Gene Symbol: bnl
Description: branchless
Alias: BNL, Bnl, CG4608, DFGF, DmBnl, Dmel\CG4608, FGF, dFGF, l(3)06916, l(3)neo52, branchless, CG4608-PA, CG4608-PC, CG4608-PD, bnl-PA, bnl-PC, bnl-PD, fibroblast growth factor, fibroblast growth factor protein, fibroblast growth factor)
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Affolter M, Bellusci S, Itoh N, Shilo B, Thiery J, Werb Z. Tube or not tube: remodeling epithelial tissues by branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2003;4:11-8 pubmed
  2. Centanin L, Dekanty A, Romero N, Irisarri M, Gorr T, Wappner P. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting. Dev Cell. 2008;14:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells...
  3. Montell D. The genetics of cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans development. Development. 1999;126:3035-46 pubmed
    ..In addition, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and FGF receptors in particular, have emerged as key mediators of cell migration in vivo, confirming the importance of ..
  4. Araújo S, Casanova J. Sequoia establishes tip-cell number in Drosophila trachea by regulating FGF levels. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify Sequoia (Seq) as a negative transcriptional regulator of Branchless (Bnl), a Drosophila FGF homologue, and observe that modulation of Bnl levels determines how many cells will lead ..
  5. Guha A, Lin L, Kornberg T. Regulation of Drosophila matrix metalloprotease Mmp2 is essential for wing imaginal disc:trachea association and air sac tubulogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;335:317-26 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila Dorsal Air Sac Primordium (ASP) is a tracheal tube that grows toward Branchless FGF-expressing cells in the wing imaginal disc...
  6. Jarecki J, Johnson E, Krasnow M. Oxygen regulation of airway branching in Drosophila is mediated by branchless FGF. Cell. 1999;99:211-20 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that the critical signal is Branchless (Bnl) FGF, the same growth factor that patterns the major branches during embryogenesis...
  7. Wappner P, Gabay L, Shilo B. Interactions between the EGF receptor and DPP pathways establish distinct cell fates in the tracheal placodes. Development. 1997;124:4707-16 pubmed
    ..Antagonistic interactions between the two pathways are demonstrated. The opposing activities of two pathways may refine the final determination of tracheal branch fates. ..
  8. Hacohen N, Kramer S, Sutherland D, Hiromi Y, Krasnow M. sprouty encodes a novel antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. Cell. 1998;92:253-63 pubmed
    ..In wild-type embryos, the Branchless FGF induces secondary branching by activating the Breathless FGF receptor near the tips of growing primary ..
  9. Lavista Llanos S, Centanin L, Irisarri M, Russo D, Gleadle J, Bocca S, et al. Control of the hypoxic response in Drosophila melanogaster by the basic helix-loop-helix PAS protein similar. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6842-53 pubmed
    ..Tight conservation of the HIF/prolyl hydroxylase system in Drosophila provides a new focus for understanding oxygen homeostasis in intact multicellular organisms. ..

More Information


  1. Park Y, Rangel C, Reynolds M, Caldwell M, Johns M, Nayak M, et al. Drosophila perlecan modulates FGF and hedgehog signals to activate neural stem cell division. Dev Biol. 2003;253:247-57 pubmed
    ..we show that trol encodes the Drosophila homolog of Perlecan and regulates neuroblast division by modulating both FGF and Hh signaling...
  2. Ikeya T, Hayashi S. Interplay of Notch and FGF signaling restricts cell fate and MAPK activation in the Drosophila trachea. Development. 1999;126:4455-63 pubmed
    The patterned branching in the Drosophila tracheal system is triggered by the FGF-like ligand Branchless that activates a receptor tyrosine kinase Breathless and the MAP kinase pathway...
  3. Glazer L, Shilo B. Hedgehog signaling patterns the tracheal branches. Development. 2001;128:1599-606 pubmed
    ..Signaling by several pathways, including the Hh pathway, thus serves to subdivide the uniform population of tracheal cells into distinct cell types that will subsequently be recruited into the different branches. ..
