Gene Symbol: btd
Description: buttonhead
Alias: BTD, Btd, CG12653, Dmel\CG12653, buttonhead, CG12653-PA, btd-PA, button-head
Species: fruit fly
Products:     btd

Top Publications

  1. Eldon E, Pirrotta V. Interactions of the Drosophila gap gene giant with maternal and zygotic pattern-forming genes. Development. 1991;111:367-78 pubmed
    ..Expression is never detected in the labial or thoracic segment primordia but persists in certain head structures, including the ring gland, until the end of embryonic development. ..
  2. Mohler J. Spatial regulation of segment polarity gene expression in the anterior terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:151-61 pubmed
    The effects of mutations in five anterior gap genes (hkb, tll, otd, ems and btd) on the spatial expression of the segment polarity genes, wg and hh, were analyzed at the late blastoderm stage and during subsequent development...
  3. Simpson Brose M, Treisman J, Desplan C. Synergy between the hunchback and bicoid morphogens is required for anterior patterning in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;78:855-65 pubmed
    ..bcd may be a newly acquired Drosophila gene, which is gradually replacing some of the functions performed by maternal hb in other species. ..
  4. Hartmann B, Reichert H, Walldorf U. Interaction of gap genes in the Drosophila head: tailless regulates expression of empty spiracles in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;109:161-72 pubmed
    ..These results are the first demonstration of direct transcriptional regulation between gap genes in the head. ..
  5. Schock F, Purnell B, Wimmer E, Jackle H. Common and diverged functions of the Drosophila gene pair D-Sp1 and buttonhead. Mech Dev. 1999;89:125-32 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene buttonhead (btd) is required for the formation of the mandibular, the intercalary and the antennal head segments of the embryo...
  6. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  7. Wimmer E, Jackle H, Pfeifle C, Cohen S. A Drosophila homologue of human Sp1 is a head-specific segmentation gene. Nature. 1993;366:690-4 pubmed
    ..form as a result of the activity of the head-specific genes orthodenticle (otd), empty spiracles (ems) and buttonhead (btd)...
  8. Mckay D, Estella C, Mann R. The origins of the Drosophila leg revealed by the cis-regulatory architecture of the Distalless gene. Development. 2009;136:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide a complete and high-resolution fate map of the Drosophila appendage primordia, linking the primary domains to specific cis-regulatory elements in Dll. ..
  9. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Drosophila headlines. Trends Genet. 1991;7:267-72 pubmed
    ..Organization of the cephalic segments uses a mechanism distinct from the familiar bierarchical cascade of segmentation genes that subdivides the trunk of the embryo. ..

More Information


  1. Kühnlein R, Bronner G, Taubert H, Schuh R. Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression. Mech Dev. 1997;66:107-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide evidence that a zygotic gene product of the terminal system, Tailless, cooperates with the maternal gene product Caudal and thereby activates gene expression in the terminal region of the embryo. ..
  2. Suske G. The Sp-family of transcription factors. Gene. 1999;238:291-300 pubmed
    ..Here, I will summarize and discuss recent advances which have been made towards understanding the mode of action and biological function of individual family members. ..
  3. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Mediation of Drosophila head development by gap-like segmentation genes. Nature. 1990;346:482-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that three previously identified zygotic genes buttonhead (btd), empty spiracles (ems) and orthodenticle (otd) may behave like gap genes that mediate bcd function in the ..
  4. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
  5. Younossi Hartenstein A, Green P, Liaw G, Rudolph K, Lengyel J, Hartenstein V. Control of early neurogenesis of the Drosophila brain by the head gap genes tll, otd, ems, and btd. Dev Biol. 1997;182:270-83 pubmed the procephalic neurectoderm is controlled by the head gap genes tailless (tll), orthodenticle (otd), buttonhead (btd), and empty spiracles (ems), which are expressed in partially overlapping domains of the head neurectoderm...
  6. Estella C, Rieckhof G, Calleja M, Morata G. The role of buttonhead and Sp1 in the development of the ventral imaginal discs of Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5929-41 pubmed
    The related genes buttonhead (btd) and Drosophila Sp1 (the Drosophila homologue of the human SP1 gene) encode zinc-finger transcription factors known to play a developmental role in the formation of the Drosophila head segments and the ..
  7. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  8. Nikulova A, Favorov A, Sutormin R, Makeev V, Mironov A. CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e93 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. ..
  9. Wimmer E, Frommer G, Purnell B, Jackle H. buttonhead and D-Sp1: a novel Drosophila gene pair. Mech Dev. 1996;59:53-62 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene buttonhead (btd) is a gap-like head segmentation gene which encodes a triple zinc finger protein structurally and functionally related to the human transcription factor Spl...
