Gene Symbol: betaTub97EF
Description: beta-Tubulin at 97EF
Alias: B4t, BETA 98B, CG4869, DTB1, Dmbeta4, Dmel\CG4869, Tub, Tub2C, beta-Tub, beta-Tub97EF, beta-tub, beta4, beta4t, beta97F, betaTub4, betaTub98BC, betaTub98C, beta-Tubulin at 97EF, Beta4-tubulin, CG4869-PB, CG4869-PC, beta tubulin, beta-Tubulin, beta-Tubulin 97EF, beta4 tubulin, betaTub97EF-PB, betaTub97EF-PC, betatubulin, tubulin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Nielsen M, Gadagkar S, Gutzwiller L. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:113 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-six alpha tubulins and eighty-six beta tubulin gene copies were retrieved and subjected to molecular evolutionary analyses...
  2. Natzle J, McCarthy B. Regulation of Drosophila alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during development. Dev Biol. 1984;104:187-98 pubmed
    Both the alpha and the beta subunit of tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded by small multigene families...
  3. Adams R, Tavares A, Salzberg A, Bellen H, Glover D. pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1483-94 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PAV-KLP is required both to establish the structure of the telophase spindle to provide a framework for the assembly of the contractile ring, and to mobilize mitotic regulator proteins. ..
  4. Robinson J, Wojcik E, Sanders M, McGrail M, Hays T. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for the nuclear attachment and migration of centrosomes during mitosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:597-608 pubmed
    ..The disruption of these centrosome attachments in mutant embryos reveals a critical role for dynein function and centrosome positioning in the spatial organization of the syncytial cytoplasm of the developing embryo. ..
  5. Logarinho E, Sunkel C. The Drosophila POLO kinase localises to multiple compartments of the mitotic apparatus and is required for the phosphorylation of MPM2 reactive epitopes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2897-909 pubmed
  6. Raff E, Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F. Microtubule architecture specified by a beta-tubulin isoform. Science. 1997;275:70-3 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, a testis-specific beta-tubulin (beta2) is required for spermatogenesis. A sequence motif was identified in carboxyl termini of axonemal beta-tubulins in diverse taxa...
  7. Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed
    ..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
  8. Sharp D, McDonald K, Brown H, Matthies H, Walczak C, Vale R, et al. The bipolar kinesin, KLP61F, cross-links microtubules within interpolar microtubule bundles of Drosophila embryonic mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:125-38 pubmed
    ..Thus we propose that bipolar kinesin motors and MTs interact by a "sliding filament mechanism" during the formation and function of the mitotic spindle. ..
  9. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed
    ..During anaphase, however, Ncd appears to have no effect on spindle pole movements, suggesting that its activity is down-regulated at this time, allowing dynein and KLP61F to drive spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..

More Information


  1. Trotta N, Orso G, Rossetto M, Daga A, Broadie K. The hereditary spastic paraplegia gene, spastin, regulates microtubule stability to modulate synaptic structure and function. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1135-47 pubmed
    ..By using antibodies against posttranslationally modified alpha-Tubulin, we find that Dspastin regulates microtubule stability...
  2. Eberl D, Lorenz L, Melnick M, Sood V, Lasko P, Perrimon N. A new enhancer of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative RNA helicase that binds chromosomes and is regulated by the cell cycle. Genetics. 1997;146:951-63 pubmed
  3. Chen K, Koe C, Xing Z, Tian X, Rossi F, Wang C, et al. Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth governs asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Arl2 physically associates with tubulin cofactors C, D, and E...
  4. Duchi S, Fagnocchi L, Cavaliere V, Hsouna A, Gargiulo G, Hsu T. Drosophila VHL tumor-suppressor gene regulates epithelial morphogenesis by promoting microtubule and aPKC stability. Development. 2010;137:1493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The results establish a developmental function of the VHL gene that is relevant to its tumor-suppressor activity. ..
  5. Yu F, Morin X, Cai Y, Yang X, Chia W. Analysis of partner of inscuteable, a novel player of Drosophila asymmetric divisions, reveals two distinct steps in inscuteable apical localization. Cell. 2000;100:399-409 pubmed
  6. Anderson M, Fair K, Amero S, Nelson S, Harte P, Diaz M. A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif that interact with members of the trx/MLL protein family in Drosophila and human cells. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:107-13 pubmed
    ..Over expression of Dcyp33 in DrosophilaSL1 cells results in down-regulation of AbdominalB Hoxgene expression, mirroring the effect of human Cyp33 on the expression of human HOXgenes. ..
