Gene Symbol: Cam
Description: Calmodulin
Alias: 3909, CAM, CG8472, CaM, Cal, Cal49A, CalA, Cam1, D-CaM, DmCaM, DmCalm, Dmel\CG8472, anon-EST:Posey59, cam, dCaM, l(2)03909, l(2)3909, lincRNA.S2634, calmodulin, CG8472-PA, CG8472-PB, CG8472-PC, CG8472-PD, CG8472-PE, Cam-PA, Cam-PB, Cam-PC, Cam-PD, Cam-PE
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Porter J, Yu M, Doberstein S, Pollard T, Montell C. Dependence of calmodulin localization in the retina on the NINAC unconventional myosin. Science. 1993;262:1038-42 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin is a highly conserved regulatory protein found in all eukaryotic organisms which mediates a variety of calcium ion-dependent signalling pathways...
  2. Alloway P, Dolph P. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6072-7 pubmed the Drosophila visual system, Arrestin 2 (Arr2), is phosphorylated in a light-dependent manner by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and has been shown to be essential for the termination of the visual signaling cascade ..
  3. Wang B, Sullivan K, Beckingham K. Drosophila calmodulin mutants with specific defects in the musculature or in the nervous system. Genetics. 2003;165:1255-68 pubmed
    We have studied lethal mutations in the single calmodulin gene (Cam) of Drosophila to gain insight into the in vivo functions of this important calcium sensor...
  4. Chevesich J, Kreuz A, Montell C. Requirement for the PDZ domain protein, INAD, for localization of the TRP store-operated channel to a signaling complex. Neuron. 1997;18:95-105 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that TRP forms a complex with phospholipase C-beta (NORPA), rhodopsin (RH1), calmodulin, and the PDZ domain containing protein INAD...
  5. Melom J, Littleton J. Mutation of a NCKX eliminates glial microdomain calcium oscillations and enhances seizure susceptibility. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that glial expression of calmodulin is required for stress-induced seizures in zydeco mutants, suggesting a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent glial ..
  6. Abou Tayoun A, Li X, Chu B, Hardie R, Juusola M, Dolph P. The Drosophila SK channel (dSK) contributes to photoreceptor performance by mediating sensitivity control at the first visual network. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13897-910 pubmed publisher
    ..While demonstrating important functional roles for dSK channel in the visual circuitry, these results also clarify how homeostatically balanced network functions can compensate missing or faulty ion channels. ..
  7. Scott K, Sun Y, Beckingham K, Zuker C. Calmodulin regulation of Drosophila light-activated channels and receptor function mediates termination of the light response in vivo. Cell. 1997;91:375-83 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin (CAM) participates in a variety of intracellular transduction processes by modulating signaling molecules in response to calcium changes...
  8. Heiman R, Atkinson R, Andruss B, Bolduc C, Kovalick G, Beckingham K. Spontaneous avoidance behavior in Drosophila null for calmodulin expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2420-5 pubmed
    The regulatory protein calmodulin is a major mediator of calcium-induced changes in cellular activity. To analyze the roles of calmodulin in an intact animal, we have generated a calmodulin null mutation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  9. Quiñones Coello A, Petrella L, Ayers K, Melillo A, Mazzalupo S, Hudson A, et al. Exploring strategies for protein trapping in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1089-104 pubmed
    ..We report a total of 335 genes associated with protein or enhancer traps and a web-accessible database for viewing molecular information and expression data for these genes. ..

More Information


  1. Kucherenko M, Marrone A, Rishko V, Magliarelli H, Shcherbata H. Stress and muscular dystrophy: a genetic screen for dystroglycan and dystrophin interactors in Drosophila identifies cellular stress response components. Dev Biol. 2011;352:228-42 pubmed publisher
  2. VanBerkum M, Goodman C. Targeted disruption of Ca(2+)-calmodulin signaling in Drosophila growth cones leads to stalls in axon extension and errors in axon guidance. Neuron. 1995;14:43-56 pubmed
    Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM) function was selectively disrupted in a specific subset of growth cones in transgenic Drosophila embryos in which a specific enhancer element drives the expression of the kinesin motor domain fused to a CaM ..
