Gene Symbol: bs
Description: blistered
Alias: CG3411, D-SRF, DSRF, DSrf, DSrf/bs, DmSRF, Dmel\CG3411, Group IIc, Mal, SRF, Serf, Srf, bs/DSRF, bs/Dsrf, dSRF, dsrf, l(2)03267, pruned/DSRF, srf, blistered, CG3411-PA, CG3411-PB, CG3411-PC, SRF, balloon, blistered/DSRF, blistered/Drosophila serum response factor, bs-PA, bs-PB, bs-PC, drosophila serum response factor, pruned, serum response factor
Species: fruit fly
Products:     bs

Top Publications

  1. Sutherland D, Samakovlis C, Krasnow M. branchless encodes a Drosophila FGF homolog that controls tracheal cell migration and the pattern of branching. Cell. 1996;87:1091-101 pubmed
  2. Christoforou C, Greer C, Challoner B, Charizanos D, Ray R. The detached locus encodes Drosophila Dystrophin, which acts with other components of the Dystrophin Associated Protein Complex to influence intercellular signalling in developing wing veins. Dev Biol. 2008;313:519-32 pubmed
  3. Takaesu N, Hyman Walsh C, Ye Y, Wisotzkey R, Stinchfield M, O Connor M, et al. dSno facilitates baboon signaling in the Drosophila brain by switching the affinity of Medea away from Mad and toward dSmad2. Genetics. 2006;174:1299-313 pubmed
    ..Pathway switching in target cells is a previously unreported mechanism for regulating TGFbeta signaling and a novel function for Sno/Ski family proteins. ..
  4. Shimmi O, Ralston A, Blair S, O Connor M. The crossveinless gene encodes a new member of the Twisted gastrulation family of BMP-binding proteins which, with Short gastrulation, promotes BMP signaling in the crossveins of the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;282:70-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that Sog and Cv promote BMP signaling by transporting a BMP heterodimer from the longitudinal veins into the crossvein regions. ..
  5. Terriente Félix A, de Celis J. Osa, a subunit of the BAP chromatin-remodelling complex, participates in the regulation of gene expression in response to EGFR signalling in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2009;329:350-61 pubmed publisher
  6. Guillemin K, Groppe J, Ducker K, Treisman R, Hafen E, Affolter M, et al. The pruned gene encodes the Drosophila serum response factor and regulates cytoplasmic outgrowth during terminal branching of the tracheal system. Development. 1996;122:1353-62 pubmed
    ..pruned encodes the Drosophila homologue of serum response factor (SRF), which functions with an ETS domain ternary complex factor as a growth-factor-activated ..
  7. Cela C, Llimargas M. Egfr is essential for maintaining epithelial integrity during tracheal remodelling in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:3115-25 pubmed
    ..This finding establishes a link between a developmental pathway governing tracheal formation and cell adhesiveness. ..
  8. Samakovlis C, Manning G, Steneberg P, Hacohen N, Cantera R, Krasnow M. Genetic control of epithelial tube fusion during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 1996;122:3531-6 pubmed
    ..This establishes a simple genetic system to study fusion of epithelial tubes. ..
  9. Roch F, Baonza A, Martin Blanco E, Garcia Bellido A. Genetic interactions and cell behaviour in blistered mutants during proliferation and differentiation of the Drosophila wing. Development. 1998;125:1823-32 pubmed
    ..blistered encodes for a nuclear protein homologous to the mammalian Serum Response Factor and is expressed in presumptive intervein cells of third larval instar and pupal wing discs...

More Information


  1. Centanin L, Dekanty A, Romero N, Irisarri M, Gorr T, Wappner P. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting. Dev Cell. 2008;14:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting. ..
  2. Jarecki J, Johnson E, Krasnow M. Oxygen regulation of airway branching in Drosophila is mediated by branchless FGF. Cell. 1999;99:211-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, a single growth factor is reiteratively used to pattern each level of airway branching, and the change in branch patterning results from a switch from developmental to physiological control of its expression. ..