  7. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
  8. Vidwans S, Wong M, O Farrell P. Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1371-8 pubmed
    ..Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome. ..
  9. Dilks S, Dinardo S. Non-cell-autonomous control of denticle diversity in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that stripe mediates its effect on hook orientation, in part, via upregulation of shot. ..
  10. Hanson K, Kelley A, Bienz M. Loss of Drosophila borealin causes polyploidy, delayed apoptosis and abnormal tissue development. Development. 2005;132:4777-87 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, during late larval development, cells survive loss of borr and develop giant bristles that may reflect their high degree of ploidy. ..
  11. Liebl F, Chen K, Karr J, Sheng Q, Featherstone D. Increased synaptic microtubules and altered synapse development in Drosophila sec8 mutants. BMC Biol. 2005;3:27 pubmed
    ..We did not find any evidence that Sec8 is required for basal neurotransmission. ..
  12. Whiting J, Pliley M, Farmer J, Jeffery D. In situ hybridization analysis of chromosomal homologies in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Genetics. 1989;122:99-109 pubmed
    ..Probes representing two multigene families (beta-tubulin and yolk-protein) hybridized as would be expected if all sites had been conserved in the two species on the same ..
  13. Sasikumar S, Roy J. Developmental expression of Rab11, a small GTP-binding protein in Drosophila epithelia. Genesis. 2009;47:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genesis 47:32-39, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  14. Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed
    ..These results reveal key steps in the assembly of the apical domain in Drosophila. ..
  15. Raff E. Genetics of microtubule systems. J Cell Biol. 1984;99:1-10 pubmed
    In most eucaryotes the tubulin genes comprise small multigene families with approximately equal numbers of genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, the structural proteins of microtubules...
  16. Naim V, Imarisio S, Di Cunto F, Gatti M, Bonaccorsi S. Drosophila citron kinase is required for the final steps of cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5053-63 pubmed
  17. Bulgheresi S, Kleiner E, Knoblich J. Inscuteable-dependent apical localization of the microtubule-binding protein Cornetto suggests a role in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3655-62 pubmed
  18. Vied C, Horabin J. The sex determination master switch, Sex-lethal, responds to Hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2001;128:2649-60 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that downstream components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway regulate a target other than Cubitus interruptus. ..
  19. Mace K, Tugores A. The product of the split ends gene is required for the maintenance of positional information during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:15 pubmed
    ..This role for spen may explain why mutations in this gene interact with the outcome of multiple signaling pathways. ..
  20. Hirth F, Hartmann B, Reichert H. Homeotic gene action in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1579-89 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the action of the homeotic genes labial and Deformed are required for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain of Drosophila. ..
  21. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  22. Stoltzfus A, Logsdon J, Palmer J, Doolittle W. Intron "sliding" and the diversity of intron positions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10739-44 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that sliding, if it occurs at all, has contributed little to the diversity of intron positions. ..
  23. Jin X, Sun X, Song Q. Woc gene mutation causes 20E-dependent alpha-tubulin detyrosination in Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;60:116-29 pubmed
    ..present study, we investigated the effect of the woc gene mutation on the expression and tyrosination of alpha-tubulin in the woc(rgl) mutant...
  24. Giardina C, Pérez Riba M, Lis J. Promoter melting and TFIID complexes on Drosophila genes in vivo. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2190-200 pubmed
    ..with the pause site of the uninduced hsp70 and hsp26 heat shock genes and the constitutively expressed beta-1 tubulin gene. The histone H1 and H2B genes, which lack a paused polymerase, have no comparable region of melted DNA...
  25. Chen Q, Haddad G. Role of trehalose phosphate synthase and trehalose during hypoxia: from flies to mammals. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3125-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this protection is probably related to a decrease in protein denaturation through protein-trehalose interactions. ..
  26. Riparbelli M, Massarelli C, Robbins L, Callaini G. The abnormal spindle protein is required for germ cell mitosis and oocyte differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:96-106 pubmed
    ..spindles of the mutant cystocytes are composed by wavy microtubules and have abnormal poles that often lack gamma-tubulin. The fusome structure is also compromised...
