Gene Symbol: cas
Description: castor
Alias: CG2102, Cas, Dmel\CG2102, l(3)j1C2, l(3)neo33, ming, castor, CG2102-PA, CG2102-PC, cas-PA, cas-PC
Species: fruit fly
Products:     cas

Top Publications

  1. Grosskortenhaus R, Pearson B, Marusich A, Doe C. Regulation of temporal identity transitions in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2005;8:193-202 pubmed
    ..for studying temporal identity: they sequentially express four genes (hunchback --> Kruppel --> pdm1 --> castor) whose temporal regulation is essential for generating neuronal diversity...
  2. Kambadur R, Koizumi K, Stivers C, Nagle J, Poole S, Odenwald W. Regulation of POU genes by castor and hunchback establishes layered compartments in the Drosophila CNS. Genes Dev. 1998;12:246-60 pubmed
    ..We report all known Drosophila POU genes require castor (cas) for correct CNS expression...
  3. Nakajima A, Isshiki T, Kaneko K, Ishihara S. Robustness under functional constraint: the genetic network for temporal expression in Drosophila neurogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000760 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the Drosophila network for sequential expression has evolved to generate the robust temporal expression for neuronal specification. ..
  4. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We have addressed this issue in an identifiable Drosophila CNS lineage and find that a broad castor temporal window is subdivided by two different feed-forward loops, both of which are triggered by castor itself...
  5. Cui X, Doe C. ming is expressed in neuroblast sublineages and regulates gene expression in the Drosophila central nervous system. Development. 1992;116:943-52 pubmed
    ..We used an enhancer trap screen to identify the ming gene, which is transiently expressed in a subset of neuroblasts at reproducible points in their cell lineage (i.e...
  6. Hitier R, Chaminade M, Preat T. The Drosophila castor gene is involved in postembryonic brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;103:3-11 pubmed
    b>castor (cas) encodes a zink finger protein expressed in a subset of Drosophila embryonic neuroglioblasts where it controls neuronal differentiation...
  7. Cleary M, Doe C. Regulation of neuroblast competence: multiple temporal identity factors specify distinct neuronal fates within a single early competence window. Genes Dev. 2006;20:429-34 pubmed
    ..early window of competence to respond to four different temporal identity genes (Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm, and Castor); that each of these factors specifies distinct motor neuron identities within this competence window but not ..
  8. Wang S, Tulina N, Carlin D, Rulifson E. The origin of islet-like cells in Drosophila identifies parallels to the vertebrate endocrine axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19873-8 pubmed
    ..This ontogenic-molecular concordance suggests that a rudimentary brain endocrine axis was present in the common ancestor of humans and flies, where it orchestrated the islet-like endocrine functions of insulin and glucagon biology. ..
  9. Tran K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage. Development. 2008;135:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the transcription factors Hunchback, Kruppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm) and Castor as they generate a stereotyped sequence of neuronal and glial progeny...

More Information


  1. Brody T, Yavatkar A, Kuzin A, Kundu M, Tyson L, Ross J, et al. Use of a Drosophila genome-wide conserved sequence database to identify functionally related cis-regulatory enhancers. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:169-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The database and accompanying algorithms should prove useful in the discovery and analysis of enhancers involved in any developmental process. ..
  2. Grosskortenhaus R, Robinson K, Doe C. Pdm and Castor specify late-born motor neuron identity in the NB7-1 lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2618-27 pubmed
    ..Embryonic neuroblasts sequentially express Hunchback, Krüppel, Pdm1/Pdm2 (Pdm), and Castor (Cas) transcription factors...
  3. Chai P, Liu Z, Chia W, Cai Y. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001494 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit...
  4. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  5. Kuzin A, Kundu M, Ross J, Koizumi K, Brody T, Odenwald W. The cis-regulatory dynamics of the Drosophila CNS determinant castor are controlled by multiple sub-pattern enhancers. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..precursor cells or neuroblasts (NBs) is marked by the expression of a zinc-finger transcription factor (TF) gene, castor (cas)...
  6. Kanai M, Okabe M, Hiromi Y. seven-up Controls switching of transcription factors that specify temporal identities of Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2005;8:203-13 pubmed
    ..Lineage analysis provides evidence that svp is required to switch off HB at the proper time. Thus, svp modifies the self-renewal stem cell program to allow chronological change of cell fates, thereby generating neuronal diversity. ..
