-3 is central to gfr mutant phenotypes. ..
  66. Resino J, García Bellido A. Drosophila genetic variants that change cell size and rate of proliferation affect cell communication and hence patterning. Mech Dev. 2004;121:351-64 pubmed
    ..These autonomous and non-autonomous effects suggest that the control of size in the wing is the result of local cell communication defining canonic distances between cells in a positional-values landscape. ..
  67. Xu S, Hafer N, Agunwamba B, Schedl P. The CPEB protein Orb2 has multiple functions during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003079 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, analysis of a partial loss of function orb2 mutant suggests that the orb2 differentiation phenotypes are independent of the earlier arrest in meiosis. ..
  68. Potter C, Xu T. Mechanisms of size control. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:279-86 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms of organ size control could also be critical targets for evolutionary events or disease processes such as tumorigenesis. ..
  69. Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla A, Pragya P, Murthy R, de Pomerai D, et al. Transcriptomic analysis provides insights on hexavalent chromium induced DNA double strand breaks and their possible repair in midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Mutat Res. 2013;747-748:28-39 pubmed publisher
  70. Swan A, Barcelo G, Schupbach T. Drosophila Cks30A interacts with Cdk1 to target Cyclin A for destruction in the female germline. Development. 2005;132:3669-78 pubmed
    ..for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo through an interaction with Cdk1. Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase ..
  71. Glover D, Hagan I, Tavares A. Polo-like kinases: a team that plays throughout mitosis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3777-87 pubmed
  72. Amcheslavsky A, Nie Y, Li Q, He F, Tsuda L, Markstein M, et al. Gene expression profiling identifies the zinc-finger protein Charlatan as a regulator of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. Development. 2014;141:2621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..including loss of EdU incorporation, phosphorylated histone 3 staining and expression of the mitotic protein Cdc2. Loss of Charlatan also led to a much reduced histone acetylation staining in precursor cells...
  73. Khurana V, Lu Y, Steinhilb M, Oldham S, Shulman J, Feany M. TOR-mediated cell-cycle activation causes neurodegeneration in a Drosophila tauopathy model. Curr Biol. 2006;16:230-41 pubmed
    ..TOR-mediated cell-cycle activation causes neurodegeneration in a Drosophila tauopathy model, identifying TOR and the cell cycle as potential therapeutic targets in tauopathies and AD. ..
  74. Lee E, Trinh T, Shim H, Park S, Nguyen T, Kim M, et al. Drosophila Claspin is required for the G2 arrest that is induced by DNA replication stress but not by DNA double-strand breaks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that Drosophila Claspin is required for the G2 arrest that is induced by DNA replication stress but not by DNA double-strand breaks, and this difference is probably due to distinct phosphorylation statuses. ..
  75. Morris E, Michaud W, Ji J, Moon N, Rocco J, Dyson N. Functional identification of Api5 as a suppressor of E2F-dependent apoptosis in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e196 pubmed
    ..Therefore, inhibition of Api5 function might offer a possible mechanism for antitumor exploitation. ..
  76. Levanon D, Goldstein R, Bernstein Y, Tang H, Goldenberg D, Stifani S, et al. Transcriptional repression by AML1 and LEF-1 is mediated by the TLE/Groucho corepressors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11590-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that, in addition to their activity as transcriptional activators, AML1 and LEF-1 can act, through recruitment of the corepressor TLE1, as transcriptional repressors in TCR regulation and Wnt/Wg signaling. ..
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