  4. Ribeiro C, Ebner A, Affolter M. In vivo imaging reveals different cellular functions for FGF and Dpp signaling in tracheal branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;2:677-83 pubmed
    ..The chemoattractant Branchless/FGF (Bnl) appears to guide cell migration and is essential for the formation of all tracheal branches, while ..
  5. Sato M, Kornberg T. FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system. Dev Cell. 2002;3:195-207 pubmed
    ..During the third larval instar, air sac precursor cells bud from a tracheal branch in response to FGF, and then they proliferate and migrate to the adepithelial layer of the wing imaginal disc...
  6. Buti E, Mesquita D, Araújo S. Hedgehog is a positive regulator of FGF signalling during embryonic tracheal cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92682 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages...
  7. Yan D, Lin X. Drosophila glypican Dally-like acts in FGF-receiving cells to modulate FGF signaling during tracheal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;312:203-16 pubmed
    ..that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in both breathless (btl)- and heartless (htl)-mediated FGF signaling during embryogenesis. However, the mechanism(s) by which HSPGs control Btl and Htl signaling is unknown...
  8. Chihara T, Hayashi S. Control of tracheal tubulogenesis by Wingless signaling. Development. 2000;127:4433-42 pubmed
    ..The tracheal primordium undergoes primary branching induced by the FGF homolog Branchless, differentiates cells with specialized functions such as fusion cells, which perform target recognition and ..
  9. Dorfman R, Shilo B, Volk T. Stripe provides cues synergizing with branchless to direct tracheal cell migration. Dev Biol. 2002;252:119-26 pubmed embryos exhibit defects in migration of all tracheal branches. Although the FGF ligand Branchless (Bnl) is expressed in a subset of tendon-precursor cells independently of Sr, Bnl functions cooperatively with ..
  10. Roy S, Hsiung F, Kornberg T. Specificity of Drosophila cytonemes for distinct signaling pathways. Science. 2011;332:354-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tracheal cells had at least two types: one made in response to Branchless (a Drosophila fibroblast growth factor protein, Bnl), to which they segregate the Bnl receptor, and another to which they segregate the Dpp receptor...
  11. Vincent S, Ruberte E, Grieder N, Chen C, Haerry T, Schuh R, et al. DPP controls tracheal cell migration along the dorsoventral body axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1997;124:2741-50 pubmed the developing tracheal placode, and is also required for the dorsal expression of the recently identified BRANCHLESS (BNL) guidance molecule, the ligand of the BREATHLESS (BTL) receptor...
  12. Nussbaumer U, Halder G, Groppe J, Affolter M, Montagne J. Expression of the blistered/DSRF gene is controlled by different morphogens during Drosophila trachea and wing development. Mech Dev. 2000;96:27-36 pubmed
    ..of the DSRF regulatory region reveals that a single enhancer element, which is under the control of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-receptor signalling pathway, is sufficient to induce DSRF expression in the terminal tracheal cells...
  13. Gabay L, Seger R, Shilo B. MAP kinase in situ activation atlas during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:3535-41 pubmed
    ..Since the antibody was raised against the phosphorylated form of a conserved ERK peptide containing the TEY motif, this approach is applicable to a wide spectrum of multicellular organisms. ..
  14. Wang Q, Uhlirova M, Bohmann D. Spatial restriction of FGF signaling by a matrix metalloprotease controls branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Mmp2 expression in the developing air sac is controlled by the Drosophila FGF homolog Branchless and then participates in a negative feedback and lateral inhibition mechanism that defines the precise pattern ..
  15. Steneberg P, Hemphälä J, Samakovlis C. Dpp and Notch specify the fusion cell fate in the dorsal branches of the Drosophila trachea. Mech Dev. 1999;87:153-63 pubmed
  16. Rosin D, Shilo B. Branch-specific migration cues in the Drosophila tracheal system. Bioessays. 2002;24:110-3 pubmed
    ..A major guiding system in the migration process of all branches is the dynamic and localized expression of Branchless (Bnl), an FGF-like molecule...