  3. Jung A, Ribeiro C, Michaut L, Certa U, Affolter M. Polychaetoid/ZO-1 is required for cell specification and rearrangement during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1224-31 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that MAGUK proteins might play important roles during AJ remodeling in epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  4. Biehs B, Sturtevant M, Bier E. Boundaries in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc organize vein-specific genetic programs. Development. 1998;125:4245-57 pubmed
    ..We present a model in which different A/P boundaries organize vein-specific genetic programs to govern the development of individual veins. ..
  5. Gervais L, Casanova J. The Drosophila homologue of SRF acts as a boosting mechanism to sustain FGF-induced terminal branching in the tracheal system. Development. 2011;138:1269-74 pubmed publisher
    Recent data have demonstrated a crucial role for the transcription factor SRF (serum response factor) downstream of VEGF and FGF signalling during branching morphogenesis...
  6. Han Z, Li X, Wu J, Olson E. A myocardin-related transcription factor regulates activity of serum response factor in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12567-72 pubmed
    b>Serum response factor (SRF) regulates genes involved in cell proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal organization, and myogenesis...
  7. Araújo S, Cela C, Llimargas M. Tramtrack regulates different morphogenetic events during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 2007;134:3665-76 pubmed
    ..In summary, the involvement of Ttk in different steps of tube morphogenesis identifies it as a key player in tracheal development. ..
  8. Nussbaumer U, Halder G, Groppe J, Affolter M, Montagne J. Expression of the blistered/DSRF gene is controlled by different morphogens during Drosophila trachea and wing development. Mech Dev. 2000;96:27-36 pubmed
    The Drosophila serum response factor (DSRF) is expressed in the precursors of the terminal tracheal cells and in the future intervein territories of the third instar wing imaginal disc...
  9. Somogyi K, Rørth P. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration. Dev Cell. 2004;7:85-93 pubmed
    ..We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell ..
  10. Ghabrial A, Levi B, Krasnow M. A systematic screen for tube morphogenesis and branching genes in the Drosophila tracheal system. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002087 pubmed publisher
  11. Kato K, Chihara T, Hayashi S. Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic instruct polarized growth of cell extensions in the Drosophila trachea. Development. 2004;131:5253-61 pubmed
    ..Orthogonal expression of Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic in the epidermis instructs monopolar extension of the terminal branch along the posterior compartment, thereby matching the pattern of airway growth with that of the epidermis. ..
  12. Samakovlis C, Hacohen N, Manning G, Sutherland D, Guillemin K, Krasnow M. Development of the Drosophila tracheal system occurs by a series of morphologically distinct but genetically coupled branching events. Development. 1996;122:1395-407 pubmed
    ..The combined morphological, marker expression and genetic data support a model in which successive branching events are mechanistically and genetically distinct but coupled through the action of a tracheal gene regulatory hierarchy. ..
  13. Affolter M, Montagne J, Walldorf U, Groppe J, Kloter U, Larosa M, et al. The Drosophila SRF homolog is expressed in a subset of tracheal cells and maps within a genomic region required for tracheal development. Development. 1994;120:743-53 pubmed
    The Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate serum response factor (SRF) was isolated by low stringency hybridization...
  14. Barrio R, López Varea A, Casado M, de Celis J. Characterization of dSnoN and its relationship to Decapentaplegic signaling in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:66-81 pubmed
  15. Rendina R, Strangi A, Avallone B, Giordano E. Bap170, a subunit of the Drosophila PBAP chromatin remodeling complex, negatively regulates the EGFR signaling. Genetics. 2010;186:167-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, genetic evidence also indicates that Bap170-mediated repression of rho is inhibited by EGFR signaling, suggesting a scenario of mutual antagonism between EGFR signaling and PBAP function. ..
  16. Lyulcheva E, Taylor E, Michael M, Vehlow A, Tan S, Fletcher A, et al. Drosophila pico and its mammalian ortholog lamellipodin activate serum response factor and promote cell proliferation. Dev Cell. 2008;15:680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that pico and lamellipodin share the ability to activate serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor that responds to reduced G:F-actin ratios via its co-factor Mal...
  17. Lee T, Hacohen N, Krasnow M, Montell D. Regulated Breathless receptor tyrosine kinase activity required to pattern cell migration and branching in the Drosophila tracheal system. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2912-21 pubmed
  18. Vincent S, Wilson R, Coelho C, Affolter M, Leptin M. The Drosophila protein Dof is specifically required for FGF signaling. Mol Cell. 1998;2:515-25 pubmed
    ..Dof is needed in these cells for activation of the MAPK cascade via FGF signaling, but not for activation via other RTK ligands. Dof therefore appears to be committed exclusively to FGFR-mediated signal transduction. ..
