Gene Symbol: betaTub85D
Description: beta-Tubulin at 85D
Alias: B2t, BETA 85D, BETA2, BetaTub85D, CG9359, D.m.BETA-85D, DTB4, Dmbeta2, Dmel\CG9359, Tub, Tub2A, beta(2)Tu, beta(2)Tub, beta-Tub85D, beta-tub, beta-tub85D, beta2, beta2-tub, beta2t, beta2tub, beta85D, beta;Tub85D, betaTub2, beta[[2]]-tubulin, betatub85D, ms(3)KK[D], beta-Tubulin at 85D, CG9359-PA, b2 tubulin, beta 2 tubulin, beta tubulin, beta(2)Tubulin, beta-Tubulin, beta-Tubulin 85D, beta-tubulin85D, beta2 tubulin, beta2-tubulin, beta2tubulin, betaTub85D-PA, betaTubulin85D, testis-specific beta-tubulin, tubulin
Species: fruit fly
Products:     betaTub85D

Top Publications

  1. Raff E, Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F. Microtubule architecture specified by a beta-tubulin isoform. Science. 1997;275:70-3 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, a testis-specific beta-tubulin (beta2) is required for spermatogenesis. A sequence motif was identified in carboxyl termini of axonemal beta-tubulins in diverse taxa...
  2. Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:481-500 pubmed
    We used transgenic analysis in Drosophila to compare the ability of two structurally similar alpha-tubulin isoforms to support microtubule assembly in vivo...
  3. Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:295-313 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary...
  4. Santel A, Kaufmann J, Hyland R, Renkawitz Pohl R. The initiator element of the Drosophila beta2 tubulin gene core promoter contributes to gene expression in vivo but is not required for male germ-cell specific expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1439-46 pubmed
    The tissue-specific expression of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene ( B2t ) is accomplished by the action of a 14-bp activator element (beta2UE1) in combination with certain regulatory elements of the TATA-less, Inr-containing B2t core ..
  5. Rudolph J, Kimble M, Hoyle H, Subler M, Raff E. Three Drosophila beta-tubulin sequences: a developmentally regulated isoform (beta 3), the testis-specific isoform (beta 2), and an assembly-defective mutation of the testis-specific isoform (B2t8) reveal both an ancient divergence in metazoan isotyp. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:2231-42 pubmed
    ..are presented for three Drosophila melanogaster beta-tubulins: a developmentally regulated isoform beta 3-tubulin, the wild-type testis-specific isoform beta 2-tubulin, and an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced assembly-defective ..
  6. Hoyle H, Raff E. Two Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms are not functionally equivalent. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1009-26 pubmed
    We have tested the functional capacity of different beta tubulin isoforms in vivo by expressing beta 3-tubulin either in place of or in addition to beta 2-tubulin in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster...
  7. Sharp D, McDonald K, Brown H, Matthies H, Walczak C, Vale R, et al. The bipolar kinesin, KLP61F, cross-links microtubules within interpolar microtubule bundles of Drosophila embryonic mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:125-38 pubmed
    ..Thus we propose that bipolar kinesin motors and MTs interact by a "sliding filament mechanism" during the formation and function of the mitotic spindle. ..
  8. Raff E, Hoyle H, Popodi E, Turner F. Axoneme beta-tubulin sequence determines attachment of outer dynein arms. Curr Biol. 2008;18:911-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that attachment of ODAs requires glycine 56 in the beta-tubulin internal variable region (IVR)...
  9. Nielsen M, Turner F, Hutchens J, Raff E. Axoneme-specific beta-tubulin specialization: a conserved C-terminal motif specifies the central pair. Curr Biol. 2001;11:529-33 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this, alpha- and beta-tubulins utilized in motile axonemes fall among the most conserved tubulin sequences [1, 2], and the beta-tubulins contain a sequence motif at the same position in the carboxyl terminus [3]..

More Information


  1. Chan Y, Naujoks D, Huen D, Russell S. Insect population control by homing endonuclease-based gene drive: an evaluation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;188:33-44 pubmed publisher
  2. Rong Y, Golic K. Gene targeting by homologous recombination in Drosophila. Science. 2000;288:2013-8 pubmed
    ..A method is described that enables analogous manipulations of the Drosophila genome. This technique may also be applicable to other organisms for which gene-targeting procedures do not yet exist. ..
  3. Robinson J, Wojcik E, Sanders M, McGrail M, Hays T. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for the nuclear attachment and migration of centrosomes during mitosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:597-608 pubmed
    ..The disruption of these centrosome attachments in mutant embryos reveals a critical role for dynein function and centrosome positioning in the spatial organization of the syncytial cytoplasm of the developing embryo. ..
