Gene Symbol: BicD
Description: Bicaudal D
Alias: BIC-D, BICD, Bic-D, Bic[D], CG6605, Dmel\CG6605, almond, anon-EST:fe2A11, bicaudal D, BicD-PA, BicD-PB, BicD-PC, BicD-PD, Bicaudal-D, BicaudalD, Bicuadal-D, CG6605-PA, CG6605-PB, CG6605-PC, CG6605-PD, anon-fast-evolving-2A11
Species: fruit fly
Products:     BicD

Top Publications

  1. Bullock S, Nicol A, Gross S, Zicha D. Guidance of bidirectional motor complexes by mRNA cargoes through control of dynein number and activity. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1447-52 pubmed
    ..minus-end motility is dependent on the dosage of RNA elements and the proteins Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal-D (BicD)...
  2. de Cuevas M, Spradling A. Morphogenesis of the Drosophila fusome and its implications for oocyte specification. Development. 1998;125:2781-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we argue that the oocyte is specified at the first cyst division. ..
  3. Iida T, Lilly M. missing oocyte encodes a highly conserved nuclear protein required for the maintenance of the meiotic cycle and oocyte identity in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:1029-39 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggest that the product of the missing oocyte gene acts in the oocyte nucleus to facilitate the execution of the unique cell cycle and developmental programs that produce the mature haploid gamete. ..
  4. Huynh J, St Johnston D. The role of BicD, Egl, Orb and the microtubules in the restriction of meiosis to the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2000;127:2785-94 pubmed
    ..Although BicD and egl mutants both cause the development of cysts with no oocyte, they have opposite effects on the behaviour of ..
  5. Grammont M, Irvine K. fringe and Notch specify polar cell fate during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2001;128:2243-53 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that fringe plays a key role in positioning Notch activation during early oogenesis, and establish a function for the polar cells in separating germline cysts into individual follicles. ..
  6. Clark A, Meignin C, Davis I. A Dynein-dependent shortcut rapidly delivers axis determination transcripts into the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2007;134:1955-65 pubmed
    ..gurken transcripts, but not control transcripts, recruit the cytoplasmic Dynein-associated co-factors Bicaudal D (BicD) and Egalitarian in the nurse cells...
  7. Wharton R, Struhl G. Structure of the Drosophila BicaudalD protein and its role in localizing the the posterior determinant nanos. Cell. 1989;59:881-92 pubmed
    Mutations in the BicaudalD (BicD) gene lead to a global reorganization of the Drosophila body pattern such that the head, thoracic, and anterior abdominal segments are replaced by posterior abdominal segments and terminalia...
  8. Li X, Kuromi H, Briggs L, Green D, Rocha J, Sweeney S, et al. Bicaudal-D binds clathrin heavy chain to promote its transport and augments synaptic vesicle recycling. EMBO J. 2010;29:992-1006 pubmed publisher
    Cargo transport by microtubule-based motors is essential for cell organisation and function. The Bicaudal-D (BicD) protein participates in the transport of a subset of cargoes by the minus-end-directed motor dynein, although the full ..
  9. Navarro C, Puthalakath H, Adams J, Strasser A, Lehmann R. Egalitarian binds dynein light chain to establish oocyte polarity and maintain oocyte fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:427-35 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, the Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal-D (BicD) proteins are also essential for the transport of macromolecules to the oocyte and to the apical surface of the ..

More Information


  1. Houalla T, Hien Vuong D, Ruan W, Suter B, Rao Y. The Ste20-like kinase misshapen functions together with Bicaudal-D and dynein in driving nuclear migration in the developing drosophila eye. Mech Dev. 2005;122:97-108 pubmed
    ..We propose that Msn functions together with Bic-D to regulate the apical localization of dynein in generating directed nuclear migration within differentiating R-cell precursor cells. ..