  17. Merabet S, Ebner A, Affolter M. The Drosophila Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control branchless/FGF expression in mesodermal bridge-cells. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:762-8 pubmed the local and highly dynamic expression profile of branchless (bnl), which encodes a secreted fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-like molecule...
  18. Zhan Y, Maung S, Shao B, Myat M. The bHLH transcription factor, hairy, refines the terminal cell fate in the Drosophila embryonic trachea. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14134 pubmed publisher
    ..Although hairy was shown to be expressed in the tracheal primordia and in surrounding mesoderm, whether hairy plays a role in tracheal development is not known...
  19. Araújo S, Cela C, Llimargas M. Tramtrack regulates different morphogenetic events during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 2007;134:3665-76 pubmed
    ..In summary, the involvement of Ttk in different steps of tube morphogenesis identifies it as a key player in tracheal development. ..
  20. Chen C, Kühnlein R, Eulenberg K, Vincent S, Affolter M, Schuh R. The transcription factors KNIRPS and KNIRPS RELATED control cell migration and branch morphogenesis during Drosophila tracheal development. Development. 1998;125:4959-68 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that the border between cells acquiring dorsal branch and dorsal trunk identity is established by the direct interaction of KNIRPS with a spalt cis-regulatory element. ..
  21. Englund C, Uv A, Cantera R, Mathies L, Krasnow M, Samakovlis C. adrift, a novel bnl-induced Drosophila gene, required for tracheal pathfinding into the CNS. Development. 1999;126:1505-14 pubmed the trachea and is expressed in the leading cells of migrating ganglionic branches where it is induced by the branchless FGF pathway...
  22. Ohshiro T, Emori Y, Saigo K. Ligand-dependent activation of breathless FGF receptor gene in Drosophila developing trachea. Mech Dev. 2002;114:3-11 pubmed
    Spatially and temporally regulated activity of Branchless/Breathless signaling is essential for trachea development in Drosophila...
  23. Bradley P, Andrew D. ribbon encodes a novel BTB/POZ protein required for directed cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2001;128:3001-15 pubmed
    ..b>FGF signaling is required for guided migration of all tracheal branches, whereas the DPP, EGF receptor, and Wingless/..
  24. Metzger R, Krasnow M. Genetic control of branching morphogenesis. Science. 1999;284:1635-9 pubmed
    ..In both the developing Drosophila tracheal (respiratory) system and mammalian lung, a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway is reiteratively used to pattern successive rounds of branching...
  25. Barrett A, Krueger S, Datta S. Branchless and Hedgehog operate in a positive feedback loop to regulate the initiation of neuroblast division in the Drosophila larval brain. Dev Biol. 2008;317:234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Initiation of neuroblast proliferation requires signaling by the Fibroblast Growth Factor homolog Branchless and by the Hedgehog growth factor...
  26. Hosono C, Takaira K, Matsuda R, Saigo K. Functional subdivision of trunk visceral mesoderm parasegments in Drosophila is required for gut and trachea development. Development. 2003;130:439-49 pubmed
    ..We now extend these findings by examining a greater number of visceral mesodermal genes, including hedgehog and branchless. Each visceral mesodermal parasegment appears to be divided into five or six regions, based on differences in ..
  27. Gervais L, Casanova J. The Drosophila homologue of SRF acts as a boosting mechanism to sustain FGF-induced terminal branching in the tracheal system. Development. 2011;138:1269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we establish the relative contributions of the Drosophila homologues of FGF [Branchless (BNL)] and SRF [Blistered (BS)] in terminal tracheal branching...
  28. Mortimer N, Moberg K. Regulation of Drosophila embryonic tracheogenesis by dVHL and hypoxia. Dev Biol. 2009;329:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..activating a program of branching and growth driven by HIF-1alpha/sima-dependent expression of the breathless (btl) FGF receptor...
