Gene Symbol: bi
Description: bifid
Alias: CG3578, Dm-OMB, Dm-omb, Dmel\CG3578, OMB, Omb, TBX2, dm-omb, l(1)bi, l(1)omb, omb, bifid, CG3578-PA, CG3578-PB, CG3578-PC, CG3578-PD, CG3578-PE, CG3578-PF, CG3578-PG, Optimotor-blind, bi-PA, bi-PB, bi-PC, bi-PD, bi-PE, bi-PF, bi-PG, lethal(l)optomotor-blind, optimotor blind, optomer-blind, optomoter blind, optomoter-blind, optomotor blind, optomotor-blind, optomotor-blind gene, optomotorblind, quadroon
Species: fruit fly
Products:     bi

Top Publications

  1. Calleja M, Moreno E, Pelaz S, Morata G. Visualization of gene expression in living adult Drosophila. Science. 1996;274:252-5 pubmed
    ..The boundary between two of these domains coincides with localized expression of the signaling molecule wingless. ..
  2. Haerry T, Khalsa O, O Connor M, Wharton K. Synergistic signaling by two BMP ligands through the SAX and TKV receptors controls wing growth and patterning in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:3977-87 pubmed
    ..of DPP has been proposed to determine the transcriptional response thresholds of the downstream genes sal and omb. We present evidence that the concentration of the type I receptor TKV must be low to allow long-range DPP ..
  3. Funakoshi Y, Minami M, Tabata T. mtv shapes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen through regulation of thickveins. Development. 2001;128:67-74 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that mtv integrates the activities of En and Hh that shape tkv expression pattern. Thus, mtv plays a key part of regulatory mechanism that makes the activity gradient of the Dpp morphogen. ..
  4. Tomlinson A. Patterning the peripheral retina of the fly: decoding a gradient. Dev Cell. 2003;5:799-809 pubmed
    ..Higher Wg levels induce PR, intermediate levels induce DR, and lower levels induce baldness. The predisposition of dorsal cells to generate DR ommatidia appears to be endowed by the exclusive dorsal expression of Iroquois genes. ..
  5. Kim J, Johnson K, Chen H, Carroll S, Laughon A. Drosophila Mad binds to DNA and directly mediates activation of vestigial by Decapentaplegic. Nature. 1997;388:304-8 pubmed
    ..Mad also binds to Dpp-response elements in other genes. These results suggest that Dpp signalling regulates gene expression by activating Mad binding to target gene enhancers. ..
  6. Martín Castellanos C, Edgar B. A characterization of the effects of Dpp signaling on cell growth and proliferation in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2002;129:1003-13 pubmed
    ..The growth response to altering Dpp signaling varied regionally and temporally in the wing disc, indicating that other patterned factors modify the response. ..
  7. Moser M, Campbell G. Generating and interpreting the Brinker gradient in the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2005;286:647-58 pubmed
    ..pMad is part of a complex which directly represses brk. sal and omb are targets of Brk and are, thus, only expressed medially with their domains extending mediolaterally into the ..
  8. Capelson M, Corces V. SUMO conjugation attenuates the activity of the gypsy chromatin insulator. EMBO J. 2006;25:1906-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that long-range interactions of insulator proteins are inhibited by sumoylation and that the establishment of chromatin domains can be regulated by SUMO conjugation. ..
  9. Raftery L, Sutherland D. TGF-beta family signal transduction in Drosophila development: from Mad to Smads. Dev Biol. 1999;210:251-68 pubmed
    ..Identification of more ligand sequences and demonstration of a functional Drosophila activin-like signal transduction pathway suggest that all TGF-beta signal transduction pathways are present in flies. ..

More Information


  1. Ramel M, Emery C, Emery C, Foulger R, Goberdhan D, van den Heuvel M, et al. Drosophila SnoN modulates growth and patterning by antagonizing TGF-beta signalling. Mech Dev. 2007;124:304-17 pubmed
  2. Nellen D, Burke R, Struhl G, Basler K. Direct and long-range action of a DPP morphogen gradient. Cell. 1996;85:357-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that DPP acts as a gradient morphogen during wing development. ..