  10. Wimmer E, Cohen S, Jackle H, Desplan C. buttonhead does not contribute to a combinatorial code proposed for Drosophila head development. Development. 1997;124:1509-17 pubmed
    The Drosophila gap-like segmentation genes orthodenticle, empty spiracles and buttonhead (btd) are expressed and required in overlapping domains in the head region of the blastoderm stage embryo...
  11. Lifanov A, Makeev V, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Homotypic regulatory clusters in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:579-88 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the potential of the clustering method in interpreting the differential response of genes to various levels of transcriptional regulators. ..
  12. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  13. Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Two new roles for the Drosophila AP patterning system in early morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5129-38 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore suggest a link between cytoskeletal organization during cellularization and subsequent morphogenetic processes of gastrulation. ..
  14. Reed B. Drosophila development pulls the strings of the cell cycle. Bioessays. 1995;17:553-6 pubmed
  15. Macias A, Morata G. Functional hierarchy and phenotypic suppression among Drosophila homeotic genes: the labial and empty spiracles genes. EMBO J. 1996;15:334-43 pubmed
    ..We propose that ems was originally a member of the HOM-C which escaped from the complex and has also acquired new functions during evolution. ..
  16. Green J, Smith J. Growth factors as morphogens: do gradients and thresholds establish body plan?. Trends Genet. 1991;7:245-50 pubmed
    ..This opens up questions of whether such mechanisms are sufficient, and-if there are growth factor gradients-which factors are actually used and how. ..
  17. Schock F, Reischl J, Wimmer E, Taubert H, Purnell B, Jackle H. Phenotypic suppression of empty spiracles is prevented by buttonhead. Nature. 2000;405:351-4 pubmed
    ..gene expression, by the activities of the gap-like genes orthodenticle (otd), empty spiracles (ems) and buttonhead (btd). The products of these genes are transcription factors, but only EMS has a HOX-like homeodomain...
  18. Ing T, Tseng A, Sustar A, Schubiger G. Sp1 modifies leg-to-wing transdetermination in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;373:290-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We further report that transdetermination, as evidenced by Vg expression, is only observed when there is a broken ring of Dachshund expression. Combined, these studies establish a role for Sp1 in leg-to-wing transdetermination. ..
  19. Komori H, Xiao Q, Janssens D, Dou Y, Lee C. Trithorax maintains the functional heterogeneity of neural stem cells through the transcription factor buttonhead. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Trx regulates a type II neuroblast functional identity in part by maintaining chromatin in the buttonhead (btd) locus in an active state through the histone methyltransferase activity of the SET1/MLL complex...
  20. Haas M, Brown S, Beeman R. Pondering the procephalon: the segmental origin of the labrum. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:89-95 pubmed
    ..This model appears to explain a wider variety of insect head segmentation phenomena. Embryological, histological, neurological and molecular evidence supporting the new model is reviewed. ..
  21. Lammel U, Saumweber H. X-linked loci of Drosophila melanogaster causing defects in the morphology of the embryonic salivary glands. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:525-35 pubmed
    ..From these, 39 lines could be assigned to nine complementation groups: armadillo, brinker, folded gastrulation, giant, hindsight, Notch, runt, stardust and twisted gastrulation. ..
  22. Courey A, Huang J. The establishment and interpretation of transcription factor gradients in the Drosophila embryo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1261:1-18 pubmed
  23. Schmidt Ott U, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H, Technau G. Number, identity, and sequence of the Drosophila head segments as revealed by neural elements and their deletion patterns in mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:8363-7 pubmed
  24. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  25. Vincent A, Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Integration of the head and trunk segmentation systems controls cephalic furrow formation in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:3747-54 pubmed
    ..position of these initiator cells may be defined by the overlapping expression of the head gap gene buttonhead (btd) and the primary pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve)...
  26. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  27. Rothe M, Wimmer E, Pankratz M, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H. Identical transacting factor requirement for knirps and knirps-related Gene expression in the anterior but not in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1994;46:169-81 pubmed
  28. Mu oz Descalzo S, Belacortu Y, Paricio N. Identification and analysis of cabut orthologs in invertebrates and vertebrates. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Because we were not able to identify cbt orthologous genes neither in yeast nor in plants, our results suggest that this gene has been probably conserved throughout metazoans and that it may play a fundamental role in animal biology...
  29. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  30. Goriely A, Stella M, Coffinier C, Kessler D, Mailhos C, Dessain S, et al. A functional homologue of goosecoid in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:1641-50 pubmed
    ..The identification of gsc target genes and/or other genes involved in similar developmental processes will allow the definition of the precise phylogenetic relationship among Gsc proteins. ..
  31. Loncle N, Williams D. An interaction screen identifies headcase as a regulator of large-scale pruning. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17086-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our epistasis experiments with known regulators of dendrite pruning reveal hdc as a founding member of a new pathway downstream of ecdysone signaling. ..
