Gene Symbol: Capa
Description: Capability
Alias: CAP, CAP-2b, CAP2B-1, CAP2B-2, CAP2B-3, CAP2B/pyrokinin, CAP2b, CAP2b-1, CAP2b-2, CAP2b-3, CAPA, CAPA-PK, CAPA-PVK-1, CAPA-PVK-2, CAPA-PVK/PK, CAP[[2b]], CG15520, CPPB, Cap-1, Cap-2, Cap-2b, Cap-3, Capa-1, Capa-2, Dmel\CG15520, Drm-CAP-1, Drm-CAP-2, Drm-CAP2b/MT, Drm-MT, Drm-PK, Drm-PK-1, Drm-PVK, Drm-PVK-1, Drm-PVK-2, Drm-capa-1, Drome-capa-1, PVK-2, capa, capa 2, capa-1, capa-2, capa-3, pyrokinin/PBAN-like, capability, CAP, CAP2B-like, CG15520-PA, Capa-PA, Drm-myotropin, TGPSASSGLWFGPRLamide, cardio acceleratory peptide, cardioacceleratory peptide-2b, myotropin, myotropin-CAP2b-like, periviscerokinin, pyrokinin, pyrokinin-1, pyrokinin-like
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Pollock V, McGettigan J, Cabrero P, Maudlin I, Dow J, Davies S. Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:4135-45 pubmed
    In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport...
  2. Predel R, Wegener C, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Peptidomics of CNS-associated neurohemal systems of adult Drosophila melanogaster: a mass spectrometric survey of peptides from individual flies. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:379-92 pubmed
    ..neurohemal organs and their supplying peptidergic neurons contain the capa gene products periviscerokinins and pyrokinin-1, thoracic neurohemal organs contain FMRFamides, and the neurohemal release sites of the brain contain ..
  3. Park Y, Kim Y, Adams M. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors for Drosophila PRXamide peptides, CCAP, corazonin, and AKH supports a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11423-8 pubmed
    ..NMU group (CG14575 [corrected], CG8795, CG9918, CG8784) are activated by insect PRXa pyrokinins, (-FXPRXamide), Cap2b-like peptides (-FPRXamide), or ecdysis triggering hormones (-PRXamide)...
  4. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..
  5. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..This clearly demonstrates that the two-dimensional capillary LC approach enhances the coverage of the peptidomic analysis. ..
  6. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  7. Wegener C, Reinl T, Jänsch L, Predel R. Direct mass spectrometric peptide profiling and fragmentation of larval peptide hormone release sites in Drosophila melanogaster reveals tagma-specific peptide expression and differential processing. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1362-74 pubmed
    ..We also found a hitherto unknown peptide product of the capa gene in the ring gland and transverse nerves, suggesting that it might be released as hormone...
  8. Southall T, Terhzaz S, Cabrero P, Chintapalli V, Evans J, Dow J, et al. Novel subcellular locations and functions for secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPases. Physiol Genomics. 2006;26:35-45 pubmed
    ..SPoCk thus contributed to both of the contrasting requirements for Ca2+ in transporting epithelia: to transport or store Ca2+ in bulk without compromising its use as a signal...
  9. Santos J, Pollak E, Rexer K, Molnar L, Wegener C. Morphology and metamorphosis of the peptidergic Va neurons and the median nerve system of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;326:187-99 pubmed
    ..performed a detailed study of the larval morphology and pupal remodelling of identified peptidergic neurons, the CAPA-expressing Va neurons of D. melanogaster...

More Information


  1. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..cells and found that the receptor was activated by two neuropeptides, capa-1 and -2, encoded by the Drosophila capability gene...
  2. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40368-74 pubmed
    ..This neuropeptide expression profiling study also opens perspectives for other eukaryotic model systems, for which genome projects are completed or in progress. ..
  3. Kean L, Cazenave W, Costes L, Broderick K, Graham S, Pollock V, et al. Two nitridergic peptides are encoded by the gene capability in Drosophila melanogaster. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;282:R1297-307 pubmed
    ..Capa-1 and capa-2 are related to the lepidopteran hormone cardioacceleratory peptide 2b, while capa-3 is a novel member of the pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide/diapause hormone/..
  4. Terhzaz S, Finlayson A, Stirrat L, Yang J, Tricoire H, Woods D, et al. Cell-specific inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate 3-kinase mediates epithelial cell apoptosis in response to oxidative stress in Drosophila. Cell Signal. 2010;22:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, targeted over-expression of either debcl or buffy to tubule principal cells does not impact on tubule caspase-9 activity. Thus, IP(3)K-1 modulates epithelial cell apoptosis without involvement of bcl-2-type proteins. ..