  3. Adachi Yamada T, O Connor M. Morphogenetic apoptosis: a mechanism for correcting discontinuities in morphogen gradients. Dev Biol. 2002;251:74-90 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon is likely related to the process of cell competition, and we suggest that it is an evolutionarily important mechanism that helps prevent abnormal tissue specification and growth during development. ..
  4. Rogulja D, Irvine K. Regulation of cell proliferation by a morphogen gradient. Cell. 2005;123:449-61 pubmed
    ..Conversely, uniform activation of the DPP pathway inhibits cell proliferation in medial wing cells. Our observations provide a direct demonstration that the slope of a morphogen gradient regulates growth during development. ..
  5. Tang C, Sun Y. Use of mini-white as a reporter gene to screen for GAL4 insertions with spatially restricted expression pattern in the developing eye in drosophila. Genesis. 2002;34:39-45 pubmed
  6. Brummel T, Abdollah S, Haerry T, Shimell M, Merriam J, Raftery L, et al. The Drosophila activin receptor baboon signals through dSmad2 and controls cell proliferation but not patterning during larval development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:98-111 pubmed
    ..Our results define a novel Drosophila Activin/TGF-beta pathway that is analogous to its vertebrate counterpart and show that this pathway functions to promote cellular growth with minimal effects on patterning. ..
  7. Sun Y, Tsai C, Green M, Chao J, Yu C, Jaw T, et al. White as a reporter gene to detect transcriptional silencers specifying position-specific gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster eye development. Genetics. 1995;141:1075-86 pubmed
    ..teashirt is also implicated as a candidate gene. We propose that this "silencer trap"' may be an efficient way of identifying genes involved in imaginal pattern formation...
  8. Sen A, Gadomski C, Balles J, Abassi Y, Dorner C, Pflugfelder G. Null mutations in Drosophila Optomotor-blind affect T-domain residues conserved in all Tbx proteins. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:147-56 pubmed publisher
    The T-box transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 are overexpressed in many human cancers raising the need for a thorough understanding of the cellular function of these proteins...
  9. Campbell G, Tomlinson A. Transducing the Dpp morphogen gradient in the wing of Drosophila: regulation of Dpp targets by brinker. Cell. 1999;96:553-62 pubmed
  10. Sivasankaran R, Vigano M, Muller B, Affolter M, Basler K. Direct transcriptional control of the Dpp target omb by the DNA binding protein Brinker. EMBO J. 2000;19:6162-72 pubmed
    ..Here we report the molecular dissection of the cis-regulatory sequences of optomotor-blind (omb), a Dpp target gene in the wing...
  11. Hazelett D, Bourouis M, Walldorf U, Treisman J. decapentaplegic and wingless are regulated by eyes absent and eyegone and interact to direct the pattern of retinal differentiation in the eye disc. Development. 1998;125:3741-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide a link between the early specification and later differentiation of the eye disc. ..
  12. Cook O, Biehs B, Bier E. brinker and optomotor-blind act coordinately to initiate development of the L5 wing vein primordium in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:2113-24 pubmed
    ..current study, we examine the mechanism by which two broadly expressed Dpp signaling target genes, optomotor-blind (omb) and brinker (brk), collaborate to initiate formation of the fifth longitudinal (L5) wing vein...
  13. Pai C, Lei E, Ghosh D, Corces V. The centrosomal protein CP190 is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2004;16:737-48 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that endogenous gypsy insulators contain binding sites for CP190, which is essential for insulator function, and may or may not contain binding sites for Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4)2.2. ..
  14. Zeng Y, Rahnama M, Wang S, Lee W, Verheyen E. Inhibition of Drosophila Wg signaling involves competition between Mad and Armadillo/beta-catenin for dTcf binding. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3893 pubmed publisher
  15. Winter S, Campbell G. Repression of Dpp targets in the Drosophila wing by Brinker. Development. 2004;131:6071-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Drosophila wing, expression of genes such as omb and sal along the anteroposterior axis is restricted by lateral-to-medial gradients of the transcriptional ..