  32. Sanders L, Patel M, Mahaffey J. The Drosophila gap gene giant has an anterior segment identity function mediated through disconnected and teashirt. Genetics. 2008;179:441-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the homeosis does not occur through altered expression of the Hom-C genes but through changes in the regulation of disco and tsh. ..
  33. Tallafuss A, Bally Cuif L. Formation of the head-trunk boundary in the animal body plan: an evolutionary perspective. Gene. 2002;287:23-32 pubmed
  34. Spahn P, Huelsmann S, Rehorn K, Mischke S, MAYER M, Casali A, et al. Multiple regulatory safeguards confine the expression of the GATA factor Serpent to the hemocyte primordium within the Drosophila mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2014;386:272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..srp expression in the hemocyte primordium is known to depend on snail and buttonhead, but the regulatory complexity that defines the primordium has not been addressed yet...
  35. González Reyes A, Morata G. Organization of the Drosophila head as revealed by the ectopic expression of the Ultrabithorax product. Development. 1991;113:1459-71 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that most or all the larval head structures derive from precursor cells of ventral origin. ..
  36. Wiellette E, Harding K, Mace K, Ronshaugen M, Wang F, McGinnis W. spen encodes an RNP motif protein that interacts with Hox pathways to repress the development of head-like sclerites in the Drosophila trunk. Development. 1999;126:5373-85 pubmed
    ..This raises the intriguing possibility that the Spen RNP protein might integrate signals from both the Raf and Hox pathways. ..
  37. Hartmann B, Reichert H. The genetics of embryonic brain development in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:194-205 pubmed
  38. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Collier, a novel regulator of Drosophila head development, is expressed in a single mitotic domain. Curr Biol. 1996;6:707-18 pubmed
    ..The structural conservation of Col during evolution raises the questions of its conservation of function in head specification and its interactions with other factors conserved between insects and vertebrates. ..
  39. Navarro C, Lopez F, Cano C, Garcia Alcalde F, Blanco A. CisMiner: genome-wide in-silico cis-regulatory module prediction by fuzzy itemset mining. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108065 pubmed publisher CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding sites provided by the user. ..
  40. Andrioli L, Digiampietri L, de Barros L, Machado Lima A. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;361:177-85 pubmed publisher
  41. Peng P, Hassan Samee M, Sinha S. Incorporating chromatin accessibility data into sequence-to-expression modeling. Biophys J. 2015;108:1257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..It also calls for future advances in modeling accessibility levels from sequence and the transregulatory context, so as to predict accurately the effect of cis and trans perturbations on gene expression. ..
  42. Franch Marro X, Martin N, Averof M, Casanova J. Association of tracheal placodes with leg primordia in Drosophila and implications for the origin of insect tracheal systems. Development. 2006;133:785-90 pubmed
    ..We propose an evolutionary scenario that accommodates the available data. ..
  43. Xie Y, Li X, Deng X, Hou Y, O Hara K, Urso A, et al. The Ets protein Pointed prevents both premature differentiation and dedifferentiation of Drosophila intermediate neural progenitors. Development. 2016;143:3109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, reducing Buttonhead enhances the loss of INPs in pntP1 mutants, suggesting that PntP1 and Buttonhead act cooperatively to prevent ..
  44. Schaeper N, Prpic N, Wimmer E. A clustered set of three Sp-family genes is ancestral in the Metazoa: evidence from sequence analysis, protein domain structure, developmental expression patterns and chromosomal location. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:88 pubmed publisher
    ..This is especially the case for the Sp gene buttonhead (btd) which plays a key role in head development in Drosophila melanogaster, and has been proposed to have ..
  45. Duque T, Sinha S. What does it take to evolve an enhancer? A simulation-based study of factors influencing the emergence of combinatorial regulation. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:1415-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simulations also revealed that certain features of an enhancer might evolve not due to their biological function but as aids to the evolutionary process itself. ..
  46. Schock F, Sauer F, Jackle H, Purnell B. Drosophila head segmentation factor buttonhead interacts with the same TATA box-binding protein-associated factors and in vivo DNA targets as human Sp1 but executes a different biological program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5061-5 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene buttonhead (btd) is required for the establishment of three embryonic head segments. It encodes a zinc-finger-type transcription factor expressed in the corresponding head segment anlagen in the blastoderm stage embryo...
  47. Kaplan T, Friedman N, Margalit H. Ab initio prediction of transcription factor targets using structural knowledge. PLoS Comput Biol. 2005;1:e1 pubmed
    ..By analyzing the predicted targets along with gene annotation and expression data we infer the function and activity of these proteins. ..