  5. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  6. Choi M, Rafaeli A, Jurenka R. Pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;306:459-65 pubmed
    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides found in insects is characterized by a 5-amino-acid C-terminal sequence, FXPRLamide...
  7. Bader R, Wegener C, Pankratz M. Comparative neuroanatomy and genomics of hugin and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). Fly (Austin). 2007;1:228-31 pubmed
    ..One concerns the polarity of hugin neurons. The other is an evolutionary perspective on the processing of hugin neuropeptides in light of new data from mass spectrometric and genomic analyses. ..
  8. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..We found that both receptors can be activated by low concentrations of the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2 (CG8784, EC(50) for pyrokinin-2, 1x10(-9)M; CG8795, EC(50) for pyrokinin-2, 5 x 10(-10)M)...
  9. Cazzamali G, Torp M, Hauser F, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. The Drosophila gene CG9918 codes for a pyrokinin-1 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:14-9 pubmed
    ..receptor and found that it was activated by low concentrations of the Drosophila neuropeptide, pyrokinin-1 (TGPSASSGLWFGPRLamide; EC50, 5 x 10(-8) M)...
  10. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  11. Overend G, Cabrero P, Guo A, Sebastian S, Cundall M, Armstrong H, et al. The receptor guanylate cyclase Gyc76C and a peptide ligand, NPLP1-VQQ, modulate the innate immune IMD pathway in response to salt stress. Peptides. 2012;34:209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the principal-cell localized NPLP1-VQQ/Gyc76C cGMP pathway acts to signal environmental (salt) stress to the whole organism. ..
  12. Terhzaz S, Southall T, Lilley K, Kean L, Allan A, Davies S, et al. Differential gel electrophoresis and transgenic mitochondrial calcium reporters demonstrate spatiotemporal filtering in calcium control of mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18849-58 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the dynamic nature and both spatial and temporal heterogeneity of calcium signaling possible in differentiated, organotypic cells and provide a new model for neuroendocrine control of V-ATPase. ..
  13. Min S, Chae H, Jang Y, Choi S, Lee S, Jeong Y, et al. Identification of a Peptidergic Pathway Critical to Satiety Responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2016;26:814-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal a novel anorexigenic pathway that controls satiety in Drosophila and provide a new avenue to study how the brain actively maintains a constant BW. ..
  14. Davies S, Stewart E, Huesmann G, Skaer N, Maddrell S, Tublitz N, et al. Neuropeptide stimulation of the nitric oxide signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubules. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:R823-7 pubmed
    ..The neuropeptide cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b) has been previously shown to stimulate fluid secretion in this epithelium by elevating ..
  15. Davies S. Nitric oxide signalling in insects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:1123-38 pubmed
  16. Terhzaz S, Cabrero P, Robben J, Radford J, Hudson B, Milligan G, et al. Mechanism and function of Drosophila capa GPCR: a desiccation stress-responsive receptor with functional homology to human neuromedinU receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29897 pubmed publisher
    The capa peptide receptor, capaR (CG14575), is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the D. melanogaster capa neuropeptides, Drm-capa-1 and -2 (capa-1 and -2)...
  17. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Williamson M, Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect proctolin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:437-42 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila receptor reported here is the first invertebrate proctolin receptor to be identified. ..
  18. Thomas A, Lee P, Dalton J, Nomie K, Stoica L, Costa Mattioli M, et al. A versatile method for cell-specific profiling of translated mRNAs in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40276 pubmed publisher
    ..This method can be used to determine the unique translatome profiles in different cell-types under varied physiological, pharmacological and pathological conditions. ..
  19. Suska A, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Segment-specific generation of Drosophila Capability neuropeptide neurons by multi-faceted Hox cues. Dev Biol. 2011;353:72-80 pubmed publisher
    In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord, the three pairs of Capability neuropeptide-expressing Va neurons are exclusively found in the second, third and fourth abdominal segments (A2-A4)...
  20. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  21. Day J, Wan S, Allan A, Kean L, Davies S, Gray J, et al. Identification of two partners from the bacterial Kef exchanger family for the apical plasma membrane V-ATPase of Metazoa. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both CG10806 and CG31052 are functionally members of the CPA2 gene family, colocalise to the same apical membrane as the plasma membrane V-ATPase and show distinct ion specificities, as expected for the Wieczorek exchanger. ..
  22. Karsai G, Pollak E, Wacker M, Vömel M, Selcho M, Berta G, et al. Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:127 pubmed publisher
  23. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..
  24. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9808-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the molecular identification of specific insect myosuppressin receptors. ..
  25. Terhzaz S, Teets N, Cabrero P, Henderson L, Ritchie M, Nachman R, et al. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2882-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species...