  27. Grieder N, de Cuevas M, Spradling A. The fusome organizes the microtubule network during oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:4253-64 pubmed
    ..We have investigated how the microtubule network polarizes using a GFP-tubulin construct that allows germ-cell microtubules to be visualized with greater sensitivity than in previous studies...
  28. Cygnar K, Gao X, Pan D, Neufeld T. The phosphatase subunit tap42 functions independently of target of rapamycin to regulate cell division and survival in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;170:733-40 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the role of Tap42 in TOR signaling has not been conserved in higher eukaryotes, indicating fundamental differences in the mechanisms of TOR signaling between yeast and higher eukaryotes. ..
  29. Mischke D, Pardue M. Organization and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. One member of the alpha-tubulin multigene family is transcribed in both oogenesis and later embryonic development. J Mol Biol. 1982;156:449-66 pubmed
  30. Reddy G, Rodrigues V. Sibling cell fate in the Drosophila adult external sense organ lineage is specified by prospero function, which is regulated by Numb and Notch. Development. 1999;126:2083-92 pubmed
    ..Pros misexpression is sufficient for the transformation of PIIa to PIIb fate. The expression of Pros in the normal PIIb cell appears to be regulated by Notch signaling. ..
  31. Ashley J, Packard M, Ataman B, Budnik V. Fasciclin II signals new synapse formation through amyloid precursor protein and the scaffolding protein dX11/Mint. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5943-55 pubmed
    ..These results provide a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules are regulated and provide fresh insights into the normal operation of APP during synapse development. ..
  32. Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed
    ..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes. ..
  33. Courgeon A, Maingourd M, Maisonhaute C, Montmory C, Rollet E, Tanguay R, et al. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on cytoskeletal proteins of Drosophila cells: comparison with heat shock and other stresses. Exp Cell Res. 1993;204:30-7 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of two cytoskeletal proteins, tubulin and a 46-kDa insoluble protein of the intermediate filament fraction, was also slightly increased by H2O2 in ..
  34. Akong K, McCartney B, Peifer M. Drosophila APC2 and APC1 have overlapping roles in the larval brain despite their distinct intracellular localizations. Dev Biol. 2002;250:71-90 pubmed
    ..Our experiments suggest that this does not result from misregulation of Wg signaling, and thus may involve the cytoskeletal or adhesive roles of APC proteins. ..
  35. Kondylis V, Goulding S, Dunne J, Rabouille C. Biogenesis of Golgi stacks in imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2308-27 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that we have developed an in vivo system to study the ecdysone-triggered Golgi stack biogenesis. ..
  36. Parmentier M, Woods D, Greig S, Phan P, Radovic A, Bryant P, et al. Rapsynoid/partner of inscuteable controls asymmetric division of larval neuroblasts in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2000;20:RC84 pubmed
    ..Our data show that Raps is a novel protein involved in the control of asymmetric divisions of neuroblasts. ..
  37. Debec A, Marcaillou C, Bobinnec Y, Borot C. The centrosome cycle in syncytial Drosophila embryos analyzed by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. Biol Cell. 1999;91:379-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in the early Drosophila embryo there is an unusual delay between the separation of the parent centrioles and their duplication. This leaves a surprisingly short time to assemble a daughter centriole. ..
  38. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of our results for Wg signaling, and suggest a role for dAPC2 as a mediator of Wg effects on the cytoskeleton. We also speculate on more general roles that APCs may play in cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  39. Tapadia M, Gautam N. Non-apoptotic function of apoptotic proteins in the development of Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biosci. 2011;36:531-44 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, the localization of beta-tubulin, F-actin and Disclarge (Dlg) is also disrupted...
  40. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Assembly of yolk spindles in the early Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2003;120:441-54 pubmed
    ..The presence of normal and abnormal centrosomes in the same cytoplasm provides an useful model for investigating the common regulators of the nucleus and centrosome cycle which ensure precise spindle pole duplication. ..
  41. Gasch A, Hinz U, Leiss D, Renkawitz Pohl R. The expression of beta 1 and beta 3 tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster is spatially regulated during embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;211:8-16 pubmed
    ..mRNAs transcribed from two of these genes, namely the beta 1 and beta 3 tubulin genes, are abundant during embryogenesis...