  19. Chihara T, Hayashi S. Control of tracheal tubulogenesis by Wingless signaling. Development. 2000;127:4433-42 pubmed
    ..These activities of Wingless signaling together specify the shape of the dorsal trunk and other fusion branches. ..
  20. Angulo M, Corominas M, Serras F. Activation and repression activities of ash2 in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Development. 2004;131:4943-53 pubmed
    ..We show that ash2 is required to sustain the activation of the intervein-promoting genes net and blistered (bs) and to repress rhomboid (rho), a component of the EGF receptor (Egfr) pathway...
  21. Englund C, Uv A, Cantera R, Mathies L, Krasnow M, Samakovlis C. adrift, a novel bnl-induced Drosophila gene, required for tracheal pathfinding into the CNS. Development. 1999;126:1505-14 pubmed
  22. Fristrom D, Gotwals P, Eaton S, Kornberg T, Sturtevant M, Bier E, et al. Blistered: a gene required for vein/intervein formation in wings of Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:2661-71 pubmed
    We have characterized the blistered (bs) locus phenotypically, genetically and developmentally using a set of new bs alleles...
  23. Montagne J, Groppe J, Guillemin K, Krasnow M, Gehring W, Affolter M. The Drosophila Serum Response Factor gene is required for the formation of intervein tissue of the wing and is allelic to blistered. Development. 1996;122:2589-97 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Serum Response Factor gene (DSRF), which encodes a MADS-box containing transcriptional regulator, is expressed in the future ..
  24. Conley C, Silburn R, Singer M, Ralston A, Rohwer Nutter D, Olson D, et al. Crossveinless 2 contains cysteine-rich domains and is required for high levels of BMP-like activity during the formation of the cross veins in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3947-59 pubmed
    ..These features strongly suggest that Crossveinless 2 acts extracelluarly or in the secretory pathway to directly potentiate Dpp or Gbb signaling. ..
  25. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
  26. Kwon C, Han Z, Olson E, Srivastava D. MicroRNA1 influences cardiac differentiation in Drosophila and regulates Notch signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18986-91 pubmed
    ..Drosophila miR-1 (dmiR-1) is regulated through a serum response factor-like binding site in cardiac progenitor cells...
  27. Moon N, Frolov M, Kwon E, Di Stefano L, Dimova D, Morris E, et al. Drosophila E2F1 has context-specific pro- and antiapoptotic properties during development. Dev Cell. 2005;9:463-75 pubmed
    ..These loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that E2F cannot be classified simply as a pro- or antiapoptotic factor. Instead, the overall role of E2F in the damage response varies greatly and depends on the cellular context. ..
  28. Murray M, Fessler L, Palka J. Changing distributions of extracellular matrix components during early wing morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;168:150-65 pubmed
    ..In an extreme allele of blistered the wing is ballooned to form a single internal space...
  29. Vaqué J, Dorsam R, Feng X, Iglesias Bartolomé R, Forsthoefel D, Chen Q, et al. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a Trio-regulated Rho GTPase circuitry transducing mitogenic signals initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. Mol Cell. 2013;49:94-108 pubmed publisher
  30. Imam F, Sutherland D, Huang W, Krasnow M. stumps, a Drosophila gene required for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-directed migrations of tracheal and mesodermal cells. Genetics. 1999;152:307-18 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that stumps function promotes FGF-directed cell migrations, either by potentiating the FGF signaling process or by coupling the signal to the cellular machinery required for directed cell movement. ..
  31. Choi W, Jung K, Nelson K, Bhat M, Beitel G, Peifer M, et al. The single Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid regulates embryonic morphogenesis in coordination with Canoe/afadin and Enabled. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2010-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Canoe (Cno) and Pyd are required for proper Ena localization during dorsal closure, and strong genetic interactions suggest that Cno, Pyd, and Ena act together in regulating or anchoring the actin cytoskeleton during dorsal closure. ..