  3. Xu X, Wes P, Chen H, Li H, Yu M, Morgan S, et al. Retinal targets for calmodulin include proteins implicated in synaptic transmission. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31297-307 pubmed
    ..An important Ca2+ sensor in Drosophila vision appears to be calmodulin since a reduction in levels of retinal calmodulin causes defects in adaptation and termination of the ..
  4. Andruss B, Bolduc C, Beckingham K. Movement of calmodulin between cells in the ovary and embryo of drosophila. Genesis. 2004;38:93-103 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential component of calcium signaling in multicellular organisms...
  5. Carrillo R, Olsen D, Yoon K, Keshishian H. Presynaptic activity and CaMKII modulate retrograde semaphorin signaling and synaptic refinement. Neuron. 2010;68:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a role for patterned electrical activity and presynaptic calcium signaling, acting through CaMKII, in modulating a retrograde signal during the refinement of synaptic connections. ..
  6. Starovasnik M, Su D, Beckingham K, Klevit R. A series of point mutations reveal interactions between the calcium-binding sites of calmodulin. Protein Sci. 1992;1:245-53 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin is a member of the "EF-hand" family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. It consists of two homologous globular domains, each containing two helix-loop-helix Ca(2+)-binding sites...
  7. Lee S, Montell C. Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2004;43:95-103 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the light-dependent translocation of Arr2 into the rhabdomeres requires PI-mediated interactions between Arr2 and the NINAC myosin III. ..
  8. Galletta B, Guillen R, Fagerstrom C, Brownlee C, Lerit D, Megraw T, et al. Drosophila pericentrin requires interaction with calmodulin for its function at centrosomes and neuronal basal bodies but not at sperm basal bodies. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2682-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the interaction of PLP with calmodulin (CaM) at two highly conserved CaM-binding sites in the PACT domain controls the proper targeting of PLP to the ..
  9. Pavlik P, Konduri V, Massa E, Simonette R, Beckingham K. A dicistronic gene pair within a cluster of "EF-hand" protein genes in the genomes of Drosophila species. Genomics. 2006;88:347-59 pubmed publisher
    Androcam is a Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin-related protein that functions specifically in the testis. We show that the Acam gene is part of a cluster of three intronless genes arranged in a head-to-tail manner...
  10. Phillips A, Bull A, Kelly L. Identification of a Drosophila gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein with homology to the trp phototransduction gene. Neuron. 1992;8:631-42 pubmed
    We have isolated a number of Drosophila cDNAs on the basis of their encoding calmodulin-binding proteins. A full-length cDNA clone corresponding to one of these genes has been cloned and sequenced...
  11. Fanger C, Ghanshani S, Logsdon N, Rauer H, Kalman K, Zhou J, et al. Calmodulin mediates calcium-dependent activation of the intermediate conductance KCa channel, IKCa1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5746-54 pubmed
    ..Deletion analyses defined a requirement for the first 62 amino acids of the C-tail, and the binding of calmodulin to this region did not require Ca2+...
  12. Fontenele M, Carneiro K, Agrellos R, Oliveira D, Oliveira Silva A, Vieira V, et al. The Ca2+-dependent protease Calpain A regulates Cactus/I kappaB levels during Drosophila development in response to maternal Dpp signals. Mech Dev. 2009;126:737-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may allow coordination of Toll, BMP and Ca(2+) signals, conferring precision to Dorsal-target expression domains. ..
  13. Zhang W, Wang D, Volk E, Bellen H, Hiesinger P, Quiocho F. V-ATPase V0 sector subunit a1 in neurons is a target of calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:294-300 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification and characterization of a calmodulin-binding site in the large cytosolic N-terminal region of the Drosophila protein V100, the neuron-specific V(0) ..