  42. Pool J. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..
  43. Fitch K, Wakimoto B. The paternal effect gene ms(3)sneaky is required for sperm activation and the initiation of embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1998;197:270-82 pubmed
    ..Immunolocalization of tubulin and Drosophila Centrosomin, a known centrosomal component, showed that snky-inseminated eggs failed to ..
  44. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in respect to conserved functions for the Polo-like kinases in regulating progression through M phase, including the earliest events of cytokinesis. ..
  45. Rougvie A, Lis J. Postinitiation transcriptional control in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:6041-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that a rate-limiting step in early elongation occurs in many Drosophila genes and may be a target for transcriptional regulation. ..
  46. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..
  47. Reddy G, Rodrigues V. A glial cell arises from an additional division within the mechanosensory lineage during development of the microchaete on the Drosophila notum. Development. 1999;126:4617-22 pubmed
    ..The proposed modification in lineage has important implications for previous studies on sibling cell fate choice and cell fate specification in sensory systems. ..
  48. Reed B, Orr Weaver T. The Drosophila gene morula inhibits mitotic functions in the endo cell cycle and the mitotic cell cycle. Development. 1997;124:3543-53 pubmed
    ..Thus morula serves a dual function as a cell cycle regulator that promotes exit from mitosis and maintains the absence of mitosis during the endo cycle, possibly by activating the cyclin destruction machinery. ..
  49. Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. ..
  50. Stark A, Kheradpour P, Parts L, Brennecke J, Hodges E, Hannon G, et al. Systematic discovery and characterization of fly microRNAs using 12 Drosophila genomes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1865-79 pubmed
    ..For mir-10 in particular, both arms show abundant processing, and both show highly conserved target sites in Hox genes, suggesting a possible cooperation of the two arms, and their role as a master Hox regulator. ..
  51. Drosopoulou E, Wiebauer K, Yiangou M, Mavragani Tsipidou P, Domdey H, Scouras Z. Isolation, characterization, and localization of beta-tubulin genomic clones of three Drosophila montium subgroup species. Genome. 2002;45:604-7 pubmed
    ..Clones containing beta-tubulin specific sequences were isolated, characterized by restriction endonuclease digestions and Southern ..
  52. Crawford J, Harden N, Leung T, Lim L, Kiehart D. Cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster is disrupted by the inhibition of rho activity and the activation of Cdc42 function. Dev Biol. 1998;204:151-64 pubmed
    ..These embryos halt in cellularization and do not proceed to gastrulation. We conclude that Rho activity and Cdc42 regulation are required for cytoskeletal function in actomyosin-driven furrow canal formation and nuclear positioning. ..
  53. Findeisen P, Mühlhausen S, Dempewolf S, Hertzog J, Zietlow A, Carlomagno T, et al. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2274-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and ..
  54. Eaton S, Wepf R, Simons K. Roles for Rac1 and Cdc42 in planar polarization and hair outgrowth in the wing of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1277-89 pubmed
    ..During hair formation, the apical microtubules that point distally elongate and fill the emerging wing hair. As the hair elongates, junctional proteins are reorganized on the proximal and distal edges of each cell. ..
  55. Yuen J, Read S, Brubacher J, Singh A, Whyard S. Biolistics for high-throughput transformation and RNA interference in Drosophila melanogaster. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:247-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that biolistic delivery of dsRNA into embryos could be adapted for high throughput RNAi screens of early Drosophila developmental genes. ..
  56. Jin Z, Homola E, Goldbach P, Choi Y, Brill J, Campbell S. Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4075-85 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. ..
  57. Myachina F, Bosshardt F, Bischof J, Kirschmann M, Lehner C. Drosophila β-Tubulin 97EF is upregulated at low temperature and stabilizes microtubules. Development. 2017;144:4573-4587 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, one of five different β-tubulin paralogs, βTub97EF, was among the genes upregulated at low temperature in cultured Drosophila ..
  58. Pal Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Birchler J. Misregulation of sex-lethal and disruption of male-specific lethal complex localization in Drosophila species hybrids. Genetics. 2006;174:1151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), which allows hybrid males from this cross to survive, corrects the SXL and MSL defects. The reciprocal cross of D. simulans mothers by D. melanogaster males exhibits underexpression of Sxl in embryos...