  32. Dossenbach C, Rock S, Affolter M. Specificity of FGF signaling in cell migration in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4563-72 pubmed
    ..We discuss our findings in the light of the recent findings that RTKs generate a generic signal that is interpreted in responding cells according to their developmental history. ..
  33. O Keefe D, Gonzalez Niño E, Burnett M, Dylla L, Lambeth S, Licon E, et al. Rap1 maintains adhesion between cells to affect Egfr signaling and planar cell polarity in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2009;333:143-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Rap1 acts through the effector Canoe to regulate these developmental processes. ..
  34. Molnar C, Holguin H, Mayor F, Ruiz Gomez A, de Celis J. The G protein-coupled receptor regulatory kinase GPRK2 participates in Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7963-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the expression of Gprk2 in the wing disc is regulated in part by Smo, generating a positive feedback loop that maintains high Smo activity close to the anterior-posterior compartment boundary. ..
  35. Plough H, Ives P. Induction of Mutations by High Temperature in Drosophila. Genetics. 1935;20:42-69 pubmed
  36. Srivastava A, Heise C, Garg A, Bell J. The relationship between the dominant Additional vein mutant in Drosophila melanogaster and engrailed. Genome. 2002;45:1077-82 pubmed
    ..The characterization of this mutation could expedite studies to understand what molecular events result in the Adv phenotype and thereby provide insight into the development of the first wing vein in Drosophila. ..
  37. Steneberg P, Hemphälä J, Samakovlis C. Dpp and Notch specify the fusion cell fate in the dorsal branches of the Drosophila trachea. Mech Dev. 1999;87:153-63 pubmed
  38. Donlea J, Ramanan N, Shaw P. Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila. Science. 2009;324:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that flies mutant for rutabaga, period, and blistered were deficient for experience-dependent increases in sleep...
  39. Dubois L, Vincent A. The COE--Collier/Olf1/EBF--transcription factors: structural conservation and diversity of developmental functions. Mech Dev. 2001;108:3-12 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the existence of an evolutionarily conserved pathway linking Notch signalling and COE regulatory functions in various developmental decisions. ..
  40. Linneweber G, Jacobson J, Busch K, Hudry B, Christov C, Dormann D, et al. Neuronal control of metabolism through nutrient-dependent modulation of tracheal branching. Cell. 2014;156:69-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe a novel mechanism by which nutritional cues modulate neuronal activity to give rise to organ-specific, long-lasting changes in vascular architecture. ..
  41. Nguyen H, Frasch M. MicroRNAs in muscle differentiation: lessons from Drosophila and beyond. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:533-9 pubmed
    ..Other miRNAs might promote specific developmental switches during the development and regeneration of muscles. ..
  42. Santamaria P, Randsholt N. Characterization of a region of the X chromosome of Drosophila including multi sex combs (mxc), a Polycomb group gene which also functions as a tumour suppressor. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;246:282-90 pubmed
    ..Such a signal could divert somatic and germ line development pathways, provoke the loss of cell affinities, but allow or promote growth. ..
  43. Hacohen N, Kramer S, Sutherland D, Hiromi Y, Krasnow M. sprouty encodes a novel antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. Cell. 1998;92:253-63 pubmed
    ..sprouty encodes a novel cysteine-rich protein that defines a new family of putative signaling molecules that may similarly function as FGF antagonists in vertebrate development. ..
  44. Vervoort M. Functional evolution of Hox proteins in arthropods. Bioessays. 2002;24:775-9 pubmed
    ..Recent reports challenge this idea by highlighting functional evolution of Hox proteins during the evolutionary history of arthropods. ..
  45. Schnorr J, Holdcraft R, Chevalier B, Berg C. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis. Genetics. 2001;159:609-22 pubmed
    ..Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion...
  46. Matakatsu H, Tadokoro R, Gamo S, Hayashi S. Repression of the wing vein development in Drosophila by the nuclear matrix protein plexus. Development. 1999;126:5207-16 pubmed
    ..Plexus may regulate transcription of vein-and intervein-specific genes by tethering transcriptional regulators to specific locations in the nucleus. ..
  47. Palsson A, Dodgson J, Dworkin I, Gibson G. Tests for the replication of an association between Egfr and natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster wing morphology. BMC Genet. 2005;6:44 pubmed
    ..However, the testcross approach to validate QTNs is both labor intensive and time-consuming, and is probably less useful than resampling of large independent sets of outbred individuals. ..