  14. Lee S, Beckingham K, Stull J. Ca2+-independent activity of nitric oxide synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:526-30 pubmed
    Ca2+-independent forms of nitric-oxide synthase have significant activity when the endogenous calmodulin subunit is Ca2+ free. Further activation is seen when Ca2+ is added...
  15. Schoborg T, Zajac A, Fagerstrom C, Guillen R, Rusan N. An Asp-CaM complex is required for centrosome-pole cohesion and centrosome inheritance in neural stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin (CaM) regulates the ability of the microcephaly-associated protein, abnormal spindle (Asp), to cross-link ..
  16. Dean D, Maroja L, Cottrill S, Bomkamp B, Westervelt K, Deitcher D. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2) Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;6:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling. ..
  17. Hsouna A, VanBerkum M. Abelson tyrosine kinase and Calmodulin interact synergistically to transduce midline guidance cues in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:345-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Calmodulin and Abelson tyrosine kinase are key signaling molecules transducing guidance cues at the Drosophila embryonic midline...
  18. Marrone A, Kucherenko M, Wiek R, Gopfert M, Shcherbata H. Hyperthermic seizures and aberrant cellular homeostasis in Drosophila dystrophic muscles. Sci Rep. 2011;1:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, reduction of the Ca(2+) regulator, Calmodulin or Ca(2+) channel blockage rescues the seizing phenotype, pointing to Ca(2+) mis-regulation in dystrophic ..
  19. Schorderet D, Gartler S. Analysis of CpG suppression in methylated and nonmethylated species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:957-61 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the excess of CpGs at position III-I in nonmethylated forms may be related to a requirement for minimal thermal stability of the DNA. ..
  20. Kovalick G, Beckingham K. Calmodulin transcription is limited to the nervous system during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1992;150:33-46 pubmed
    We have examined the RNA expression pattern for the Drosophila calmodulin gene during embryogenesis by in situ hybridization to transcripts in whole embryos...
  21. Brown E, Layne J, Zhu C, Jegga A, Rollmann S. Genome-wide association mapping of natural variation in odour-guided behaviour in Drosophila. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that subtle changes influencing nervous system function can result in marked differences in behaviour. ..
  22. Doyle K, Kovalick G, Lee E, Beckingham K. Drosophila melanogaster contains a single calmodulin gene. Further structure and expression studies. J Mol Biol. 1990;213:599-605 pubmed
    We have previously characterized a calmodulin gene from the organism Drosophila melanogaster...
  23. Masino L, Martin S, Bayley P. Ligand binding and thermodynamic stability of a multidomain protein, calmodulin. Protein Sci. 2000;9:1519-29 pubmed
    Chemical and thermal denaturation of calmodulin has been monitored spectroscopically to determine the stability for the intact protein and its two isolated domains as a function of binding of Ca2+ or Mg2+...
  24. Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
  25. Brown S, Martin S, Bayley P. Kinetic control of the dissociation pathway of calmodulin-peptide complexes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3389-97 pubmed
    The mechanism of dissociation reactions induced by calcium chelators has been studied for complexes of Drosophila calmodulin with target peptides, including four derived from the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence...
  26. Andres A, Thummel C. The Drosophila 63F early puff contains E63-1, an ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein. Development. 1995;121:2667-79 pubmed
    ..Third, E63-1 encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein related to calmodulin. The discovery of an ecdysone-inducible Ca(2+)-binding protein provides a foundation for integrating steroid ..
  27. Taylor D, Sack J, Maune J, Beckingham K, Quiocho F. Structure of a recombinant calmodulin from Drosophila melanogaster refined at 2.2-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:21375-80 pubmed
    The crystal structure of calmodulin (Mr 16,700, 148 residues) from Drosophila melanogaster as expressed in a bacterial system has been determined and refined at 2.2-A resolution...
  28. Vu Manh T, Mokrane M, Georgenthum E, Flavigny J, Carrier L, Semeriva M, et al. Expression of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) in Drosophila as a model for the study of human cardiomyopathies. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:7-17 pubmed
    ..Among them, the Calmodulin gene encoding a key component of muscle contraction, found up-regulated in transgenic IFM, was evaluated as a ..