  7. Mellerick D, Kassis J, Zhang S, Odenwald W. castor encodes a novel zinc finger protein required for the development of a subset of CNS neurons in Drosophila. Neuron. 1992;9:789-803 pubmed
    Using an enhancer detection screen, we have identified castor, a new gene required for embryonic CNS development in Drosophila...
  8. Clements M, Duncan D, Milbrandt J. Drosophila NAB (dNAB) is an orphan transcriptional co-repressor required for correct CNS and eye development. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:67-81 pubmed
    ..Similarly, dNAB overexpression in the eye causes eyes to be very small with few ommatidia. These dramatic eye-specific phenotypes will prove useful for enhancer/suppressor screens to identify dnab-interacting genes. ..
  9. Jan Y, Jan L. Neuronal cell fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994;4:8-13 pubmed
    ..Selective expression of certain neuronal-type selector genes further specifies the type of neuron(s) that a neural precursor will produce. ..
  10. Brody T, Odenwald W. Programmed transformations in neuroblast gene expression during Drosophila CNS lineage development. Dev Biol. 2000;226:34-44 pubmed
    ..of four proteins, Hunchback (Hb), Pou-homeodomain proteins 1 and 2 (referred to collectively as Pdm), and Castor (Cas), identifies a transcription factor network regulating the temporal development of all ganglia...
  11. Fontana J, Crews S. Transcriptome analysis of Drosophila CNS midline cells reveals diverse peptidergic properties and a role for castor in neuronal differentiation. Dev Biol. 2012;372:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila Castor transcription factor is present at high levels in iVUM5, which is both GABAergic and expresses the short ..
  12. Maurange C, Cheng L, Gould A. Temporal transcription factors and their targets schedule the end of neural proliferation in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;133:891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Castor and Seven-Up, members of this temporal series, regulate key events in many different neuroblast lineages during ..
  13. Ahn J, Yoo S, Park H, Jung K, Kim S, Jeon S. Drosophila castor is regulated negatively by the Ubx and abdA genes, but positively by the AbdB gene. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeotic genes are expressed over long periods of time and confer identity to the different segments. castor (cas) is one of the genes which are expressed in neuroblasts along the VNC...
  14. Pearson B, Doe C. Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila. Nature. 2003;425:624-8 pubmed
    ..These results match those observed in vertebrate systems, and establish Drosophila neuroblasts as a model system for the molecular genetic analysis of neural progenitor competence and plasticity. ..
  15. Isshiki T, Pearson B, Holbrook S, Doe C. Drosophila neuroblasts sequentially express transcription factors which specify the temporal identity of their neuronal progeny. Cell. 2001;106:511-21 pubmed
    ..neuroblasts) sequentially express the transcription factors Hunchback --> Krüppel --> Pdm --> Castor, with differentiated progeny maintaining the transcription factor profile present at their birth...
  16. Almeida M, Bray S. Regulation of post-embryonic neuroblasts by Drosophila Grainyhead. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1282-93 pubmed
    ..We investigated three candidates; the Neuroblast identify gene Castor, the signalling molecule Notch and the adhesion protein E-Cadherin, to determine whether they could mediate these ..
  17. Broadus J, Skeath J, Spana E, Bossing T, Technau G, Doe C. New neuroblast markers and the origin of the aCC/pCC neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1995;53:393-402 pubmed
    ..These results are supported by DiI cell lineage analysis of neuroblasts identified in vivo. ..
  18. Novotny T, Eiselt R, Urban J. Hunchback is required for the specification of the early sublineage of neuroblast 7-3 in the Drosophila central nervous system. Development. 2002;129:1027-36 pubmed
  19. Dumstrei K, Wang F, Hartenstein V. Role of DE-cadherin in neuroblast proliferation, neural morphogenesis, and axon tract formation in Drosophila larval brain development. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3325-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that DE-cadherin plays a pivotal role in larval brain proliferation, brain cortex morphogenesis, and axon growth. ..
  20. Zhang S, Kassis J, Olde B, Mellerick D, Odenwald W. Pollux, a novel Drosophila adhesion molecule, belongs to a family of proteins expressed in plants, yeast, nematodes, and man. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1108-19 pubmed
    ..Plx also contains a motor neuron-selective adhesive site, multiple proteoglycan-binding motifs, and a leucine zipper: all suggest possible associations with additional components of the adhesion complex. ..
  21. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, Molina I, Turiegano E, Torroja L, Thor S, et al. Klumpfuss controls FMRFamide expression by enabling BMP signaling within the NB5-6 lineage. Development. 2013;140:2181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to WT1, klu seems to have either self-renewal or differentiation-promoting functions, depending on the developmental context. ..