  48. Thompson B. Mal/SRF is dispensable for cell proliferation in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10077 pubmed publisher
    The Mal/SRF transcription factor is regulated by the level of G-actin in cells and has important roles in cell migration and other actin-dependent processes in Drosophila...
  49. Takaesu N, Herbig E, Zhitomersky D, O Connor M, Newfeld S. DNA-binding domain mutations in SMAD genes yield dominant-negative proteins or a neomorphic protein that can activate WG target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4883-94 pubmed
    ..From a larger perspective, our study shows that the genetic characterization of missense mutations, particularly in modular proteins, requires experimental verification. ..
  50. Affolter M, Shilo B. Genetic control of branching morphogenesis during Drosophila tracheal development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:731-5 pubmed
    ..More than 30 genes have been identified and ordered into sequential steps controlling branching morphogenesis. These studies have revealed a number of important principles that might be conserved in other systems. ..
  51. Chen J, Honeyager S, Schleede J, Avanesov A, Laughon A, Blair S. Crossveinless d is a vitellogenin-like lipoprotein that binds BMPs and HSPGs, and is required for normal BMP signaling in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2012;139:2170-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Franch Marro X, Casanova J. spalt-induced specification of distinct dorsal and ventral domains is required for Drosophila tracheal patterning. Dev Biol. 2002;250:374-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that tracheal patterning depends not only on signalling from surrounding cells but also in the different response of the tracheal cells depending on their allocation to the dorsal or ventral domains. ..
  53. Gambis A, Dourlen P, Steller H, Mollereau B. Two-color in vivo imaging of photoreceptor apoptosis and development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2011;351:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT" method allows high-throughput, rapid and precise identification of survival and developmental pathways in living adult PRs at single-cell resolution. ..
  54. Halder G, Carroll S. Binding of the Vestigial co-factor switches the DNA-target selectivity of the Scalloped selector protein. Development. 2001;128:3295-305 pubmed
    ..The modification of selector protein DNA-binding specificity by co-factors appears to be a general mechanism for regulating their target selectivity in vivo. ..
  55. Crozatier M, Glise B, Vincent A. Connecting Hh, Dpp and EGF signalling in patterning of the Drosophila wing; the pivotal role of collier/knot in the AP organiser. Development. 2002;129:4261-9 pubmed
    ..genes involved in the control of cell proliferation, the EGFR ligand Vein and the intervein determination gene blistered. We further show that attenuation of Dpp signalling in the AP organiser is also col dependent and, in ..
  56. Chen F, Krasnow M. Progenitor outgrowth from the niche in Drosophila trachea is guided by FGF from decaying branches. Science. 2014;343:186-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reactivation of an embryonic tracheal inducer in decaying branches directs outgrowth of progenitors that replace them. This explains how the structure of a newly generated tissue is coordinated with that of the old. ..
  57. Serpe M, Umulis D, Ralston A, Chen J, Olson D, Avanesov A, et al. The BMP-binding protein Crossveinless 2 is a short-range, concentration-dependent, biphasic modulator of BMP signaling in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;14:940-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that Cv-2 expression is controlled by BMP signaling, and these combined properties enable Cv-2 to exquisitely tune BMP signaling. ..
  58. Fritsch C, Sawala A, Harris R, Maartens A, Sutcliffe C, Ashe H, et al. Different requirements for proteolytic processing of bone morphogenetic protein 5/6/7/8 ligands in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that cleavage requirements evolve rapidly, supporting the notion that changes in post-translational processing are used to create functional diversity between BMPs within and between species. ..
  59. Petit V, Nussbaumer U, Dossenbach C, Affolter M. Downstream-of-FGFR is a fibroblast growth factor-specific scaffolding protein and recruits Corkscrew upon receptor activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3769-81 pubmed
    ..Additional proteins binding either to the FGFRs, to Dof, or to Csw appear to be crucial for a chemotactic response. ..
  60. Grieder N, Morata G, Affolter M, Gehring W. Spalt major controls the development of the notum and of wing hinge primordia of the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc. Dev Biol. 2009;329:315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that salm activity is down-regulated by its own product and by that of the Pax gene eyegone. ..