  29. Sutherland D, Samakovlis C, Krasnow M. branchless encodes a Drosophila FGF homolog that controls tracheal cell migration and the pattern of branching. Cell. 1996;87:1091-101 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the Drosophila gene branchless (bnl) and demonstrate that it is a key determinant of the tracheal branching pattern...
  30. Hirabayashi S, Baranski T, Cagan R. Transformed Drosophila cells evade diet-mediated insulin resistance through wingless signaling. Cell. 2013;154:664-75 pubmed publisher
    ..By targeting multiple steps in this circuit with rationally applied drug combinations, we demonstrate the potential of combinatorial drug intervention to treat diet-enhanced malignant tumors. ..
  31. Kato K, Chihara T, Hayashi S. Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic instruct polarized growth of cell extensions in the Drosophila trachea. Development. 2004;131:5253-61 pubmed
    ..Orthogonal expression of Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic in the epidermis instructs monopolar extension of the terminal branch along the posterior compartment, thereby matching the pattern of airway growth with that of the epidermis. ..
  32. Caviglia S, Luschnig S. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity. Development. 2013;140:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network. ..
  33. Lin X, Buff E, Perrimon N, Michelson A. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are essential for FGF receptor signaling during Drosophila embryonic development. Development. 1999;126:3715-23 pubmed
    ..Biochemical studies have shown that heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are involved in signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors, but evidence for such a requirement in an intact organism has not been available...
  34. Lebreton G, Casanova J. Specification of leading and trailing cell features during collective migration in the Drosophila trachea. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:465-74 pubmed publisher
    ..that develops from the collective migration of clusters of cells that respond to Branchless (Bnl), a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologue expressed in surrounding tissues...
  35. Kim H, Bar Sagi D. Modulation of signalling by Sprouty: a developing story. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:441-50 pubmed
  36. Mandal L, Banerjee U, Hartenstein V. Evidence for a fruit fly hemangioblast and similarities between lymph-gland hematopoiesis in fruit fly and mammal aorta-gonadal-mesonephros mesoderm. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1019-23 pubmed
    ..and the homeobox gene tinman (tin), which are controlled by the convergence of Decapentaplegic (Dpp), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wingless (Wg) and Notch signaling, are required for the development of all cardiogenic mesoderm, ..
  37. Baeg G, Perrimon N. Functional binding of secreted molecules to heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Drosophila. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:575-80 pubmed
    ..studies in Drosophila have begun to clarify the function of HSPGs in vivo and recent findings have implicated HSPGs in Wnt, Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways during development.
  38. Englund C, Birve A, Falileeva L, Grabbe C, Palmer R. Miple1 and miple2 encode a family of MK/PTN homologues in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of homologues of the MK/PTN family in this genetically tractable model organism should allow an analysis of their function during complex developmental processes...
  39. Urbach R. A procephalic territory in Drosophila exhibiting similarities and dissimilarities compared to the vertebrate midbrain/hindbrain boundary region. Neural Dev. 2007;2:23 pubmed
  40. Hemphälä J, Uv A, Cantera R, Bray S, Samakovlis C. Grainy head controls apical membrane growth and tube elongation in response to Branchless/FGF signalling. Development. 2003;130:249-58 pubmed
    ..The chemoattractant Branchless/FGF induces tube outgrowth, and we find that it upregulates Grainy head activity post-translationally, thereby ..
  41. Jakobsen J, Braun M, Astorga J, Gustafson E, Sandmann T, Karzynski M, et al. Temporal ChIP-on-chip reveals Biniou as a universal regulator of the visceral muscle transcriptional network. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2448-60 pubmed
    ..The regulatory connection of a number of Biniou target genes is conserved in mice, suggesting an ancient wiring of this developmental program. ..