  48. Peel A. The evolution of arthropod segmentation mechanisms. Bioessays. 2004;26:1108-16 pubmed
  49. Fernandes I, Chanut Delalande H, Ferrer P, Latapie Y, Waltzer L, Affolter M, et al. Zona pellucida domain proteins remodel the apical compartment for localized cell shape changes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:64-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results on ZPD proteins therefore reveal a functional subcompartmentalization of the apical membrane and its role in the polarized control of epithelial cell shape during development. ..
  50. Xie Y, Li X, Zhang X, Mei S, Li H, Urso A, et al. The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd) prevents premature differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs in Drosophila larval type II neuroblast (NB)..
  51. Estella C, Mann R. Non-redundant selector and growth-promoting functions of two sister genes, buttonhead and Sp1, in Drosophila leg development. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001001 pubmed publisher
    ..By simultaneously removing the function of two Sp8 orthologs, buttonhead (btd) and Sp1, during Drosophila embryogenesis, we find that adult leg development is completely abolished...
  52. Finkelstein R, Boncinelli E. From fly head to mammalian forebrain: the story of otd and Otx. Trends Genet. 1994;10:310-5 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that this domain is specified according to a genetic paradigm that is different from that governing trunk development, and are also beginning to provide insights into the structures that underlie the rostral brain. ..
  53. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Head versus trunk patterning in the Drosophila embryo; collier requirement for formation of the intercalary segment. Development. 1999;126:4385-94 pubmed
    ..The parasegmental register of col activation is controlled by the combined activities of the head-gap genes buttonhead and empty spiracles and the pair-rule gene even skipped; it therefore integrates inputs from both the head and ..
  54. Coiffier D, Charroux B, Kerridge S. Common functions of central and posterior Hox genes for the repression of head in the trunk of Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:291-300 pubmed
    ..We propose that an evolutionary early function of Hox genes was to modify primitive head morphology with novel functions specialising the trunk appearing later on. ..
  55. He X, Duque T, Sinha S. Evolutionary origins of transcription factor binding site clusters. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative framework we develop here can be used more generally to understand how mechanisms of enhancer action influence their composition and evolution. ..
  56. Angelini D, Kaufman T. Insect appendages and comparative ontogenetics. Dev Biol. 2005;286:57-77 pubmed
  57. Urbach R. A procephalic territory in Drosophila exhibiting similarities and dissimilarities compared to the vertebrate midbrain/hindbrain boundary region. Neural Dev. 2007;2:23 pubmed
    ..However, at the otd/unpg interface the early expression of other MHB-specific genes (including btd, wg, en), and of dorsoventral patterning genes, closely resembles the situation at the vertebrate MHB...
  58. Wimmer E, Simpson Brose M, Cohen S, Desplan C, Jackle H. Trans- and cis-acting requirements for blastodermal expression of the head gap gene buttonhead. Mech Dev. 1995;53:235-45 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene buttonhead (btd) encodes a zinc-finger protein related to the human transcription factor Sp1...
  59. Rudolph K, Liaw G, Daniel A, Green P, Courey A, Hartenstein V, et al. Complex regulatory region mediating tailless expression in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Development. 1997;124:4297-308 pubmed
    ..expression in brain neuroblasts and show that this expression is not detectably regulated by the head gap genes buttonhead or orthodenticle, by the proneural gene lethal of scute or by tailless itself...
  60. Niessing D, Rivera Pomar R, La Rosée A, Hader T, Schock F, Purnell B, et al. A cascade of transcriptional control leading to axis determination in Drosophila. J Cell Physiol. 1997;173:162-7 pubmed
  61. Shandala T, Kortschak R, Gregory S, Saint R. The Drosophila dead ringer gene is required for early embryonic patterning through regulation of argos and buttonhead expression. Development. 1999;126:4341-9 pubmed
    ..Conversely, buttonhead expression was found to be deregulated in the trunk region, accounting for the appearance of ectopic cephalic ..
  62. Lemons D, Fritzenwanker J, Gerhart J, Lowe C, McGinnis W. Co-option of an anteroposterior head axis patterning system for proximodistal patterning of appendages in early bilaterian evolution. Dev Biol. 2010;344:358-62 pubmed publisher
  63. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    ..The factors activating paired expression in the pair-rule mode appear to interact with those activating it along the dorsoventral axis. ..
  64. Mahaffey J. Assisting Hox proteins in controlling body form: are there new lessons from flies (and mammals)?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:422-9 pubmed
    ..Perhaps this layer in the genetic control of body patterning will help bridge some of the chasms that remain in our understanding of the genetic control of pattern formation. ..
  65. Yin Z, Xu X, Frasch M. Regulation of the twist target gene tinman by modular cis-regulatory elements during early mesoderm development. Development. 1997;124:4971-82 pubmed
    ..We find that this repression requires the function of buttonhead, a head-patterning gene, and that buttonhead is necessary for normal activation of the hematopoietic ..