  22. Kantorovitz M, Kazemian M, Kinston S, Miranda Saavedra D, Zhu Q, Robinson G, et al. Motif-blind, genome-wide discovery of cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila and mouse. Dev Cell. 2009;17:568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, 7/7 predictions were validated successfully in vivo, demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach for insect and mammalian genomes. ..
  23. Tsuji T, Hasegawa E, Isshiki T. Neuroblast entry into quiescence is regulated intrinsically by the combined action of spatial Hox proteins and temporal identity factors. Development. 2008;135:3859-69 pubmed publisher
  24. Benito Sipos J, Ulvklo C, Gabilondo H, Baumgardt M, Angel A, Torroja L, et al. Seven up acts as a temporal factor during two different stages of neuroblast 5-6 development. Development. 2011;138:5311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This is controlled by a temporal cascade of Hb?Kr?Pdm?Cas?Grh, which acts to dictate distinct competence windows sequentially...
  25. Zhou L, Xiao H, Nambu J. CNS midline to mesoderm signaling in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1997;67:59-68 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data define a novel neuroectoderm to mesoderm signaling pathway and suggest that unique mesodermal cell types are specified by a combination of midline and segmental cues. ..
  26. Doe C. Chinmo and neuroblast temporal identity. Cell. 2006;127:254-6 pubmed
    ..In this issue, Zhu et al. (2006) identify the Chinmo protein as conferring temporal identity on the neural progeny of Drosophila neuroblasts, revealing appealing parallels with spatial patterning. ..
  27. Benito Sipos J, Estacio Gómez A, Moris Sanz M, Baumgardt M, Thor S, Diaz Benjumea F. A genetic cascade involving klumpfuss, nab and castor specifies the abdominal leucokinergic neurons in the Drosophila CNS. Development. 2010;137:3327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the products of the genes klumpfuss, nab and castor play important roles in their specification via a genetic cascade.
  28. Bellaiche Y, Schweisguth F. Lineage diversity in the Drosophila nervous system. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:418-23 pubmed
    ..The detailed descriptions of cellular lineages in the Drosophila nervous system have provided the foundations for an in-depth genetic analysis of the mechanisms that regulate fate decisions at every cell cycle. ..
  29. Chang J, Kim I, Ahn J, Kwon J, Jeon S, Kim S. The CNS midline cells coordinate proper cell cycle progression and identity determination of the Drosophila ventral neuroectoderm. Dev Biol. 2000;227:307-23 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that the CNS midline cells play important roles in the coordination of the proper cell cycle progression and the correct identity determination of the adjacent ventral neuroectoderm along the dorsoventral axis. ..
  30. Gabilondo H, Stratmann J, Rubio Ferrera I, Millán Crespo I, Contero García P, Bahrampour S, et al. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002450 pubmed publisher
    ..find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons...
  31. Stollewerk A, Simpson P. Evolution of early development of the nervous system: a comparison between arthropods. Bioessays. 2005;27:874-83 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that an evolutionary trend towards reduced cell numbers and possibly rapid embryogenesis in insects has culminated in the appearance of stereotyped neuroblast lineages. ..
  32. von Hilchen C, Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Technau G, Altenhein B. Identity, origin, and migration of peripheral glial cells in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2008;125:337-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutant analysis of two of these marker genes, spalt major and castor, reveal their implication in peripheral glial development...
  33. Kitajima A, Fuse N, Isshiki T, Matsuzaki F. Progenitor properties of symmetrically dividing Drosophila neuroblasts during embryonic and larval development. Dev Biol. 2010;347:9-23 pubmed publisher
  34. Tatomer D, Rizzardi L, Curry K, Witkowski A, Marzluff W, Duronio R. Drosophila Symplekin localizes dynamically to the histone locus body and tricellular junctions. Nucleus. 2014;5:613-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This localization depends on the RNA binding protein ypsilon schachtel. CPSF-73 and a number of mRNAs are localized at this same site, suggesting that Symplekin participates in cytoplasmic polyadenylation at tricellular junctions. ..
  35. Lai S, Doe C. Transient nuclear Prospero induces neural progenitor quiescence. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Prospero levels distinguish three progenitor fates: absent for self-renewal, low for quiescence, and high for differentiation. ..