  4. Kemphues K, Raff R, Kaufman T, Raff E. Mutation in a structural gene for a beta-tubulin specific to testis in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:3991-5 pubmed
    ..gel electrophoresis of tubulins prepared from tissues of Drosophila melanogaster we have identified a beta-tubulin subunit that is present only in the testis...
  5. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed
    ..During anaphase, however, Ncd appears to have no effect on spindle pole movements, suggesting that its activity is down-regulated at this time, allowing dynein and KLP61F to drive spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..
  6. Nielsen M, Gadagkar S, Gutzwiller L. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:113 pubmed publisher
    ..tubulin structure and function; small, biochemically similar changes in the major alpha 1 or testis-specific beta 2 tubulin protein render each unable to generate a motile spermtail axoneme...
  7. Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed
    ..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
  8. Raff E, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Nielsen M, Turner F. Conserved axoneme symmetry altered by a component beta-tubulin. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1391-4 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, these organelles contain distinct but similar beta-tubulin isoforms [4-10]: basal bodies contain only beta1-tubulin, and only beta2-tubulin is used for assembly of sperm ..
  9. Natzle J, McCarthy B. Regulation of Drosophila alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during development. Dev Biol. 1984;104:187-98 pubmed
    Both the alpha and the beta subunit of tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded by small multigene families...
  10. Findeisen P, Mühlhausen S, Dempewolf S, Hertzog J, Zietlow A, Carlomagno T, et al. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2274-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and ..
  11. Bialojan S, Falkenburg D, Renkawitz Pohl R. Characterization and developmental expression of beta tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1984;3:2543-8 pubmed
    Genomic clones containing beta tubulin sequences were isolated from a lambda library of Drosophila melanogaster. In situ hybridization localized three genes to 56D and 60B on chromosome 2 as well as to 85D on chromosome 3...
  12. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
  13. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Assembly of yolk spindles in the early Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2003;120:441-54 pubmed
    ..The presence of normal and abnormal centrosomes in the same cytoplasm provides an useful model for investigating the common regulators of the nucleus and centrosome cycle which ensure precise spindle pole duplication. ..
  14. Hoyle H, Hutchens J, Turner F, Raff E. Regulation of beta-tubulin function and expression in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Genet. 1995;16:148-70 pubmed
    In this study we examined two aspects of beta-tubulin function in Drosophila spermatogenesis: 1) beta-tubulin structural requirements for assembly of different categories of microtubules and 2) regulatory requirements for production of ..
  15. Sackton K, Buehner N, Wolfner M. Modulation of MAPK activities during egg activation in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:222-7 pubmed
    ..We present a model in which the decrease in MAPK activity is an intermediate step in the pathway leading from the calcium signal that initiates egg activation to the downstream events of activation. ..
  16. Santaren J, Van Damme J, Puype M, Vandekerckhove J, Garcia Bellido A. Identification of Drosophila wing imaginal disc proteins by two-dimensional gel analysis and microsequencing. Exp Cell Res. 1993;206:220-6 pubmed
    ..As an illustration we present 12 of them: 8 corresponding to proteins already known in Drosophila and the 4 showing homologies with proteins of other organisms. ..
  17. Popodi E, Hoyle H, Turner F, Xu K, Kruse S, Raff E. Axoneme specialization embedded in a "generalist" beta-tubulin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:216-37 pubmed
    The relationship between the primary structure of the beta-tubulin C-terminal tail (CTT) and axoneme structure and function is explored using the spermatogenesis-specific beta2-tubulin of Drosophila...
  18. Michiels F, Gasch A, Kaltschmidt B, Renkawitz Pohl R. A 14 bp promoter element directs the testis specificity of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene. EMBO J. 1989;8:1559-65 pubmed
    ..expression during male germ cell development, we investigated the testis-specific expression of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene. Germ line transformation experiments with the upstream region of the D...
  19. Kimble M, Incardona J, Raff E. A variant beta-tubulin isoform of Drosophila melanogaster (beta 3) is expressed primarily in tissues of mesodermal origin in embryos and pupae, and is utilized in populations of transient microtubules. Dev Biol. 1989;131:415-29 pubmed
    The beta 3-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster codes for a variant tubulin isoform which is expressed at two distinct times during development: (1) during midembryogenesis from 8-16 hr postfertilization, and (2) during the 4 days of ..
  20. Hanson K, Kelley A, Bienz M. Loss of Drosophila borealin causes polyploidy, delayed apoptosis and abnormal tissue development. Development. 2005;132:4777-87 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, during late larval development, cells survive loss of borr and develop giant bristles that may reflect their high degree of ploidy. ..
