Gene Symbol: can
Description: cannonball
Alias: CG6577, Can, Dmel\CG6577, TAF5L, Taf5L, WSB-1, dTAF5L, dTAF[[II]]80, dmTAF5b, cannonball, CG6577-PA, can-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lin T, Viswanathan S, Wood C, Wilson P, Wolf N, Fuller M. Coordinate developmental control of the meiotic cell cycle and spermatid differentiation in Drosophila males. Development. 1996;122:1331-41 pubmed
    Wild-type function of four Drosophila genes, spermatocyte arrest, cannonball, always early and meiosis I arrest, is required both for cell-cycle progression through the G2/M transition of meiosis I in males and for onset of spermatid ..
  2. El Sharnouby S, Redhouse J, White R. Genome-wide and cell-specific epigenetic analysis challenges the role of polycomb in Drosophila spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003842 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of Polycomb at tTAF-dependent spermatogenesis genes in precursor cells argues against a model where Polycomb displacement is the mechanism of spermatogenesis gene activation. ..
  3. White Cooper H, Leroy D, MacQueen A, Fuller M. Transcription of meiotic cell cycle and terminal differentiation genes depends on a conserved chromatin associated protein, whose nuclear localisation is regulated. Development. 2000;127:5463-73 pubmed
    ..We favour a model where aly may regulate cell cycle progression and terminal differentiation during male gametogenesis by regulating chromatin conformation in primary spermatocytes. ..
  4. Perezgasga L, Jiang J, Bolival B, Hiller M, Benson E, Fuller M, et al. Regulation of transcription of meiotic cell cycle and terminal differentiation genes by the testis-specific Zn-finger protein matotopetli. Development. 2004;131:1691-702 pubmed
    ..depend on both topi and achi/vis; however, a small subset of target genes are differentially sensitive to loss of topi or achi/vis, suggesting that these aly-class predicted DNA binding proteins can act independently in some contexts.
  5. Hiller M, Lin T, Wood C, Fuller M. Developmental regulation of transcription by a tissue-specific TAF homolog. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1021-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the cannonball gene of Drosophila encodes a cell type-specific homolog of a more ubiquitously expressed component of the ..
  6. Hempel L, Rathke C, Raja S, Renkawitz Pohl R. In Drosophila, don juan and don juan like encode proteins of the spermatid nucleus and the flagellum and both are regulated at the transcriptional level by the TAF II80 cannonball while translational repression is achieved by distinct elements. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1053-64 pubmed
    ..Transcription of don juan and don juan like depends on the male germ line specific TAF(II)80, Cannonball (Can)...
  7. Jiang J, White Cooper H. Transcriptional activation in Drosophila spermatogenesis involves the mutually dependent function of aly and a novel meiotic arrest gene cookie monster. Development. 2003;130:563-73 pubmed
    ..The meiotic arrest genes have been subdivided into aly and can classes, based on the mechanism by which they control cell cycle progression...
  8. Goodrich J, Tjian R. Unexpected roles for core promoter recognition factors in cell-type-specific transcription and gene regulation. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, new roles for components of these complexes have been identified beyond development; for example, in mediating interactions with chromatin and in maintaining active gene expression across cell divisions. ..
  9. Hiller M, Chen X, Pringle M, Suchorolski M, Sancak Y, Viswanathan S, et al. Testis-specific TAF homologs collaborate to control a tissue-specific transcription program. Development. 2004;131:5297-308 pubmed
    ..The cannonball (can) gene of Drosophila encodes a homolog of a TBP-associated factor (dTAF5) protein expressed only in ..

More Information


  1. Chen X, Hiller M, Sancak Y, Fuller M. Tissue-specific TAFs counteract Polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Science. 2005;310:869-72 pubmed
    ..Testis TAFs also promoted relocalization of Polycomb Repression Complex 1 components to the nucleolus in spermatocytes, implicating subnuclear architecture in the regulation of terminal differentiation. ..
  2. Wang Z, Mann R. Requirement for two nearly identical TGIF-related homeobox genes in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2003;130:2853-65 pubmed
  3. Tora L. A unified nomenclature for TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) involved in RNA polymerase II transcription. Genes Dev. 2002;16:673-5 pubmed
  4. Leser K, Awe S, Barckmann B, Renkawitz Pohl R, Rathke C. The bromodomain-containing protein tBRD-1 is specifically expressed in spermatocytes and is essential for male fertility. Biol Open. 2012;1:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..By inhibitor treatment of cultured testis we observed that sub-cellular localisation of tBRD-1 may depend on the acetylation status of primary spermatocytes. ..
  5. Lu C, Kim J, Fuller M. The polyubiquitin gene Ubi-p63E is essential for male meiotic cell cycle progression and germ cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:3522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a conserved role of polyubiquitin genes in male meiosis and a potential mechanism leading to meiosis I maturation arrest. ..
  6. Chen X, Lu C, Morillo Prado J, Eun S, Fuller M. Sequential changes at differentiation gene promoters as they become active in a stem cell lineage. Development. 2011;138:2441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the action of the tMAC and tTAF cell type-specific chromatin and transcription machinery leads to loss of Polycomb and release of stalled Pol II from the terminal differentiation gene promoters, allowing robust transcription. ..
  7. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. Nucleolar colocalization of TAF1 and testis-specific TAFs during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2836-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest stepwise assembly of a testis-specific TFIID complex (tTFIID) whereby a TAF1 isoform, presumably TAF1-2, is recruited to a core subassembly of tTAFs in spermatocyte nucleoli. ..
  8. Barckmann B, Chen X, Kaiser S, Jayaramaiah Raja S, Rathke C, Dottermusch Heidel C, et al. Three levels of regulation lead to protamine and Mst77F expression in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;377:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the proper spatiotemporal expression pattern of major sperm chromatin components depends on cell-type-specific mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control. ..