  29. Wen H, Weiger T, Ferguson T, Shahidullah M, Scott S, Levitan I. A Drosophila KCNQ channel essential for early embryonic development. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10147-56 pubmed
    ..dKCNQ is also similar to the mammalian channels in that it binds calmodulin (CaM), and CaM binding is necessary to produce functional currents...
  30. Shim J, Mukherjee T, Mondal B, Liu T, Young G, Wijewarnasuriya D, et al. Olfactory control of blood progenitor maintenance. Cell. 2013;155:1141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study links sensory perception and the effects of its deprivation on the integrity of the hematopoietic and innate immune systems in Drosophila. PAPERCLIP: ..
  31. Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
  32. Wes P, Yu M, Montell C. RIC, a calmodulin-binding Ras-like GTPase. EMBO J. 1996;15:5839-48 pubmed
    ..b>Calmodulin is a primary mediator of Ca2+ signals in the nervous system...
  33. Barbato G, Ikura M, Kay L, Pastor R, Bax A. Backbone dynamics of calmodulin studied by 15N relaxation using inverse detected two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: the central helix is flexible. Biochemistry. 1992;31:5269-78 pubmed
    The backbone dynamics of Ca(2+)-saturated recombinant Drosophila calmodulin has been studied by 15N longitudinal and transverse relaxation experiments, combined with 15N(1H) NOE measurements...
  34. Arnon A, Cook B, Gillo B, Montell C, Selinger Z, Minke B. Calmodulin regulation of light adaptation and store-operated dark current in Drosophila photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5894-9 pubmed
    ..In this system, we investigate the hitherto unknown physiological roles of calmodulin (CaM) in light adaptation and in regulation of the inward current that is brought about by depletion of cellular ..
  35. Findlay W, Martin S, Beckingham K, Bayley P. Recovery of native structure by calcium binding site mutants of calmodulin upon binding of sk-MLCK target peptides. Biochemistry. 1995;34:2087-94 pubmed
    The calcium-dependent binding of two synthetic 18-residue peptides derived from the calmodulin binding region of skeletal myosin light chain kinase to wild-type Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin and four calcium binding site calmodulin ..
  36. Cao Y, White H, Li X. Drosophila myosin-XX functions as an actin-binding protein to facilitate the interaction between Zyx102 and actin. Biochemistry. 2014;53:350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that DmMyo20 functions as a scaffold protein, but not as a molecular motor, in a signaling pathway controlling cell differentiation. ..
  37. Martin S, Bayley P. Regulatory implications of a novel mode of interaction of calmodulin with a double IQ-motif target sequence from murine dilute myosin V. Protein Sci. 2002;11:2909-23 pubmed
    Apo-Calmodulin acts as the light chain for unconventional myosin V, and treatment with Ca(2+) can cause dissociation of calmodulin from the 6IQ region of the myosin heavy chain...
  38. Rabinovich D, Yaniv S, Alyagor I, Schuldiner O. Nitric Oxide as a Switching Mechanism between Axon Degeneration and Regrowth during Developmental Remodeling. Cell. 2016;164:170-182 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that NO signaling provides a switching mechanism between the degenerative and regenerative states of neuronal remodeling. ..
  39. Park S, Song Y. Genetic screen for genes involved in Chk2 signaling in Drosophila. Mol Cells. 2008;26:350-5 pubmed
    ..Possible roles for these modifiers in the DNA damage response and Chk2 signaling are discussed. ..
  40. Findlay W, Gradwell M, Bayley P. Role of the N-terminal region of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence in its interaction with calmodulin. Protein Sci. 1995;4:2375-82 pubmed
    The binding of calmodulin (CaM) to four synthetic peptide analogues of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (sk-MLCK) target sequence has been studied using 1H-NMR...