  2. Larsen K, Xu J, Cermelli S, Shu Z, Gross S. BicaudalD actively regulates microtubule motor activity in lipid droplet transport. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3763 pubmed publisher
    ..b>BicD is established to play a critical role in mediating dynein function-loss of BicD results in improperly localized ..
  3. Cox D, Lu B, Sun T, Williams L, Jan Y. Drosophila par-1 is required for oocyte differentiation and microtubule organization. Curr Biol. 2001;11:75-87 pubmed
    ..In both cases, par-1 appears to exert its effects through the regulation of microtubule dynamics and/or stability, and this finding is consistent with the defined role of the mammalian PAR-1 homologs. ..
  4. Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Microtubules are a general component of mRNA localization systems in Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 1995;167:363-70 pubmed
    ..Microtubules are also required for the preferential accumulation of these transcripts in the previtellogenic oocyte, consistent with the idea that these mRNAs are transported by a microtubule-dependent mechanism to the oocyte. ..
  5. Bullock S, Zicha D, Ish Horowicz D. The Drosophila hairy RNA localization signal modulates the kinetics of cytoplasmic mRNA transport. EMBO J. 2003;22:2484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, and those from co-injecting wild-type and mutant RNAs, suggest that the efficiency of molecular motors is modulated by the character of their cargoes...
  6. Hong A, Lee Kong S, Iida T, Sugimura I, Lilly M. The p27cip/kip ortholog dacapo maintains the Drosophila oocyte in prophase of meiosis I. Development. 2003;130:1235-42 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that it is through the differential regulation of the cki Dacapo that two modes of cell-cycle regulation are independently maintained within the common cytoplasm of ovarian cysts. ..
  7. González Reyes A, St Johnston D. The Drosophila AP axis is polarised by the cadherin-mediated positioning of the oocyte. Development. 1998;125:3635-44 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis therefore becomes polarised by an unusual cadherin-mediated adhesion between a germ cell and mesodermal follicle cells. ..
  8. Mirouse V, Formstecher E, Couderc J. Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4005-13 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, oocyte determination and meiosis control are interdependent processes, and BicD appears to play a key role in both...
  9. McGrail M, Hays T. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for spindle orientation during germline cell divisions and oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:2409-19 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for a novel developmental role for the cytoplasmic dynein motor in cellular determination and differentiation. ..
  10. Swan A, Suter B. Role of Bicaudal-D in patterning the Drosophila egg chamber in mid-oogenesis. Development. 1996;122:3577-86 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that Bic-D is required for the localization of specific mRNAs at both the anterior and posterior of the oocyte. ..
  11. Theurkauf W, Alberts B, Jan Y, Jongens T. A central role for microtubules in the differentiation of Drosophila oocytes. Development. 1993;118:1169-80 pubmed
    ..We propose that formation of the polarized microtubule cytoskeleton is required for oocyte differentiation, and that this structure mediates the asymmetric accumulation of mRNAs within the syncytial cysts. ..
  12. Styhler S, Nakamura A, Swan A, Suter B, Lasko P. vasa is required for GURKEN accumulation in the oocyte, and is involved in oocyte differentiation and germline cyst development. Development. 1998;125:1569-78 pubmed
    ..However, GRK accumulation in the oocyte is severely reduced in the absence of vasa function, suggesting a function for VASA in activating gurken translation in wild-type ovaries. ..
  13. Delanoue R, Herpers B, Soetaert J, Davis I, Rabouille C. Drosophila Squid/hnRNP helps Dynein switch from a gurken mRNA transport motor to an ultrastructural static anchor in sponge bodies. Dev Cell. 2007;13:523-38 pubmed
    ..We propose that Dynein acts as a static structural component for the assembly of gurken mRNA transport and anchoring complexes, and that Squid is required for the dynamic conversion of transport particles to sponge bodies. ..