  42. Du L, Zhou A, Patel A, Rao M, Anderson K, Roy S. Unique patterns of organization and migration of FGF-expressing cells during Drosophila morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2017;427:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the FGF homolog, branchless (bnl) is expressed in a dynamic and spatiotemporally restricted pattern to induce branching morphogenesis of the ..
  43. Rørth P. Gal4 in the Drosophila female germline. Mech Dev. 1998;78:113-8 pubmed
    ..The modified Gal4 system was used to investigate the role of the Drosophila FGF homologue branchless, ligand for the FGF receptor breathless, in border cell migration...
  44. Mortimer N, Moberg K. The archipelago ubiquitin ligase subunit acts in target tissue to restrict tracheal terminal cell branching and hypoxic-induced gene expression. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003314 pubmed publisher
    ..encodes the HIF-1? subunit of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor dHIF and its target the FGF ligand branchless (bnl), and is enhanced by depletion of the Drosophila Von Hippel Lindau (dVHL) factor, which is a subunit of an ..
  45. Deshpande G, Schedl P. First seduction, then transfiguration. Dev Cell. 2002;3:308-9 pubmed
    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contribute to various cellular processes...
  46. Li Y, Padmanabha D, Gentile L, Dumur C, Beckstead R, Baker K. HIF- and non-HIF-regulated hypoxic responses require the estrogen-related receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003230 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that competent hypoxic responses arise from complex interactions between HIF-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that dERR plays a central role in both of these programs. ..
  47. Affolter M. Cell-cell interaction during Drosophila embryogenesis: novel mechanisms and molecules. Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop. 2000;:65-79 pubmed
  48. Baudot A, Angelelli J, Guénoche A, Jacq B, Brun C. Defining a modular signalling network from the fly interactome. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:45 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding reflects the integration of the signalling system into cell functioning and its important role connecting and coordinating different biological processes at the level of the interactome. ..
  49. Chanut F. Signals that tell fly neurons to extend or retract. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e391 pubmed publisher
  50. Maqbool T, Soler C, Jagla T, Daczewska M, Lodha N, Palliyil S, et al. Shaping leg muscles in Drosophila: role of ladybird, a conserved regulator of appendicular myogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e122 pubmed
    ..In addition, ladybird expression correlates with that of FGF receptor Heartless and the read-out of FGF signalling downstream of FGF...
  51. Davies J. Do different branching epithelia use a conserved developmental mechanism?. Bioessays. 2002;24:937-48 pubmed
    ..Overall, I come to the tentative conclusion that key mechanisms are highly conserved, at least within vertebrates, but acknowledge that more work needs to be done before the case is proved beyond reasonable doubt. ..
  52. Miao G, Hayashi S. Manipulation of gene expression by infrared laser heat shock and its application to the study of tracheal development in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, induction of HS-Branchless transgene encoding the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF) effectively altered the migration and branching patterns of the tracheal system...
  53. Eulenberg K, Schuh R. The tracheae defective gene encodes a bZIP protein that controls tracheal cell movement during Drosophila embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1997;16:7156-65 pubmed
    ..In contrast, tdf activity is not dependent on and does not interfere with the fibroblast growth factor- (FGF) and Decapentaplegic- (DPP) mediated signalling that direct guided tracheal cell migration...
  54. Morata G, Basler K. Cells in search of a signal. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E60-1 pubmed
  55. Cairrao F, Halees A, Khabar K, Morello D, Vanzo N. AU-rich elements regulate Drosophila gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. Our work reveals that AREs are conserved and functional cis regulators of mRNA decay in Drosophila and highlights this organism as a novel model system to unravel in vivo the contribution of AMD to various processes. ..
  56. Wolf C, Schuh R. Single mesodermal cells guide outgrowth of ectodermal tubular structures in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2140-5 pubmed
    ..Branch outgrowth is triggered by the localized and transient activity of Branchless (Bnl/dFGF)...
  57. Bryant P. Filopodia: fickle fingers of cell fate?. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R655-7 pubmed
    ..Do they function in morphogenesis, cell-cell signaling or both?. ..