  41. Brubaker Purkey B, Woodruff R. Vitellogenesis in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: antagonists demonstrate that the PLC, IP3/DAG, PK-C pathway is triggered by calmodulin. J Insect Sci. 2013;13:68 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calmodulin, derived from epithelial cells and transported to the oocytes via gap junctions, may trigger this pathway...
  42. Mukunda L, Miazzi F, Kaltofen S, Hansson B, Wicher D. Calmodulin modulates insect odorant receptor function. Cell Calcium. 2014;55:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Orco protein contains a conserved putative calmodulin (CaM)-binding motif indicating a role of CaM in its function...
  43. Daborn P, Boundy S, Yen J, Pittendrigh B, ffrench Constant R. DDT resistance in Drosophila correlates with Cyp6g1 over-expression and confers cross-resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:556-63 pubmed
    ..We are now testing the hypothesis that resistance to both compounds is associated with over-expression of this P450 gene. ..
  44. Murali T, Pacifico S, Finley R. Integrating the interactome and the transcriptome of Drosophila. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization implies that tissue or stage specific networks can be best identified from interactome data by using filters designed to include both ubiquitously expressed and specifically expressed genes and proteins. ..
  45. Dubreuil R, Brandin E, Reisberg J, Goldstein L, Branton D. Structure, calmodulin-binding, and calcium-binding properties of recombinant alpha spectrin polypeptides. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:7189-93 pubmed
    ..We localized two sites at which calcium may regulate spectrin function. First, a site responsible for calmodulin binding to Drosophila alpha spectrin was identified near the junction of repetitive segments 14 and 15...
  46. Xiong B, Bayat V, Jaiswal M, Zhang K, Sandoval H, Charng W, et al. Crag is a GEF for Rab11 required for rhodopsin trafficking and maintenance of adult photoreceptor cells. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001438 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that upon light stimulation, Crag is required for trafficking of Rh from the trans-Golgi network to rhabdomere membranes via a Rab11-dependent vesicular transport. ..
  47. Biekofsky R, Martin S, Browne J, Bayley P, Feeney J. Ca2+ coordination to backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms in calmodulin and other EF-hand proteins: 15N chemical shifts as probes for monitoring individual-site Ca2+ coordination. Biochemistry. 1998;37:7617-29 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of this effect is in the range +5 to +7 ppm. A Ca2+ titration of 15N-labeled apo-calmodulin was performed using 2D 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectra...
  48. Takeo S, Swanson S, Nandanan K, Nakai Y, Aigaki T, Washburn M, et al. Shaggy/glycogen synthase kinase 3? and phosphorylation of Sarah/regulator of calcineurin are essential for completion of Drosophila female meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6382-9 pubmed publisher
    The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin is essential for exit from meiotic arrest at metaphases I and II in Drosophila and Xenopus oocytes...
  49. Ikura M, Spera S, Barbato G, Kay L, Krinks M, Bax A. Secondary structure and side-chain 1H and 13C resonance assignments of calmodulin in solution by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1991;30:9216-28 pubmed
    Heteronuclear 2D and 3D NMR experiments were carried out on recombinant Drosophila calmodulin (CaM), a protein of 148 residues and with molecular mass of 16.7 kDa, that is uniformly labeled with 15N and 13C to a level of greater than 95%...
  50. Frank D, Martin S, Gruender B, Lee Y, Simonette R, Bayley P, et al. Androcam is a tissue-specific light chain for myosin VI in the Drosophila testis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:24728-36 pubmed
    ..Myosin VI has two light chain binding sites that can both bind calmodulin (CaM). However unconventional myosins could use tissue-specific light chains to modify their activity...
  51. Fanning A, Anderson J. Protein modules as organizers of membrane structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:432-9 pubmed
    ..The organization of these proteins into discreet structures has functional consequences for downstream signaling. ..
  52. Cho K, Wall J, Pugh P, Ito M, Mueller S, Kennedy M. The alpha subunit of type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is highly conserved in Drosophila. Neuron. 1991;7:439-50 pubmed
    A monoclonal antibody against rat brain type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) precipitates three proteins from Drosophila heads with apparent molecular weights similar to those of the subunits of the rat brain ..