  14. Suter B, Romberg L, Steward R. Bicaudal-D, a Drosophila gene involved in developmental asymmetry: localized transcript accumulation in ovaries and sequence similarity to myosin heavy chain tail domains. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1957-68 pubmed
    ..The predicted protein contains several extended amphipathic helices, and its similarity to myosin heavy chain tails, paramyosin, and kinesin suggests a similar type of coiled-coil protein interaction. ..
  15. Delanoue R, Davis I. Dynein anchors its mRNA cargo after apical transport in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;122:97-106 pubmed
    ..We propose a general principle that could also apply to other dynein cargo and to some other molecular motors, whereby cargo transport and anchoring reside in the same molecule. ..
  16. Ephrussi A, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Oskar organizes the germ plasm and directs localization of the posterior determinant nanos. Cell. 1991;66:37-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the pole plasm is assembled stepwise and that continued interaction among its components is required for germ cell determination. ..
  17. Ran B, Bopp R, Suter B. Null alleles reveal novel requirements for Bic-D during Drosophila oogenesis and zygotic development. Development. 1994;120:1233-42 pubmed
  18. Swan A, Nguyen T, Suter B. Drosophila Lissencephaly-1 functions with Bic-D and dynein in oocyte determination and nuclear positioning. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:444-9 pubmed
  19. Lantz V, Chang J, Horabin J, Bopp D, Schedl P. The Drosophila orb RNA-binding protein is required for the formation of the egg chamber and establishment of polarity. Genes Dev. 1994;8:598-613 pubmed
    ..It then functions in the differentiation of the oocyte and is required for the three-dimensional reorganization of the germ cells in the cyst as well as for the establishment of normal germ-line-soma interactions in the egg chamber. ..
  20. Baens M, Marynen P. A human homologue (BICD1) of the Drosophila bicaudal-D gene. Genomics. 1997;45:601-6 pubmed
    ..The conserved structural characteristics of the BICD1 protein and its expression in muscle and especially brain suggest that BICD1 is a component of a cytoskeleton-based mRNA sorting mechanism conserved during evolution. ..
  21. Findley S, Tamanaha M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Maelstrom, a Drosophila spindle-class gene, encodes a protein that colocalizes with Vasa and RDE1/AGO1 homolog, Aubergine, in nuage. Development. 2003;130:859-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, maelstrom mutant ovaries show mislocalization of two proteins involved in the microRNA and/or RNAi pathways, Dicer and Argonaute2, suggesting a potential connection between nuage and the microRNA-pathway. ..
  22. Januschke J, Gervais L, Dass S, Kaltschmidt J, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D, et al. Polar transport in the Drosophila oocyte requires Dynein and Kinesin I cooperation. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1971-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein suggests that both motors are components of the same complex and therefore might cooperate in recycling each other to the opposite microtubule pole. ..
  23. Lin H, Yue L, Spradling A. The Drosophila fusome, a germline-specific organelle, contains membrane skeletal proteins and functions in cyst formation. Development. 1994;120:947-56 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that Drosophila fusomes are required for ovarian cyst formation and suggest that membrane skeletal proteins regulate cystocyte divisions. ..
  24. Mohler J, Wieschaus E. Dominant maternal-effect mutations of Drosophila melanogaster causing the production of double-abdomen embryos. Genetics. 1986;112:803-22 pubmed
    Dominant mutations at two loci, BicaudalC (BicC) and BicaudalD (BicD), cause heterozygous females to produce double-abdomen embryos...
  25. Koch R, Ledermann R, Urwyler O, Heller M, Suter B. Systematic functional analysis of Bicaudal-D serine phosphorylation and intragenic suppression of a female sterile allele of BicD. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4552 pubmed publisher
    ..Being involved in different cellular processes, BicD is required for oocyte determination, for RNA transport during oogenesis and embryogenesis, and for photoreceptor ..