  26. Choi M, Fuerst E, Rafaeli A, Jurenka R. Identification of a G protein-coupled receptor for pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from pheromone glands of the moth Helicoverpa zea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9721-6 pubmed
    ..We have identified a GPCR for the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides with a known function of stimulating pheromone biosynthesis in female moths...
  27. Terhzaz S, Overend G, Sebastian S, Dow J, Davies S. The D. melanogaster capa-1 neuropeptide activates renal NF-kB signaling. Peptides. 2014;53:218-24 pubmed publisher
    The capa peptide family exists in a very wide range of insects including species of medical, veterinary and agricultural importance...
  28. Blumenthal E. Characterization of transepithelial potential oscillations in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3075-84 pubmed
    ..which increases calcium levels in the stellate cells, suppressed the oscillations, whereas cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), which increases calcium levels in the principal cells, had no effect...
  29. Yang M, Wang Z, MacPherson M, Dow J, Kaiser K. A novel Drosophila alkaline phosphatase specific to the ellipsoid body of the adult brain and the lower Malpighian (renal) tubule. Genetics. 2000;154:285-97 pubmed
    ..Rates of fluid secretion in tubules from c507 homozygotes are reduced, both basally, and after stimulation by CAP(2b), cAMP, or Drosophila leucokinin...
  30. Kondo S, Ueda R. Highly improved gene targeting by germline-specific Cas9 expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3-23%. Our method is readily scalable to high-throughput gene targeting, thereby accelerating comprehensive functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. ..
  31. Davies S, Huesmann G, Maddrell S, O Donnell M, Skaer N, Dow J, et al. CAP2b, a cardioacceleratory peptide, is present in Drosophila and stimulates tubule fluid secretion via cGMP. Am J Physiol. 1995;269:R1321-6 pubmed
    A cardioacceleratory peptide, CAP2b, identified originally in the lepidopteran Manduca sexta, stimulates fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules of the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster...
  32. Wegener C, Herbert Z, Eckert M, Predel R. The periviscerokinin (PVK) peptide family in insects: evidence for the inclusion of CAP(2b) as a PVK family member. Peptides. 2002;23:605-11 pubmed
    ..The cardioacceleratory peptide CAP(2b) of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta shares close amino acid identity with the PVKs and may thus be included as a ..
  33. Ierusalimsky V, Balaban P. Neuropeptides of Drosophila related to molluscan neuropeptides: dependence of the immunoreactivity pattern on the ontogenetic stage and functional state. Brain Res. 2007;1152:32-41 pubmed
    ..were used: one against CNP2, which was expected to recognize peptide products of the genes "hugin", "capa", CG6371, and a second antiserum against CNP4, which was expected to recognize neuropeptides encoded by the ..
  34. Park Y, Kim Y, Dupriez V, Adams M. Two subtypes of ecdysis-triggering hormone receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17710-5 pubmed
  35. MacPherson M, Pollock V, Kean L, Southall T, Giannakou M, Broderick K, et al. Transient receptor potential-like channels are essential for calcium signaling and fluid transport in a Drosophila epithelium. Genetics. 2005;169:1541-52 pubmed
    ..Neuropeptide (CAP(2b))-stimulated fluid transport rates were significantly reduced in tubules from the trpl(302) mutant and the trpl;..
  36. O Donnell M, Ianowski J, Linton S, Rheault M. Inorganic and organic anion transport by insect renal epithelia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1618:194-206 pubmed
    ..Insect renal epithelia are also important in excretion of potentially toxic organic anions, and the transporters involved may play a role in resistance to insecticides of natural or anthropogenic origin. ..
  37. MacPherson M, Lohmann S, Davies S. Analysis of Drosophila cGMP-dependent protein kinases and assessment of their in vivo roles by targeted expression in a renal transporting epithelium. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40026-34 pubmed
    ..cGMP, whereas DG2P2 expression significantly increased fluid transport in response to the nitridergic neuropeptide, capa-1...
  38. Salisbury J, Boggio K, Hsu Y, Quijada J, Sivachenko A, Gloeckner G, et al. A rapid MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry workflow for Drosophila melanogaster differential neuropeptidomics. Mol Brain. 2013;6:60 pubmed publisher
    ..While the data analysis methods should be compatible with other sample preparations, the presented sample preparation method was sufficient to identify previously unconfirmed D. melanogaster neuropeptides. ..
  39. Wegener C, Herbert H, Kahnt J, Bender M, Rhea J. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila. J Neurochem. 2011;118:581-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. ..
  40. MacPherson M, Broderick K, Graham S, Day J, Houslay M, Dow J, et al. The dg2 (for) gene confers a renal phenotype in Drosophila by modulation of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:2769-76 pubmed
    ..This manifests itself as hypersensitivity of epithelial fluid transport to the nitridergic neuropeptide, capa-1, which acts through nitric oxide and cGMP...