  53. Yamanaka M, Saugstad J, Hanson Painton O, McCarthy B, Tobin S. Structure and expression of the Drosophila calmodulin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:3335-48 pubmed
    We have isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones representing the calmodulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster...
  54. Smith V, Doyle K, Maune J, Munjaal R, Beckingham K. Structure and sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin gene. J Mol Biol. 1987;196:471-85 pubmed
    A series of phage clones overlapping the single calmodulin gene locus of Drosophila melanogaster has been isolated and the exons of the gene positioned and sequenced within these clones...
  55. Harrisingh M, Wu Y, Lnenicka G, Nitabach M. Intracellular Ca2+ regulates free-running circadian clock oscillation in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12489-99 pubmed
    ..determined that Ca2+ buffering interacts synergistically with genetic manipulations that interfere with either calmodulin or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II function...
  56. Li H, Porter J, Montell C. Requirement for the NINAC kinase/myosin for stable termination of the visual cascade. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9601-6 pubmed
    ..This phenotype suggests that a mechanism exists to prevent reactivation of the visual cascade and that p174 participates in this process. ..
  57. Tessier C, Broadie K. The fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates the strength and fidelity of calcium signaling in Drosophila mushroom body neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;41:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Null dfmr1 mutants exhibit reduced brain mRNA expression of calcium-binding proteins, including calcium buffers calmodulin and calbindin, predicting that the inability to appropriately sequester cytosolic calcium may be the common ..
  58. Yovell Y, Kandel E, Dudai Y, Abrams T. A quantitative study of the Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity of adenylyl cyclase in Aplysia, Drosophila, and rat. J Neurochem. 1992;59:1736-44 pubmed
    Studies in Aplysia and Drosophila have suggested that Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase may act as a site of convergence for the cellular representations of the conditioned stimulus (Ca2+ influx) and unconditioned stimulus (..
  59. Hanson Painton O, Randolph V, Saugstad J, Oh S, Tobin S. Developmental expression of the Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin gene. Int J Dev Biol. 1992;36:343-51 pubmed
    The highly conserved, intracellular calcium binding protein calmodulin is present in all cells at all times...
  60. Nelson H, Heiman R, Bolduc C, Kovalick G, Whitley P, Stern M, et al. Calmodulin point mutations affect Drosophila development and behavior. Genetics. 1997;147:1783-98 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin (CAM) is recognized as a major intermediary in intracellular calcium signaling, but as yet little is known of its role in developmental and behavioral processes...
  61. Montell C. TRP trapped in fly signaling web. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:389-97 pubmed
    ..The INAD complex does not appear to be a particle, but a massive signaling web composed of an INAD polymer with which some of the target proteins associate through complex multivalent interactions. ..
  62. Villain M, Jackson P, Manion M, Dong W, Su Z, Fassina G, et al. De novo design of peptides targeted to the EF hands of calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2676-85 pubmed
    ..Eight- and 12-residue peptides were constructed with the EF hands or Ca(2+)-coordinating sites of calmodulin as their anticipated points of interaction...
  63. Scott K, Zuker C. Assembly of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade into a signalling complex shapes elementary responses. Nature. 1998;395:805-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, we use genetic and electrophysiological tools to illustrate how the assembly of signalling molecules into a transduction complex limits signal amplification in vivo. ..
  64. Dylla K, Galili D, Szyszka P, Lüdke A. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!. Front Physiol. 2013;4:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning. ..
  65. Beckingham K. Use of site-directed mutations in the individual Ca2(+)-binding sites of calmodulin to examine Ca2(+)-induced conformational changes. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:6027-30 pubmed
    Mutant versions of the calmodulin of Drosophila melanogaster have been prepared for use in the study of Ca2+ binding and Ca2(+)-induced conformational changes...