  26. Stuurman N, Haner M, Sasse B, Hubner W, Suter B, Aebi U. Interactions between coiled-coil proteins: Drosophila lamin Dm0 binds to the bicaudal-D protein. Eur J Cell Biol. 1999;78:278-87 pubmed
    ..two-hybrid screen we identified an interaction between Drosophila lamin Dm0, a structural nuclear protein, and BICD, a protein involved in oocyte development...
  27. Mach J, Lehmann R. An Egalitarian-BicaudalD complex is essential for oocyte specification and axis determination in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:423-35 pubmed
    ..a polarized microtubule network within the Drosophila oocyte require the activity of the egalitarian (egl) and BicaudalD (BicD) genes...
  28. Pare C, Suter B. Subcellular localization of Bic-D::GFP is linked to an asymmetric oocyte nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2119-27 pubmed
    ..The subcellular polarity defined by the Bic-D focus and the nuclear polarity marks some of the first steps in antero-posterior and subsequently in dorso-ventral polarity formation. ..
  29. Suter B, Steward R. Requirement for phosphorylation and localization of the Bicaudal-D protein in Drosophila oocyte differentiation. Cell. 1991;67:917-26 pubmed
  30. Oh J, Baksa K, Steward R. Functional domains of the Drosophila bicaudal-D protein. Genetics. 2000;154:713-24 pubmed
    ..The yeast two-hybrid interaction assay shows that Bic-D forms homodimers. Furthermore, we found that Bic-D exists as a multimeric protein complex consisting of Egl and at least two Bic-D monomers. ..
  31. Claussen M, Suter B. BicD-dependent localization processes: from Drosophilia development to human cell biology. Ann Anat. 2005;187:539-53 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the microtubule-dependent BicD (BicaudalD) localization machinery is involved in the proper localization of mRNA during oogenesis and embryogenesis and ..
  32. Bolivar J, Huynh J, Lopez Schier H, Gonzalez C, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. Centrosome migration into the Drosophila oocyte is independent of BicD and egl, and of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Development. 2001;128:1889-97 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the centrosomes still localise to one cell after colcemid treatment, and in BicD and egl mutants, which abolish the localisation of all other oocyte markers and the polarisation of the microtubule ..
  33. Assa Kunik E, Torres I, Schejter E, Johnston D, Shilo B. Drosophila follicle cells are patterned by multiple levels of Notch signaling and antagonism between the Notch and JAK/STAT pathways. Development. 2007;134:1161-9 pubmed
  34. Torres I, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D. A Notch/Delta-dependent relay mechanism establishes anterior-posterior polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;5:547-58 pubmed
    ..The anterior-posterior axis is therefore established by a relay mechanism, which propagates polarity from one cyst to the next. ..
  35. Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature. 2001;414:611-6 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate in vivo that Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal D (BicD), maternal proteins required for oocyte determination, are selectively recruited by, and co-transported ..
  36. Dienstbier M, Boehl F, Li X, Bullock S. Egalitarian is a selective RNA-binding protein linking mRNA localization signals to the dynein motor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Egl and the dynein cofactor Bicaudal-D (BicD) are the only proteins from embryonic extracts that are abundantly and specifically enriched on RNA localization ..
  37. Kim Ha J, Smith J, Macdonald P. oskar mRNA is localized to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Cell. 1991;66:23-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that nonsense oskar mutations disrupt osk mRNA localization, while missense oskar mutations do not. ..
  38. Cox D, Seyfried S, Jan L, Jan Y. Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are required to regulate oocyte differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14475-80 pubmed
  39. Ahringer J. Control of cell polarity and mitotic spindle positioning in animal cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:73-81 pubmed
    ..Microtubules and conserved PAR proteins are essential mediators of cell polarity, and mitotic spindle positioning depends on heterotrimeric G protein signalling and the microtubule motor protein dynein. ..
  40. Steward R, Nusslein Volhard C. The genetics of the dorsal-Bicaudal-D region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1986;113:665-78 pubmed
    ..The region was subdivided into seven subregions by deficiency breakpoints. One lethal complementation group as well as the two maternal loci, Bic-D and quail, are located in the same deficiency interval as is dl. ..