  16. Barrio R, López Varea A, Casado M, de Celis J. Characterization of dSnoN and its relationship to Decapentaplegic signaling in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;306:66-81 pubmed
  17. Szuperák M, Salah S, Meyer E, Nagarajan U, Ikmi A, Gibson M. Feedback regulation of Drosophila BMP signaling by the novel extracellular protein larval translucida. Development. 2011;138:715-24 pubmed publisher
  18. Pflugfelder G, Schwarz H, Roth H, Poeck B, Sigl A, Kerscher S, et al. Genetic and molecular characterization of the optomotor-blind gene locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:91-104 pubmed
    ..The gene has previously been mapped in chromomeres 4C5-6, together with three other genes, bifid, Quadroon and lacqueredgls. We have localized the gene in a genomic walk of 340 kb of DNA...
  19. Grimm S, Pflugfelder G. Control of the gene optomotor-blind in Drosophila wing development by decapentaplegic and wingless. Science. 1996;271:1601-4 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that optomotor-blind (omb) expression is required for distal wing development and is controlled by both dpp and wg...
  20. Shen J, Dorner C, Bahlo A, Pflugfelder G. optomotor-blind suppresses instability at the A/P compartment boundary of the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 2008;125:233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..fold and cleft formation and that these processes are suppressed by the T-box transcription factor Optomotor-blind (Omb). Using a targeted deletion encompassing the omb wing enhancer [Sivasankaran, R., Vigano, M.A., Muller, B...
  21. de Navas L, Garaulet D, Sánchez Herrero E. The ultrabithorax Hox gene of Drosophila controls haltere size by regulating the Dpp pathway. Development. 2006;133:4495-506 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that modulation in Dpp expression and spread accounts, in part, for the different size of halteres and wings. ..
  22. Jazwinska A, Kirov N, Wieschaus E, Roth S, Rushlow C. The Drosophila gene brinker reveals a novel mechanism of Dpp target gene regulation. Cell. 1999;96:563-73 pubmed
    ..brk itself is negatively regulated by Dpp. Dpp signaling might relieve brk's repression of low-level target genes either by transcriptional repression of brk or by antagonizing a repressor function of brk at the target gene promoters. ..
  23. Brook W, Cohen S. Antagonistic interactions between wingless and decapentaplegic responsible for dorsal-ventral pattern in the Drosophila Leg. Science. 1996;273:1373-7 pubmed
    ..Compartment-independent patterning mechanisms may be used by other organisms during development. ..
  24. Tanimoto H, Itoh S, ten Dijke P, Tabata T. Hedgehog creates a gradient of DPP activity in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Mol Cell. 2000;5:59-71 pubmed
    ..We suggest that regulation of tkv by HH is a key part of the mechanism that controls the level and distribution of DPP. ..
  25. Shen J, Dahmann C, Pflugfelder G. Spatial discontinuity of optomotor-blind expression in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc disrupts epithelial architecture and promotes cell sorting. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a certain threshold of Dpp signaling activity...
  26. Pflugfelder G, Roth H, Poeck B. A homology domain shared between Drosophila optomotor-blind and mouse Brachyury is involved in DNA binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;186:918-25 pubmed
    ..The central region of Omb is homologous to the N-terminal half of the Brachyury protein...
  27. Mayer L, Diegelmann S, Abassi Y, Eichinger F, Pflugfelder G. Enhancer trap infidelity in Drosophila optomotor-blind. Fly (Austin). 2013;7:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..optomotor-blind (omb) is a 160 kb gene in which 16 independent P-element enhancer trap insertions of three different types have been ..
  28. Hofmeyer K, Kretzschmar D, Pflugfelder G. Optomotor-blind expression in glial cells is required for correct axonal projection across the Drosophila inner optic chiasm. Dev Biol. 2008;315:28-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In the regulatory mutant In(1)omb(H31) of the T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb), fibers were found to cross aberrantly through the IOC into the ..
  29. Gorfinkiel N, Sanchez L, Guerrero I. Drosophila terminalia as an appendage-like structure. Mech Dev. 1999;86:113-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, evaluation was made of the requirement for the optomotor-blind (omb) gene which, as in the leg and antenna, is located downstream to Dpp...