  36. Zhao G, Skeath J. The Sox-domain containing gene Dichaete/fish-hook acts in concert with vnd and ind to regulate cell fate in the Drosophila neuroectoderm. Development. 2002;129:1165-74 pubmed
  37. Hwang H, Rulifson E. Serial specification of diverse neuroblast identities from a neurogenic placode by Notch and Egfr signaling. Development. 2011;138:2883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the surprising parallels between the serial specification of neural fates from this neurogenic placode and the fly retina. ..
  38. Lorbeck M, Pirooznia K, Sarthi J, Zhu X, Elefant F. Microarray analysis uncovers a role for Tip60 in nervous system function and general metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18412 pubmed publisher
  39. Ma Q, Wawersik M, MATUNIS E. The Jak-STAT target Chinmo prevents sex transformation of adult stem cells in the Drosophila testis niche. Dev Cell. 2014;31:474-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work indicates that sex maintenance occurs in adult somatic stem cells and that this highly conserved process is governed by effectors of niche signals. PAPERCLIP: ..
  40. Kim K, Yoo S. Sequence-specific interaction between ABD-B homeodomain and castor gene in Drosophila. BMB Rep. 2014;47:92-7 pubmed
    We have examined the effect of bithorax complex genes on the expression of castor gene...
  41. Koizumi K, Stivers C, Brody T, Zangeneh S, Mozer B, Odenwald W. A search for Drosophila neural precursor genes identifies ran. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:67-75 pubmed
    ..However, expression of the dominant-negative mutant ran in the developing eye/antenna disc did result in a severe adult eye phenotype marked by apoptosis of photoreceptor, cone and pigment cells. ..
  42. Suzuki T, Sato M. Neurogenesis and neuronal circuit formation in the Drosophila visual center. Dev Growth Differ. 2014;56:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent investigations into the development of the medulla and discuss the mechanisms that establish functional neuronal circuits. ..
  43. Kao C, Yu H, He Y, Kao J, Lee T. Hierarchical deployment of factors regulating temporal fate in a diverse neuronal lineage of the Drosophila central brain. Neuron. 2012;73:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..complete lineage sequence to examine the role of known temporal fating factors, including Chinmo and the Hb/Kr/Pdm/Cas transcriptional cascade, within this diverse central brain lineage...
  44. Sedaghat Y, Sonnenfeld M. The jing gene is required for embryonic brain development in Drosophila [corrected]. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:277-87 pubmed the brain midline and lateral clusters as determined by co-localization of the lacZ gene product with Repo and Castor, respectively...
  45. Brody T, Odenwald W. Cellular diversity in the developing nervous system: a temporal view from Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3763-70 pubmed
    ..states have so far been identified, characterized by the successive expression of Hb-->Kr-->Pdm-->Cas-->Gh in many, but not all, neuroblasts...
  46. Dorer D, Ezekiel D, Christensen A. The Triplo-lethal locus of Drosophila: reexamination of mutants and discovery of a second-site suppressor. Genetics. 1995;141:1037-42 pubmed
    ..Su(Tpl) mutations suppress the lethality associated with three copies of the Triplo-lethal locus and are recessive lethal. We have mapped Su(Tpl) to the approximate map position 3-46.5, within the cytological region 76B-76D. ..
  47. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Salmani B, Bivik C, MacDonald R, Gunnar E, et al. Global programmed switch in neural daughter cell proliferation mode triggered by a temporal gene cascade. Dev Cell. 2014;30:192-208 pubmed publisher
    ..In the thoracic region, Dacapo expression is activated by the temporal cascade (castor) and the Hox gene Antennapedia...
  48. Park K, Moon S, Kim S, Jeon S. Ectopic Repo suppresses expression of castor gene in Drosophila central nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the NB genes, castor (cas), is expressed in a subset of NBs and has never been identified in neurons and the peripheral nervous system; ..
  49. Zhong W. Diversifying neural cells through order of birth and asymmetry of division. Neuron. 2003;37:11-4 pubmed
    ..Drosophila genes governing temporal cell fate determination and asymmetric cell divisions involving numb may represent evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for regulating cell fate diversification in the developing nervous system. ..
  50. Touma J, Weckerle F, Cleary M. Drosophila Polycomb complexes restrict neuroblast competence to generate motoneurons. Development. 2012;139:657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model in which PRCs establish motoneuron-specific competence windows in neuroblasts that transition from motoneuron to interneuron production. ..