  41. Driever W, Nusslein Volhard C. The bicoid protein determines position in the Drosophila embryo in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell. 1988;54:95-104 pubmed
    ..The bcd protein thus has the properties of a morphogen that autonomously determines positions in the anterior half of the embryo. ..
  42. Heino T, Lahti V, Tirronen M, Roos C. Polytene chromosomes show normal gene activity but some mRNAs are abnormally accumulated in the pseudonurse cell nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster otu mutants. Chromosoma. 1995;104:44-55 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the otu mRNA remains partly attached to the polytene chromosome template after transcription and discuss the effects of this phenomenon on polytenisation of the PNC chromosomes. ..
  43. Cooley L, Theurkauf W. Cytoskeletal functions during Drosophila oogenesis. Science. 1994;266:590-6 pubmed
    ..Genetic, molecular, and cytological studies have shed light on the specific functions of the cytoskeleton during oogenesis. The results of these studies are reviewed here, and their mechanistic implications are considered. ..
  44. Fitzpatrick K, Gorski S, Ursuliak Z, Price J. Expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase genes during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 1995;53:171-83 pubmed
    ..Localization of the two transcripts is disrupted by mutations in egalitarian and Bicaudal D. DLAR and DPTP4E transcripts are found in the germline during the same developmental stages as DPTP10D ..
  45. Dix C, Soundararajan H, Dzhindzhev N, Begum F, Suter B, Ohkura H, et al. Lissencephaly-1 promotes the recruitment of dynein and dynactin to transported mRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore reveal a critical role for Lis1 within the mRNA localization machinery and suggest a model in which Lis1 facilitates motor complex association with cargos by promoting the interaction of dynein with dynactin. ..
  46. Welte M. As the fat flies: The dynamic lipid droplets of Drosophila embryos. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:1156-85 pubmed publisher
  47. Liu N, Dansereau D, Lasko P. Fat facets interacts with vasa in the Drosophila pole plasm and protects it from degradation. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1905-9 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that FAF interacts with VAS physically and reverses VAS ubiquitination, thereby stabilizing VAS in the pole plasm. ..
  48. Manheim E, Jang J, Dominic D, McKim K. Cytoplasmic localization and evolutionary conservation of MEI-218, a protein required for meiotic crossing-over in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mei-218 is a molecular link between oocyte differentiation and meiosis...
  49. Nakamura A, Amikura R, Hanyu K, Kobayashi S. Me31B silences translation of oocyte-localizing RNAs through the formation of cytoplasmic RNP complex during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2001;128:3233-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Me31B mediates translational silencing of RNAs during their transport to the oocyte. Our data provide evidence that RNA transport and translational control are linked through the assembly of RNP complex. ..
  50. Shapiro R, Anderson K. Drosophila Ik2, a member of the I kappa B kinase family, is required for mRNA localization during oogenesis. Development. 2006;133:1467-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this IkappaB kinase has an NF-kappaB-independent role in mRNA localization and helps to link microtubule minus-ends to the oocyte cortex, a novel function of the IKK family. ..
  51. Sass G, Comer A, Searles L. The ovarian tumor protein isoforms of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit differences in function, expression, and localization. Dev Biol. 1995;167:201-12 pubmed
    ..The 98-kDa isoform appears to be dispensable but can provide an otu function needed for the completion of oocyte maturation. ..
  52. Dahanukar A, Walker J, Wharton R. Smaug, a novel RNA-binding protein that operates a translational switch in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:209-18 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Smaug operates a translational switch that governs the distribution of Nanos protein. ..
  53. Jayanandanan N, Gavis E, Riechmann V, Leptin M. A genetic in vivo system to detect asymmetrically distributed RNA. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A pilot screen in a highly polarized, differentiated cell in the Drosophila larva, the branched terminal cell of the tracheal system, demonstrates the feasibility of the method for identifying new asymmetrically localized mRNAs in vivo. ..
