Gene Symbol: CCAP
Description: Crustacean cardioactive peptide
Alias: CG4910, Ccap, DmCCAP, Dmel\CG4910, ccap, crustacean cardioactive peptide, CCAP prepropeptide, CCAP-PA, CCAP-PB, CG4910-PA, CG4910-PB, cardioacceleratory peptide
Species: fruit fly
Products:     CCAP

Top Publications

  1. Peabody N, Pohl J, Diao F, Vreede A, Sandstrom D, Wang H, et al. Characterization of the decision network for wing expansion in Drosophila using targeted expression of the TRPM8 channel. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of neurons, we show that the highly stereotyped wing expansion motor patterns can be initiated by stimulation of N(CCAP), a small network of central neurons that regulates the release of bursicon...
  2. Luan H, Lemon W, Peabody N, Pohl J, Zelensky P, Wang D, et al. Functional dissection of a neuronal network required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:573-84 pubmed
    A subset of Drosophila neurons that expresses crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) has been shown previously to make the hormone bursicon, which is required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion after eclosion...
  3. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  4. Lahr E, Dean D, Ewer J. Genetic analysis of ecdysis behavior in Drosophila reveals partially overlapping functions of two unrelated neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6819-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous findings suggest that crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) activates the ecdysis motor program; the hormone bursicon is believed to then act downstream ..
  5. Davis M, O Keefe S, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A neuropeptide hormone cascade controls the precise onset of post-eclosion cuticular tanning in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:4395-404 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis-triggering hormone, eclosion hormone and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) together control pre-eclosion and eclosion events, whereas bursicon, through its receptor ..
  6. Park J, Schroeder A, Helfrich Forster C, Jackson F, Ewer J. Targeted ablation of CCAP neuropeptide-containing neurons of Drosophila causes specific defects in execution and circadian timing of ecdysis behavior. Development. 2003;130:2645-56 pubmed
    ..Based on studies in the moth, Manduca sexta, it has been postulated that the neuropeptide Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) plays a key role in the initiation of the ecdysis motor program...
  7. Kim Y, Zitnan D, Galizia C, Cho K, Adams M. A command chemical triggers an innate behavior by sequential activation of multiple peptidergic ensembles. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1395-407 pubmed
    ..of ETHR neurons express numerous neuropeptides including kinin, FMRFamides, eclosion hormone (EH), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), myoinhibitory peptides (MIP), and bursicon...
  8. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  9. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..

More Information


  1. Husain Q, Ewer J. Use of targetable gfp-tagged neuropeptide for visualizing neuropeptide release following execution of a behavior. J Neurobiol. 2004;59:181-91 pubmed
  2. Clark A, del Campo M, Ewer J. Neuroendocrine control of larval ecdysis behavior in Drosophila: complex regulation by partially redundant neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4283-92 pubmed
    ..among several peptide hormones: ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), eclosion hormone (EH), and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)...
  3. Dewey E, McNabb S, Ewer J, Kuo G, Takanishi C, Truman J, et al. Identification of the gene encoding bursicon, an insect neuropeptide responsible for cuticle sclerotization and wing spreading. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1208-13 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry revealed that bursicon is co-expressed with crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Transgenic flies that lack CCAP neurons also lacked bursicon bioactivity...
  4. Dulcis D, Levine R, Ewer J. Role of the neuropeptide CCAP in Drosophila cardiac function. J Neurobiol. 2005;64:259-74 pubmed
    ..heart becomes segmentally innervated during metamorphosis by peripheral neurons that express crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). CCAP has a cardioacceleratory effect when it is applied in vitro...
  5. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  6. Vömel M, Wegener C. Neurotransmitter-induced changes in the intracellular calcium concentration suggest a differential central modulation of CCAP neuron subsets in Drosophila. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:792-808 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we set out to identify neurotransmitters mediating synaptic input onto CCAP-expressing neurons (N(CCAP)), which play an important role in the regulation of ecdysis-related events...
  7. Hewes R, Park D, Gauthier S, Schaefer A, Taghert P. The bHLH protein Dimmed controls neuroendocrine cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:1771-81 pubmed
    ..We propose that dimmed encodes an integral component of a novel mechanism by which diverse neuroendocrine lineages differentiate and maintain the pro-secretory state. ..
  8. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this article is the first report on the molecular identification of an invertebrate FMRFamide receptor. ..
  9. Veverytsa L, Allan D. Temporally tuned neuronal differentiation supports the functional remodeling of a neuronal network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the network changes that support these differences are unknown. Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons and the peptide hormones they secrete are critical for ecdysis; their targeted ..
  10. Park Y, Kim Y, Adams M. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors for Drosophila PRXamide peptides, CCAP, corazonin, and AKH supports a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11423-8 pubmed
    ..Three Drosophila GPCRs in the vasopressin receptor group respond to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), corazonin, or adipokinetic hormone (AKH), none of which are PRXa peptides...