  9. White Cooper H, Schafer M, Alphey L, Fuller M. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms coordinate the onset of spermatid differentiation with meiosis I in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:125-34 pubmed
    The aly, can, mia and sa genes of Drosophila are essential in males both for the G2-meiosis I transition and for onset of spermatid differentiation...
  10. Hwa J, Zhu A, Hiller M, Kon C, Fuller M, Santel A. Germ-line specific variants of components of the mitochondrial outer membrane import machinery in Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 2004;572:141-6 pubmed
    ..Transcription of tomboy20 and tomboy40 in spermatocytes was not dependent on the transcription factor Cannonball, which is responsible for controlling expression of gene products exclusively required for post-meiotic germ ..
  11. Guelman S, Suganuma T, Florens L, Weake V, Swanson S, Washburn M, et al. The essential gene wda encodes a WD40 repeat subunit of Drosophila SAGA required for histone H3 acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7178-89 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a critical function of dSAGA and histone acetylation during Drosophila development. ..
  12. Yu J, Garfinkel A, Wolfner M. Interaction of the essential Drosophila nuclear protein YA with P0/AP3 in the cytoplasm and in vitro: implications for developmental regulation of YA's subcellular location. Dev Biol. 2002;244:429-41 pubmed
    ..YA protein can be phosphorylated by MAPK, but not by p34(Cdc2) kinase, in vitro. This phosphorylation increases YA's binding to P0...
  13. Albright S, Tjian R. TAFs revisited: more data reveal new twists and confirm old ideas. Gene. 2000;242:1-13 pubmed
    ..which recognizes the core promoter and supplies a scaffolding upon which the rest of the transcriptional machinery can assemble...
  14. Levine M, Tjian R. Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature. 2003;424:147-51 pubmed
    ..How, then, has evolutionary diversity arisen? Emerging evidence suggests that organismal complexity arises from progressively more elaborate regulation of gene expression. ..
  15. Hochheimer A, Tjian R. Diversified transcription initiation complexes expand promoter selectivity and tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1309-20 pubmed
  16. Quénerch du E, Anand A, Kai T. The piRNA pathway is developmentally regulated during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. RNA. 2016;22:1044-54 pubmed publisher
  17. Theofel I, Bartkuhn M, Hundertmark T, Boettger T, Gärtner S, Leser K, et al. tBRD-1 selectively controls gene activity in the Drosophila testis and interacts with two new members of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108267 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene activation is tightly linked to histone acetylation on lysine residues that can be recognized by bromodomains...
  18. Zhao J, Klyne G, Benson E, Gudmannsdottir E, White Cooper H, Shotton D. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D710-5 pubmed publisher, and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at ..
  19. Nucifora F, Nucifora L, Ng C, Arbez N, Guo Y, Roby E, et al. Ubiqutination via K27 and K29 chains signals aggregation and neuronal protection of LRRK2 by WSB1. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11792 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our study identifies a novel therapeutic target for PD. ..
  20. Di Cara F, Cavaliere D, Galliero V, Polito L, Digilio F. Expressional and functional analysis of the male-specific cluster mst36F during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:807-13 pubmed publisher
    ..triggered by different cis regulatory elements, responds to the same testisspecific factors encoded by the aly and can class meiotic arrest genes. RNA interference was used to decrease expression of these two genes...
  21. Xu S, Hafer N, Agunwamba B, Schedl P. The CPEB protein Orb2 has multiple functions during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003079 pubmed publisher
    Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) proteins are translational regulators that can either activate or repress translation depending on the target mRNA and the specific biological context...
  22. Verrijzer C. Transcription factor IID--not so basal after all. Science. 2001;293:2010-1 pubmed
  23. Cann M, Chung E, Levin L. A new family of adenylyl cyclase genes in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:200-6 pubmed
    ..Expression from this locus is under the control of the always early, cannonball, meiosis arrest, and spermatocyte arrest genes that are required for the G2/M transition of meiosis I during ..
  24. Trost M, Blattner A, Léo S, Lehner C. Drosophila dany is essential for transcriptional control and nuclear architecture in spermatocytes. Development. 2016;143:2664-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, as suggested recently for Dan/Danr, we propose that Dany is essential for the coordination of change in cell type-specific expression programs and large-scale spatial chromatin reorganization. ..
  25. Matsushita T, Fujii Taira I, Tanaka Y, Homma K, Natori S. Male-specific IDGF, a novel gene encoding a membrane-bound extracellular signaling molecule expressed exclusively in testis of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36934-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis using four meiotic arrest mutants, aly, can, mia, and sa suggested that MSI is involved in spermiogenesis, the final differentiation step of spermatogenesis...
  26. Katzenberger R, Rach E, Anderson A, Ohler U, Wassarman D. The Drosophila Translational Control Element (TCE) is required for high-level transcription of many genes that are specifically expressed in testes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45009 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings set the stage for determining the mechanism by which the TCE regulates testis-specific transcription and understanding the dual role of the TCE in translational and transcriptional regulation. ..
  27. Hwa J, Hiller M, Fuller M, Santel A. Differential expression of the Drosophila mitofusin genes fuzzy onions (fzo) and dmfn. Mech Dev. 2002;116:213-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, expression of dmfn and fzo in the same cell type, primary spermatocytes, was under control of different regulatory mechanisms. ..
  28. Arya G, Lodico M, Ahmad O, Amin R, Tomkiel J. Molecular characterization of teflon, a gene required for meiotic autosome segregation in male Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;174:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose a role for Tef as a bridging molecule that holds autosome bivalents together via heterochromatic connections...