  66. Taraszka J, Kurulugama R, Sowell R, Valentine S, Koeniger S, Arnold R, et al. Mapping the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of embryos and adult heads by LC-IMS-MS methods. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1223-37 pubmed
    ..All of this information is discussed in terms of the relationship between the predicted genome, and measured transcriptomes and proteomes. Additionally, the merits and weaknesses of current technologies are assessed in some detail. ..
  67. Kukić P, Camilloni C, Cavalli A, Vendruscolo M. Determination of the individual roles of the linker residues in the interdomain motions of calmodulin using NMR chemical shifts. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1826-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize the interdomain motions in the calcium-bound state of calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM) using NMR chemical shifts as replica-averaged structural restraints in molecular dynamics ..
  68. Maune J, Beckingham K, Martin S, Bayley P. Circular dichroism studies on calcium binding to two series of Ca2+ binding site mutants of Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin. Biochemistry. 1992;31:7779-86 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+)-induced changes to the environment of the single tyrosine of Drosophila calmodulin (Tyr-138 in site IV of the C-terminal domain) have been monitored via CD at 280 nm...
  69. Ikura M, Clore G, Gronenborn A, Zhu G, Klee C, Bax A. Solution structure of a calmodulin-target peptide complex by multidimensional NMR. Science. 1992;256:632-8 pubmed
    The three-dimensional solution structure of the complex between calcium-bound calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM) and a 26-residue synthetic peptide comprising the CaM binding domain (residues 577 to 602) of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase, ..
  70. Ohsako S, Nishida Y, Ryo H, Yamauchi T. Molecular characterization and expression of the Drosophila Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gene. Identification of four forms of the enzyme generated from a single gene by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2052-62 pubmed
    Four cDNA sequences encoding Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) were isolated from a Drosophila adult head cDNA library using rat CaM kinase II alpha and beta cDNA sequences under low stringency hybridization ..
  71. Martin S, Bayley P, Brown S, Porumb T, Zhang M, Ikura M. Spectroscopic characterization of a high-affinity calmodulin-target peptide hybrid molecule. Biochemistry. 1996;35:3508-17 pubmed
    We describe the properties of a hybrid protein comprising the full length of the Xenopus laevis calmodulin sequence, followed by a pentapeptide linker (GGGGS), and residues 3-26 of M13, the calmodulin binding region of skeletal muscle ..
  72. Biekofsky R, Martin S, McCormick J, Masino L, Fefeu S, Bayley P, et al. Thermal stability of calmodulin and mutants studied by (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR measurements of selectively labeled [(15)N]Ile proteins. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6850-9 pubmed
    b>Calmodulin, the Ca(2+)-dependent activator of many cellular processes, contains two well-defined structural domains, each of which binds two Ca(2+) ions...
  73. Lee S, Montell C. Regulation of the rhodopsin protein phosphatase, RDGC, through interaction with calmodulin. Neuron. 2001;32:1097-106 pubmed
    ..In the current work, we demonstrate that RDGC binds to calmodulin, and a mutation in an IQ motif that eliminates the calmodulin/RDGC interaction prevents dephosphorylation of ..
  74. Beckingham K, Doyle K, Maune J. The calmodulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Enzymol. 1987;139:230-47 pubmed
  75. Toth J, Kovacs M, Wang F, Nyitray L, Sellers J. Myosin V from Drosophila reveals diversity of motor mechanisms within the myosin V family. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30594-603 pubmed
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    ..The prototype of calcium-binding protein used for experiments is calmodulin; whether or not calmodulin is also the natural interaction partner of TRP channels is an open question.
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    The kinetics of calcium dissociation from two groups of site-specific mutants of calmodulin from Drosophila melanogaster have been studied by stopped-flow kinetic methods, using the fluorescent calcium chelator 8-amino-2-[(2-amino-5-..
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    ..The mutant gene was identified as the calmodulin-binding transcription activator (dCAMTA)...
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    Androcam is a testis-specific protein of Drosophila melanogaster, with 67% sequence identity to calmodulin and four potential EF-hand calcium-binding sites...