  11. Wu Q, Wen T, Lee G, Park J, Cai H, Shen P. Developmental control of foraging and social behavior by the Drosophila neuropeptide Y-like system. Neuron. 2003;39:147-61 pubmed
    ..Conversely, dNPF overexpression in older larvae prolonged feeding, and suppressed hypermobility and cooperative burrowing behaviors. The dNPF system provides a new paradigm for studying the central control of cooperative behavior. ..
  12. Bates K, Molnar J, Robinow S. The unfulfilled gene and nervous system development in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. ..
  13. Lee G, Kikuno K, Nair S, Park J. Mechanisms of postecdysis-associated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3972-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-expressing neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) within 24 hours after adult eclosion...
  14. Gu T, Zhao T, Hewes R. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling. Biol Open. 2014;3:81-93 pubmed publisher the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon...
  15. Hector C, Bretz C, Zhao Y, Johnson E. Functional differences between two CRF-related diuretic hormone receptors in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional characterization of this diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila demonstrates a high degree of conservation of CRF-like signaling. ..
  16. Krüger E, Mena W, Lahr E, Johnson E, Ewer J. Genetic analysis of Eclosion hormone action during Drosophila larval ecdysis. Development. 2015;142:4279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..activate neurons that produce neuropeptides implicated in ecdysis, including Eclosion hormone (EH), Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and Bursicon...
  17. Kondo S, Ueda R. Highly improved gene targeting by germline-specific Cas9 expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3-23%. Our method is readily scalable to high-throughput gene targeting, thereby accelerating comprehensive functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. ..
  18. Luan H, Peabody N, Vinson C, White B. Refined spatial manipulation of neuronal function by combinatorial restriction of transgene expression. Neuron. 2006;52:425-36 pubmed
    ..We use this system to dissect a neuronal network in Drosophila by selectively targeting expression of the cell death gene reaper to subsets of neurons within the network. ..
  19. Johnson E, Bohn L, Taghert P. Drosophila CG8422 encodes a functional diuretic hormone receptor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:743-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of a Drosophila receptor for the DH neuropeptide provides a basis for genetic analysis of this critical factor's roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. ..
  20. Veverytsa L, Allan D. Retrograde BMP signaling controls Drosophila behavior through regulation of a peptide hormone battery. Development. 2011;138:3147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes largely recapitulate those previously observed upon ablation of CCAP neurons, an integral subset of the ecdysis neuronal network...
  21. Shang Y, Donelson N, Vecsey C, Guo F, Rosbash M, Griffith L. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator. Neuron. 2013;80:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. ..
  22. Hari P, Deshpande M, Sharma N, Rajadhyaksha N, Ramkumar N, Kimura K, et al. Chip is required for posteclosion behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first evidence of transcriptional mechanisms involved in the development of the neuronal circuit that regulates posteclosion behavior in Drosophila. ..
  23. Rayburn L, Rhea J, Jocoy S, Bender M. The proprotein convertase amontillado (amon) is required during Drosophila pupal development. Dev Biol. 2009;333:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent with a model that the amon protein acts to proteolytically process a diverse suite of peptide hormones that coordinate larval and pupal growth and development. ..
  24. Gauthier S, Hewes R. Transcriptional regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone expression by the Drosophila dimmed and cryptocephal genes. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1803-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that convergence between ATF-related signaling and an important intracellular steroid response pathway may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of insect molting. ..
  25. Karsai G, Pollak E, Wacker M, Vömel M, Selcho M, Berta G, et al. Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:127 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe in detail the morphology and the subcellular distribution of fluorescent vesicle/dendrite markers in CCAP neurons (NCCAP), a well defined set of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila larva...
  26. Zhang X, McNeil G, Hilderbrand Chae M, Franklin T, Schroeder A, Jackson F. Circadian regulation of the lark RNA-binding protein within identifiable neurosecretory cells. J Neurobiol. 2000;45:14-29 pubmed stage, lark protein has a broad pattern of tissue expression, which includes two groups of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-containing neurons within the ventral nervous system...
  27. Ewer J. Behavioral endocrinology: lighting up peptidergic neurons that mediate a complex behavior. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R682-4 pubmed
  28. Park D, Han M, Kim Y, Han K, Taghert P. Ap-let neurons--a peptidergic circuit potentially controlling ecdysial behavior in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;269:95-108 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis further predicts that the production of the Ap-let neuropeptide(s) is dependent on each of four specific enzymes, and that a certain aspect(s) of its production and/or release is regulated by dopamine input. ..
  29. Dulcis D, Levine R. Innervation of the heart of the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:560-78 pubmed
    ..In addition, crustacean cardioactive peptide-immunoreactive fibers originating from peripheral, bipolar neurons (BpNs) fasciculate with the ..