  51. Stivers C, Brody T, Kuzin A, Odenwald W. Nerfin-1 and -2, novel Drosophila Zn-finger transcription factor genes expressed in the developing nervous system. Mech Dev. 2000;97:205-10 pubmed
    ..Possessing a conserved putative DNA-binding domain, the predicted Nerfin-1 and -2 proteins belong to a subfamily of Zn-finger transcription factors with cognates identified in nematode, mouse and man. ..
  52. Harris W. Temporal coordinates: the genes that fix cell fate with birth order. Dev Cell. 2001;1:313-4 pubmed
    ..In analogy to spatial coordinate genes that specify neuroblasts by position, these sequentially expressed genes can be called "temporal coordinate genes." ..
  53. Chang Y, Jang A, Lin C, Montell D. Castor is required for Hedgehog-dependent cell-fate specification and follicle stem cell maintenance in Drosophila oogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify Castor (Cas) as a nuclear protein that is expressed in FSCs and early follicle cell precursors and then is restricted to ..
  54. Hartmann B, Hirth F, Walldorf U, Reichert H. Expression, regulation and function of the homeobox gene empty spiracles in brain and ventral nerve cord development of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2000;90:143-53 pubmed
    ..In the posterior brain and VNC ems is necessary for correct axonal pathfinding of specific interneurons. Rescue experiments indicate that the murine Emx2 gene can partially replace the fly ems gene in CNS development. ..
  55. Zacharioudaki E, Housden B, Garinis G, Stojnic R, Delidakis C, Bray S. Genes implicated in stem cell identity and temporal programme are directly targeted by Notch in neuroblast tumours. Development. 2016;143:219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results suggest that Notch induces neuroblast tumours by directly promoting the expression of genes that contribute to stem cell identity and by reprogramming the expression of factors that could regulate maturity. ..
  56. Ross J, Kuzin A, Brody T, Odenwald W. cis-regulatory analysis of the Drosophila pdm locus reveals a diversity of neural enhancers. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:700 pubmed publisher
  57. Lacin H, Zhu Y, Wilson B, Skeath J. Transcription factor expression uniquely identifies most postembryonic neuronal lineages in the Drosophila thoracic central nervous system. Development. 2014;141:1011-21 pubmed publisher
  58. Aerts S, Vilain S, Hu S, Tranchevent L, Barriot R, Yan J, et al. Integrating computational biology and forward genetics in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000351 pubmed publisher
    ..A systems genetics approach that combines the power of computational predictions with in vivo genetic screens strongly enhances the process of gene function and gene-gene association discovery. ..
  59. Livesey R, Cepko C. Neurobiology. Developing order. Nature. 2001;413:471, 473 pubmed
  60. Jones B. Transcriptional control of glial cell development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;278:265-73 pubmed
  61. Ulvklo C, Macdonald R, Bivik C, Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Thor S. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression. Development. 2012;139:678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers. ..
  62. Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Altenhein B, Technau G. Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expression. Mech Dev. 2008;125:542-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells.
  63. Cui X, Doe C. The role of the cell cycle and cytokinesis in regulating neuroblast sublineage gene expression in the Drosophila CNS. Development. 1995;121:3233-43 pubmed
    ..Here we show that four genes (ming, even-skipped, unplugged and achaete) are expressed in specific neuroblast sublineages...
  64. Fuse N, Hisata K, Katzen A, Matsuzaki F. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate daughter cell size asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblast divisions. Curr Biol. 2003;13:947-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the multiple equal cleavages of G beta mutant neuroblasts accompany neural defects; this finding suggests indispensable roles of eccentric division in assuring the stem cell properties of neuroblasts. ..
  65. Abbott A. Heterochronic genes. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R824-5 pubmed
  66. Green H, Wang N. Codon reiteration and the evolution of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4298-302 pubmed
    ..The preferential generation of such reiterants requires that DNA strand-specific signals predispose to reiteration and thus to the extension of coding regions. ..
  67. Jimenez F, Modolell J. Neural fate specification in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:626-32 pubmed
    ..These comprise the initial selection of neural precursors from the ectoderm, the implementation of a basic neural fate common to all precursors and the concomitant endowment of each precursor and its progeny with specific fates. ..
  68. Uhler J, Garbern J, Yang L, Kamholz J, Mellerick D. Nk6, a novel Drosophila homeobox gene regulated by vnd. Mech Dev. 2002;116:105-16 pubmed
    ..Conversely, vnd-overexpression leads to ectopic Nk6 expression in the brain. These findings further highlight the importance of interactions between Nk(x)-type genes in regulating their expression. ..