  61. Lunde K, Biehs B, Nauber U, Bier E. The knirps and knirps-related genes organize development of the second wing vein in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:4145-54 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which the combined activities of kni and knrl organize development of the L2 vein in the appropriate position. ..
  62. Wilk R, Reed B, Tepass U, Lipshitz H. The hindsight gene is required for epithelial maintenance and differentiation of the tracheal system in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2000;219:183-96 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HNT is a tissue-specific factor that regulates maintenance of the tracheal epithelium as well as differentiation of taenidia. ..
  63. Caviglia S, Luschnig S. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity. Development. 2013;140:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network. ..
  64. Roch F, Jiménez G, Casanova J. EGFR signalling inhibits Capicua-dependent repression during specification of Drosophila wing veins. Development. 2002;129:993-1002 pubmed
    ..Our results support the idea that localised inactivation of transcriptional repressors such as Cic is a rather general mechanism for regulation of target gene expression by the Ras/Raf pathway. ..
  65. Dorfman R, Glazer L, Weihe U, Wernet M, Shilo B. Elbow and Noc define a family of zinc finger proteins controlling morphogenesis of specific tracheal branches. Development. 2002;129:3585-96 pubmed
    ..ElB also associates with the Groucho protein, indicating that the complex has the capacity to repress transcription of target genes. Indeed, in elB or noc mutants, expanded expression of tracheal branch-specific genes was observed. ..
  66. O Keefe D, Prober D, Moyle P, Rickoll W, Edgar B. Egfr/Ras signaling regulates DE-cadherin/Shotgun localization to control vein morphogenesis in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2007;311:25-39 pubmed
    ..Ras, therefore, regulates both the transcriptional responses necessary for vein cell identity, and the cell adhesive changes that determine vein and intervein cell morphology. ..
  67. Thran J, Poeck B, Strauss R. Serum response factor-mediated gene regulation in a Drosophila visual working memory. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1756-63 pubmed publisher
    ..coactivator myocardin-related transcription factor A (dMRTF) and therefore the transcriptional activator serum response factor (dSRF)...
  68. Tyler D, Baker N. Size isn't everything. Bioessays. 2003;25:5-8 pubmed
    ..A recent paper suggests that a hitherto overlooked cellular behaviour governs the size and shape of a growing tissue, and issues a challenge to developmental biologists to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. ..
  69. Bayer C, Halsell S, Fristrom J, Kiehart D, von Kalm L. Genetic interactions between the RhoA and Stubble-stubbloid loci suggest a role for a type II transmembrane serine protease in intracellular signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc morphogenesis. Genetics. 2003;165:1417-32 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that the type II transmembrane serine proteases, a class of proteins linked to human developmental abnormalities and pathology, may be associated with intracellular signaling required for normal development. ..
  70. Wong M, Liu M, Chiu S. Cropped, Drosophila transcription factor AP-4, controls tracheal terminal branching and cell growth. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:20 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the branching morphogenesis of terminal cells of the tracheal tubes in Drosophila requires the dMyc-dependent activation of Cropped/AP-4 protein to increase the cell growth of terminal cells. ..
  71. Weatherbee S, Carroll S. Selector genes and limb identity in arthropods and vertebrates. Cell. 1999;97:283-6 pubmed
  72. Layalle S, Volovitch M, Mugat B, Bonneaud N, Parmentier M, Prochiantz A, et al. Engrailed homeoprotein acts as a signaling molecule in the developing fly. Development. 2011;138:2315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This report thus suggests that direct signaling with homeoproteins is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon that is not restricted to neural tissues and involves interactions with bona fide signal transduction pathways. ..
  73. Chen G, Gajowniczek P, Settleman J. Rho-LIM kinase signaling regulates ecdysone-induced gene expression and morphogenesis during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:309-13 pubmed
    ..can modulate gene expression, in part, by activating LIM kinase (LIMK) and consequently affecting actin-induced SRF transcriptional activity...
  74. Baena Lopez L, Baonza A, García Bellido A. The orientation of cell divisions determines the shape of Drosophila organs. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1640-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that a subset of planar cell polarity genes is required for the proper orientation of cell division during organ development. ..