  30. Kim D, Han M, Lee G, Lee S, Kim Y, Adams M. Rescheduling Behavioral Subunits of a Fixed Action Pattern by Genetic Manipulation of Peptidergic Signaling. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005513 pubmed publisher
    ..two steps of the FAP: kinin (aka drosokinin, leucokinin) neurons regulate pre-ecdysis behavior and CAMB neurons (CCAP, AstCC, MIP, and Bursicon) initiate the switch to ecdysis behavior...
  31. Vömel M, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of aminergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1848 pubmed publisher facilitates the identification of neuronal network contacts and co-localized signaling molecules, as exemplified for DOPA decarboxylase-synthesizing neurons that co-express crustacean cardioactive peptide and myoinhibiting peptides.
  32. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..cells, where it was found to code for a receptor that could be activated by low concentrations of crustacean cardioactive peptide, which is a neuropeptide also known to occur in Drosophila and other insects (EC(50), 5.4 x 10(-10)M)...
  33. Gatto C, Broadie K. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2011;356:291-307 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated ..
  34. Paré A, Dean D, Ewer J. Construction and characterization of deletions with defined end points in Drosophila using P elements in trans. Genetics. 2009;181:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..create genetic deletions that removed a number of loci, including the gene encoding the neuropeptide crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Two classes of recombinant chromosomes were produced...
  35. Morton D, Stewart J, Langlais K, Clemens Grisham R, Vermehren A. Synaptic transmission in neurons that express the Drosophila atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases, Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db, is necessary for the successful completion of larval and adult ecdysis. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:1645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..By using the conditional expression of tetanus toxin we were also able to demonstrate that synaptic activity in the Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db neurons is required during early adult development for adult eclosion. ..
  36. Hwang J, de Bruyne M, Warr C, Burke R. Copper overload and deficiency both adversely affect the central nervous system of Drosophila. Metallomics. 2014;6:2223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both copper overload and excess have detrimental effects on Drosophila neuronal function, reducing overall fly viability as well as impacting on a specific neuropeptide pathway. ..
  37. Ma Z, Liu Z, Huang X. Membrane phospholipid asymmetry counters the adverse effects of sterol overloading in the Golgi membrane of Drosophila. Genetics. 2012;190:1299-308 pubmed publisher
  38. Zhou B, Williams D, Altman J, Riddiford L, Truman J. Temporal patterns of broad isoform expression during the development of neuronal lineages in Drosophila. Neural Dev. 2009;4:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Two other Broad isoforms, by contrast, are stably expressed in cohorts of neurons in all lineages and are the first examples of persisting molecular 'time-stamps' for Drosophila postembryonic neurons. ..
  39. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  40. Harwood B, Draper I, Kopin A. Targeted inactivation of the rickets receptor in muscle compromises Drosophila viability. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:4091-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings highlight the utility of membrane-tethered inhibitors as important genetic/pharmacological tools to dissect the tissue-specific roles of GPCRs in vivo. ..
  41. Moris Sanz M, Estacio Gómez A, Sánchez Herrero E, Díaz Benjumea F. The study of the Bithorax-complex genes in patterning CCAP neurons reveals a temporal control of neuronal differentiation by Abd-B. Biol Open. 2015;4:1132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..the Bithorax-complex genes - Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B - in sculpting the pattern of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-expressing neurons...
  42. Tayler T, Pacheco D, Hergarden A, Murthy M, Anderson D. A neuropeptide circuit that coordinates sperm transfer and copulation duration in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20697-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that four Crz INs independently control SSFT and copulation duration, thereby coupling the timing of these two processes. ..
  43. Johnson E, Tift F, McCauley A, Liu L, Roman G. Functional characterization of kurtz, a Drosophila non-visual arrestin, reveals conservation of GPCR desensitization mechanisms. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we report that kurtz mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to osmotic stress, implicating GPCR desensitization as an important feature of the endocrine events that shape this stress response. ..
  44. Moris Sanz M, Estacio Gómez A, Alvarez Rivero J, Díaz Benjumea F. Specification of neuronal subtypes by different levels of Hunchback. Development. 2014;141:4366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..we analyzed the specification of the neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila that express Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). There are two types of CCAP neurons: interneurons and efferent neurons...
  45. Peterson C, Carney G, Taylor B, White K. reaper is required for neuroblast apoptosis during Drosophila development. Development. 2002;129:1467-76 pubmed
    ..Although both the ecdysone hormone receptor complex and p53 directly regulate rpr transcription, rpr was found to play a limited role in inducing apoptosis in response to either of these signals. ..
  46. Rosato E, Kyriacou C. Flies, clocks and evolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:1769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in clock gene sequences between and within fly species is examined and the role of co-evolution between and within clock molecules is described, particularly with reference to adaptive functions of the circadian phenotype...