  54. Liu Y, Salter H, Holding A, Johnson C, Stephens E, Lukavsky P, et al. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..2 Å resolution crystal structure of a cargo-binding region of the dynein adaptor Bicaudal-D (BicD), which reveals a parallel coiled-coil homodimer...
  55. Hay B, Jan L, Jan Y. Localization of vasa, a component of Drosophila polar granules, in maternal-effect mutants that alter embryonic anteroposterior polarity. Development. 1990;109:425-33 pubmed
  56. Saxton W. Microtubules, motors, and mRNA localization mechanisms: watching fluorescent messages move. Cell. 2001;107:707-10 pubmed
    ..To dissect the mechanisms of localization, several groups are employing advanced fluorescence microscopy to track RNA movements in live oocytes and embryos. ..
  57. Urwyler O, Cortinas Elizondo F, Suter B. Drosophila sosie functions with ?(H)-Spectrin and actin organizers in cell migration, epithelial morphogenesis and cortical stability. Biol Open. 2012;1:994-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..sie also interacts with the genes coding for the actin organizers Filamin and Profilin and, in the absence of sie function, F-actin is less well organized and nurse cells frequently fuse. ..
  58. Gottlieb E. Messenger RNA transport and localization. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:1080-6 pubmed
  59. Degelmann A, Hardy P, Mahowald A. Genetic analysis of two female-sterile loci affecting eggshell integrity and embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:427-34 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms to account for the association of these two functions are discussed. ..
  60. Lasko P, Ashburner M. Posterior localization of vasa protein correlates with, but is not sufficient for, pole cell development. Genes Dev. 1990;4:905-21 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the multiple functions of the vasa gene. ..
  61. Cohen R. Oocyte patterning: dynein and kinesin, inc. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R797-9 pubmed
    ..The orientation of microtubules in the oocyte suggests that kinesin mediates anterior transport indirectly, by activating and/or recycling dynein. ..
  62. Xu X, Brechbiel J, Gavis E. Dynein-dependent transport of nanos RNA in Drosophila sensory neurons requires Rumpelstiltskin and the germ plasm organizer Oskar. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal adaptability of localization factors for regulation of a target transcript in different cellular contexts. ..
  63. McCaffrey R, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. A novel mutant phenotype implicates dicephalic in cyst formation in the Drosophila ovary. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:908-17 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which dicephalic is involved in the proper adhesion between the oocyte and the somatic follicle cells. ..
  64. Lasko P. RNA sorting in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. FASEB J. 1999;13:421-33 pubmed
    ..Prospects for filling gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of localizing RNAs and the importance of RNA sorting in regulating gene expression are also explored. ..
  65. Jagut M, Mihaila Bodart L, Molla Herman A, Alin M, Lepesant J, Huynh J. A mosaic genetic screen for genes involved in the early steps of Drosophila oogenesis. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:409-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This collection of mutants will be useful to investigate further the early steps of Drosophila oogenesis at a genetic level. ..
  66. Starr D, Fischer J. KASH 'n Karry: the KASH domain family of cargo-specific cytoskeletal adaptor proteins. Bioessays. 2005;27:1136-46 pubmed
  67. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of our results for Wg signaling, and suggest a role for dAPC2 as a mediator of Wg effects on the cytoskeleton. We also speculate on more general roles that APCs may play in cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  68. Sanghavi P, Liu G, Veeranan Karmegam R, Navarro C, Gonsalvez G. Multiple Roles for Egalitarian in Polarization of the Drosophila Egg Chamber. Genetics. 2016;203:415-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that in midstage egg chambers, Egl does not appear to be required for microtubule organization, but rather for the correct spatial localization of oskar, bicoid, and gurken mRNAs. ..