  30. Adachi Yamada T, Fujimura Kamada K, Nishida Y, Matsumoto K. Distortion of proximodistal information causes JNK-dependent apoptosis in Drosophila wing. Nature. 1999;400:166-9 pubmed
  31. Tsai S, Jang C, Prikhod ko G, Bessarab D, Tang C, Pflugfelder G, et al. Gypsy retrotransposon as a tool for the in vivo analysis of the regulatory region of the optomotor-blind gene in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3837-41 pubmed
    ..The optomotor-blind (omb) gene was analyzed. In the omb(P1) line, a P[lacW] construct is inserted about 1...
  32. Umemori M, Takemura M, Maeda K, Ohba K, Adachi Yamada T. Drosophila T-box transcription factor Optomotor-blind prevents pathological folding and local overgrowth in wing epithelium through confining Hh signal. Dev Biol. 2007;308:68-81 pubmed
    ..Here we focus on the Drosophila T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb), a transcriptional target of a long-range morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp)...
  33. Wernet M, Desplan C. Homothorax and Extradenticle alter the transcription factor network in Drosophila ommatidia at the dorsal rim of the retina. Development. 2014;141:918-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Hth expression expands to many ommatidial rows in regulatory mutants of optomotorblind (omb), a transcription factor transducing Wg signaling at the dorsal and ventral eye poles...
  34. Tsuneizumi K, Nakayama T, Kamoshida Y, Kornberg T, Christian J, Tabata T. Daughters against dpp modulates dpp organizing activity in Drosophila wing development. Nature. 1997;389:627-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the pattern-organizing mechanism governed by Dpp involves a negative-feedback circuit in which Dpp induces expression of its own antagonist, Dad. This feedback loop appears to be conserved in vertebrate development. ..
  35. Porsch M, Sauer M, Schulze S, Bahlo A, Roth M, Pflugfelder G. The relative role of the T-domain and flanking sequences for developmental control and transcriptional regulation in protein chimeras of Drosophila OMB and ORG-1. Mech Dev. 2005;122:81-96 pubmed
    optomotor-blind (omb) and optomotor-blind related-1 (org-1) encode T-domain DNA binding proteins in Drosophila...
  36. Shen J, Dahmann C. The role of Dpp signaling in maintaining the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary. Dev Biol. 2005;279:31-43 pubmed
    ..We propose that Dpp signaling is required for anterior cells to interpret the Hedgehog signal in order to specify segregation properties important for maintaining the A/P boundary. ..
  37. Pflugfelder G, Heisenberg M. Optomotor-blind of Drosophila melanogaster: a neurogenetic approach to optic lobe development and optomotor behaviour. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol. 1995;110:185-202 pubmed
    The gene optomotor-blind (omb) plays a crucial role in Drosophila optic lobe development. Various mutations in omb lead to different structural defects in the adult optic lobes with correlated behavioural phenotypes...
  38. Kerszberg M, Wolpert L. Specifying positional information in the embryo: looking beyond morphogens. Cell. 2007;130:205-9 pubmed
    ..It is now becoming clear that additional or alternative mechanisms involving interactions among cells are also crucial for positional specification. ..
  39. Minami M, Kinoshita N, Kamoshida Y, Tanimoto H, Tabata T. brinker is a target of Dpp in Drosophila that negatively regulates Dpp-dependent genes. Nature. 1999;398:242-6 pubmed
    ..Among the gene targets that it regulates are optomotor blind (omb), spalt (sal), and daughters against dpp (dad)...
  40. Poeck B, Hofbauer A, Pflugfelder G. Expression of the Drosophila optomotor-blind gene transcript in neuronal and glial cells of the developing nervous system. Development. 1993;117:1017-29 pubmed
    Mutations in the complex gene locus optomotor-blind (omb) can lead to defects in the development of both the optic lobes and external features of the adult fly...
  41. Podos S, Ferguson E. Morphogen gradients: new insights from DPP. Trends Genet. 1999;15:396-402 pubmed
    ..These reports identity additional genes and genetic circuitry necessary for this patterning system, and they highlight variations that might reflect developmental constraints within individual target cell fields. ..