  58. Ramirez Weber F, Kornberg T. Cytonemes: cellular processes that project to the principal signaling center in Drosophila imaginal discs. Cell. 1999;97:599-607 pubmed
    ..the lateral flanks of a wing disc are cultured next to cells from the A/P border or next to a source of fibroblast growth factor. Mouse limb bud cells also grow projections during a brief culture period, indicating that cytonemes are ..
  59. Affolter M, Shilo B. Genetic control of branching morphogenesis during Drosophila tracheal development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:731-5 pubmed
    ..More than 30 genes have been identified and ordered into sequential steps controlling branching morphogenesis. These studies have revealed a number of important principles that might be conserved in other systems. ..
  60. Okenve Ramos P, Llimargas M. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Development. 2014;141:929-39 pubmed publisher
  61. Chu W, Lee Y, Henry Sun Y. FGF /FGFR signal induces trachea extension in the drosophila visual system. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73878 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that the trachea extension in both retina and TNUFM are dependent on the FGF(Bnl)/FGFR(Btl) signaling...
  62. Kramer S, Okabe M, Hacohen N, Krasnow M, Hiromi Y. Sprouty: a common antagonist of FGF and EGF signaling pathways in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2515-25 pubmed
    Extracellular factors such as FGF and EGF control various aspects of morphogenesis, patterning and cellular proliferation in both invertebrates and vertebrates...
  63. Ebner A, Kiefer F, Ribeiro C, Petit V, Nussbaumer U, Affolter M. Tracheal development in Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for studying the development of a branched organ. Gene. 2002;287:55-66 pubmed
    ..We also identified a Sulfotransferase and a Multiple Inositol Polyphosphate phosphatase that are strongly upregulated in tracheal cells and discuss their possible involvement in tracheal development. ..
  64. Nagendra H, Harrington A, Harmer N, Pellegrini L, Blundell T, Burke D. Sequence analyses and comparative modeling of fly and worm fibroblast growth factor receptors indicate that the determinants for FGF and heparin binding are retained in evolution. FEBS Lett. 2001;501:51-8 pubmed
    ..multiple splice forms of their receptors (FGFRs) in higher vertebrates makes the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of FGF interactions with their receptors a formidable task...
  65. Nelson W. Tube morphogenesis: closure, but many openings remain. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:615-21 pubmed
    ..This review provides a summary of these pathways based upon articles published in the Tube Morphogenesis Series in Trends in Cell Biology. ..
  66. Llimargas M, Casanova J. EGF signalling regulates cell invagination as well as cell migration during formation of tracheal system in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:174-9 pubmed
    ..The combined action of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and breathless/branchless pathways are thought to be responsible for the pattern of tracheal branches...
  67. Itoh N, Ornitz D. Evolution of the Fgf and Fgfr gene families. Trends Genet. 2004;20:563-9 pubmed
    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Fgf receptors (Fgfrs) comprise a signaling system that is conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Twenty-two Fgfs and four Fgfrs have been identified in humans and mice...
  68. Ornitz D. FGFs, heparan sulfate and FGFRs: complex interactions essential for development. Bioessays. 2000;22:108-12 pubmed
    ..biochemical and cellular evidence points to a direct role for heparin/heparan sulfate in the formation of an active FGF/FGF receptor signaling complex...
  69. Araújo S. The Hedgehog Signalling Pathway in Cell Migration and Guidance: What We Have Learned from Drosophila melanogaster. Cancers (Basel). 2015;7:2012-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of the Hh pathway in cell migration and guidance during Drosophila development and discuss its implications for human cancer origin and progression. ..
  70. Myat M, Lightfoot H, Wang P, Andrew D. A molecular link between FGF and Dpp signaling in branch-specific migration of the Drosophila trachea. Dev Biol. 2005;281:38-52 pubmed
    ..embryos achieves its archetypal branching pattern through a series of cell migration events requiring the FGF, Dpp, and Wg/WNT signaling pathways...