Gene Symbol: Bruce
Description: BIR repeat containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme
Alias: BRUCE, CG6303, Dmel\CG6303, bruce, dBRUCE, dBruce, dbruce, mod86, BIR repeat containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Bruce-PA, Bruce-PB, Bruce-PC, Bruce-PD, Bruce-PE, CG6303-PA, CG6303-PB, CG6303-PC, CG6303-PD, CG6303-PE, dbruce, mod86
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Arama E, Agapite J, Steller H. Caspase activity and a specific cytochrome C are required for sperm differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:687-97 pubmed
    ..Finally, a giant ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, dBruce, is required to protect the sperm nucleus against hypercondensation and degeneration...
  2. Ryoo H, Bergmann A, Gonen H, Ciechanover A, Steller H. Regulation of Drosophila IAP1 degradation and apoptosis by reaper and ubcD1. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:432-8 pubmed
    ..UBCD1 and Rpr specifically bind to DIAP1 and stimulate DIAP1 auto-ubiquitination in vitro. Our results identify a novel function of Rpr in stimulating DIAP1 auto-ubiquitination through UBCD1, thereby promoting its degradation. ..
  3. Xu D, Woodfield S, Lee T, Fan Y, Antonio C, Bergmann A. Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:78-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the key players of the cell death pathway in Drosophila and discuss their roles in apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes. ..
  4. Bergmann A, Yang A, Srivastava M. Regulators of IAP function: coming to grips with the grim reaper. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:717-24 pubmed
    ..The apoptosis-inducing genes grim, reaper and hid modulate these mechanisms, and determine the outcome. ..
  5. Arama E, Bader M, Rieckhof G, Steller H. A ubiquitin ligase complex regulates caspase activation during sperm differentiation in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e251 pubmed
    ..Finally, the BIR domain region of the giant inhibitor of apoptosis-like protein dBruce is sufficient to bind to Klhl10, which is consistent with the idea that dBruce is a substrate for the Cullin-3-..
  6. Vernooy S, Chow V, Su J, Verbrugghe K, Yang J, Cole S, et al. Drosophila Bruce can potently suppress Rpr- and Grim-dependent but not Hid-dependent cell death. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1164-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate, using gain-of-function and deletion alleles, that Drosophila Bruce (dBruce) can potently inhibit cell death induced by the essential Drosophila cell death activators Reaper (Rpr) and Grim ..
  7. Kaplan Y, Gibbs Bar L, Kalifa Y, Feinstein Rotkopf Y, Arama E. Gradients of a ubiquitin E3 ligase inhibitor and a caspase inhibitor determine differentiation or death in spermatids. Dev Cell. 2010;19:160-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We further provide evidence that the giant inhibitor of apoptosis-like protein dBruce is a target for the Cullin-3-based complex, and that Soti competes with dBruce for binding to Klhl10, the E3 ..
  8. Peschel N, Chen K, Szabo G, Stanewsky R. Light-dependent interactions between the Drosophila circadian clock factors cryptochrome, jetlag, and timeless. Curr Biol. 2009;19:241-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Bader M, Arama E, Steller H. A novel F-box protein is required for caspase activation during cellular remodeling in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:1679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..ubiquitin ligase does not regulate the stability of the caspase inhibitors DIAP1 and DIAP2, but physically binds Bruce, a BIR-containing giant protein involved in apoptosis regulation...

More Information


  1. Domingues C, Ryoo H. Drosophila BRUCE inhibits apoptosis through non-lysine ubiquitination of the IAP-antagonist REAPER. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..modifiers of this pathway include another IAP family gene encoding an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme domain, dBruce. Although the genetic effects of dBruce mutants are well documented, molecular targets of its encoded protein have ..
  2. Yoo S. Grim stimulates Diap1 poly-ubiquitination by binding to UbcD1. Mol Cells. 2005;20:446-51 pubmed
    ..The possibility that dBruce is another E2 interacting with Diap1 was examined...
  3. Bartolomé C, Maside X, Yi S, Grant A, Charlesworth B. Patterns of selection on synonymous and nonsynonymous variants in Drosophila miranda. Genetics. 2005;169:1495-507 pubmed
    ..The joint intensity of selection and biased gene conversion, in terms of the product of effective population size and the sum of the selection and conversion coefficients, was estimated to be approximately 0.65. ..
  4. Gafuik C, Steller H. A gain-of-function germline mutation in Drosophila ras1 affects apoptosis and cell fate during development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23535 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we used ras1(R68Q) to identify novel genes that interact with Ras and suppress cell death. ..
  5. Orihara Ono M, Suzuki E, Saito M, Yoda Y, Aigaki T, Hama C. The slender lobes gene, identified by retarded mushroom body development, is required for proper nucleolar organization in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;281:121-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Sle is a general factor of nuclear architecture in Drosophila that is required for the correct organization of the nucleolus during development. ..
  6. Arya R, White K. Cell death in development: Signaling pathways and core mechanisms. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;39:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding how the cell death is regulated during development may provide insight into how this process can be manipulated in the treatment of disease. ..
  7. Baehrecke E. Caspase activation finds fertile ground. Dev Cell. 2003;4:608-9 pubmed
    ..Recent work demonstrates that cytochrome c and caspases function in Drosophila sperm cell differentiation and indicates that caspase activity can be regulated in a subcellular manner in cells that live. ..
  8. Nezis I, Shravage B, Sagona A, Lamark T, Bjørkøy G, Johansen T, et al. Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) dBruce was found to colocalize with the autophagic marker GFP-Atg8a and accumulated in autophagy mutants...
  9. Nezis I, Shravage B, Sagona A, Johansen T, Baehrecke E, Stenmark H. Autophagy as a trigger for cell death: autophagic degradation of inhibitor of apoptosis dBruce controls DNA fragmentation during late oogenesis in Drosophila. Autophagy. 2010;6:1214-5 pubmed
    ..We found that Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis dBruce is degraded by autophagy and this degradation promotes DNA fragmentation and subsequent nurse cell death...