  42. Bangi E, Wharton K. Dpp and Gbb exhibit different effective ranges in the establishment of the BMP activity gradient critical for Drosophila wing patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;295:178-93 pubmed
    ..The existence of related ligands with different functional ranges may represent a conserved mechanism used in different species to generate robust long range activity gradients. ..
  43. Zhang X, Luo D, Pflugfelder G, Shen J. Dpp signaling inhibits proliferation in the Drosophila wing by Omb-dependent regional control of bantam. Development. 2013;140:2917-22 pubmed publisher
    ..manipulation of Dpp signaling we observed that it controls proliferation in a region-specific manner: Dpp, via omb, promoted proliferation in the lateral and repressed proliferation in the medial wing disc...
  44. Kopp A, Duncan I. Control of cell fate and polarity in the adult abdominal segments of Drosophila by optomotor-blind. Development. 1997;124:3715-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that this function of hh is mediated by optomotor-blind (omb)...
  45. Wernet M, Desplan C. Building a retinal mosaic: cell-fate decision in the fly eye. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:576-84 pubmed
    ..Notably, several of the factors used in generating the retinal mosaic of the fruitfly have corresponding functions in vertebrates that are likely to have similar roles. ..
  46. Gurdon J, Bourillot P. Morphogen gradient interpretation. Nature. 2001;413:797-803 pubmed
  47. del Alamo Rodríguez D, Terriente Felix J, Diaz Benjumea F. The role of the T-box gene optomotor-blind in patterning the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2004;268:481-92 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we analyze the function of the T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb), a decapentaplegic target gene...
  48. Lecuit T, Brook W, Ng M, Calleja M, Sun H, Cohen S. Two distinct mechanisms for long-range patterning by Decapentaplegic in the Drosophila wing. Nature. 1996;381:387-93 pubmed
    ..Both mechanisms are involved in axis formation. ..
  49. Kim K, Vinayagam A, Perrimon N. A rapid genome-wide microRNA screen identifies miR-14 as a modulator of Hedgehog signaling. Cell Rep. 2014;7:2066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our systematic screening platform is a powerful approach to identifying both physiological and apparent nonphysiological targets of miRNAs, which are relevant in both normal and diseased tissues. ..
  50. Balles J, Pflugfelder G. Facilitated isolation of rare recombinants by ligase chain reaction: selection for intragenic crossover events in the Drosophila optomotor-blind gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;245:734-40 pubmed
    ..The recombinant will allow the study of gene control in situ, in a largely unperturbed regulatory environment. ..
  51. Mandalaywala N, Chang S, Snyder R, Levendusky M, Voigt J, DEARBORN R. The tumor suppressor, vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1), functions downstream of REPO during Drosophila gliogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;315:489-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for the dVDUP1 tumor suppressor during nervous system development as a regulatory target for REPO during gliogenesis. ..
  52. Affolter M, Marty T, Vigano M, Jazwinska A. Nuclear interpretation of Dpp signaling in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2001;20:3298-305 pubmed
    ..It remains to be seen whether similar molecular mechanisms operate in the nucleus in vertebrate systems. ..
  53. Wang W, Kidd B, Carroll S, Yoder J. Sexually dimorphic regulation of the Wingless morphogen controls sex-specific segment number in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that dimorphic Wg regulation, in concert with monomorphic segment-specific programmed cell death, are the principal mechanisms of sculpting the sexually dimorphic abdomen of Drosophila. ..
  54. Kumar R, Krishnan J, Pratap Singh N, Singh L, Mishra R. GATA simple sequence repeats function as enhancer blocker boundaries. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1844 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings ascribe functional significance to SSRs and offer an explanation as to why SSRs, especially GATA, may have accumulated in complex organisms. ..
  55. Capelson M, Corces V. The ubiquitin ligase dTopors directs the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Mol Cell. 2005;20:105-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, dTopors appears to be involved in the establishment of chromatin organization through its ability to mediate the association of insulator complexes with a fixed nuclear substrate. ..
  56. Zhu Y. The Drosophila visual system: From neural circuits to behavior. Cell Adh Migr. 2013;7:333-44 pubmed publisher
  57. Basler K. EMBO Gold Medal 1999. Waiting periods, instructive signals and positional information. EMBO J. 2000;19:1168-75 pubmed