  21. Dilks S, Dinardo S. Non-cell-autonomous control of denticle diversity in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that stripe mediates its effect on hook orientation, in part, via upregulation of shot. ..
  22. Vidwans S, Wong M, O Farrell P. Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1371-8 pubmed
    ..Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome. ..
  23. Fuller M, Regan C, Green L, Robertson B, Deuring R, Hays T. Interacting genes identify interacting proteins involved in microtubule function in Drosophila. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1989;14:128-35 pubmed
  24. Gigliotti S, Callaini G, Andone S, Riparbelli M, Pernas Alonso R, Hoffmann G, et al. Nup154, a new Drosophila gene essential for male and female gametogenesis is related to the nup155 vertebrate nucleoporin gene. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:1195-207 pubmed
    ..Finally, the multiplicity of phenotypes observed in Nup154 mutant alleles suggests that this gene plays a crucial role in cell physiology. ..
  25. Yuen J, Read S, Brubacher J, Singh A, Whyard S. Biolistics for high-throughput transformation and RNA interference in Drosophila melanogaster. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:247-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that biolistic delivery of dsRNA into embryos could be adapted for high throughput RNAi screens of early Drosophila developmental genes. ..
  26. Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Turner F, Raff E. Structural analysis of mutations in the Drosophila beta 2-tubulin isoform reveals regions in the beta-tubulin molecular required for general and for tissue-specific microtubule functions. Genetics. 1995;139:267-86 pubmed
    We have determined the lesions in a number of mutant alleles of beta Tub85D, the gene that encodes the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin isoform in Drosophila melanogaster...
  27. Michiels F, Falkenburg D, Muller A, Hinz U, Otto U, Bellmann R, et al. Testis-specific beta 2 tubulins are identical in Drosophila melanogaster and D. hydei but differ from the ubiquitous beta 1 tubulin. Chromosoma. 1987;95:387-95 pubmed
    ..the complete nucleotide sequences coding for the beta 1 and beta 2 tubulins of Drosophila melanogaster and the beta 2 tubulin of D...
  28. Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed
    ..These results reveal key steps in the assembly of the apical domain in Drosophila. ..
  29. Kitazawa D, Yamaguchi M, Mori H, Inoue Y. COPI-mediated membrane trafficking is required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiotic divisions. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3649-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that COPI plays an important role in Drosophila male meiosis, not only through vesicle transport to the cleavage furrow region, but also through the formation of ER-based structures. ..
  30. Kemphues K, Raff E, Raff R, Kaufman T. Mutation in a testis-specific beta-tubulin in Drosophila: analysis of its effects on meiosis and map location of the gene. Cell. 1980;21:445-51 pubmed
    The structural gene for a testis-specific beta--tubulin subunit in Drosophila melanogaster was mapped genetically and cytogenetically by means of a dominant male sterile mutation, B2tD, in which a variant form of the testis beta--tubulin ..
  31. Eberl D, Lorenz L, Melnick M, Sood V, Lasko P, Perrimon N. A new enhancer of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative RNA helicase that binds chromosomes and is regulated by the cell cycle. Genetics. 1997;146:951-63 pubmed
  32. Riparbelli M, Massarelli C, Robbins L, Callaini G. The abnormal spindle protein is required for germ cell mitosis and oocyte differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:96-106 pubmed
    ..spindles of the mutant cystocytes are composed by wavy microtubules and have abnormal poles that often lack gamma-tubulin. The fusome structure is also compromised...
  33. Anderson M, Fair K, Amero S, Nelson S, Harte P, Diaz M. A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif that interact with members of the trx/MLL protein family in Drosophila and human cells. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:107-13 pubmed
    ..Over expression of Dcyp33 in DrosophilaSL1 cells results in down-regulation of AbdominalB Hoxgene expression, mirroring the effect of human Cyp33 on the expression of human HOXgenes. ..
  34. Sanchez F, Natzle J, Cleveland D, Kirschner M, McCarthy B. A dispersed multigene family encoding tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1980;22:845-54 pubmed
    We have used cloned chicken cDNA sequences for alpha- and beta-tubulin to investigate tubulin gene organization in Drosophila melanogaster...
  35. Fackenthal J, Turner F, Raff E. Tissue-specific microtubule functions in Drosophila spermatogenesis require the beta 2-tubulin isotype-specific carboxy terminus. Dev Biol. 1993;158:213-27 pubmed
    ..of the sequence and constitute an "isotype defining region," which is conserved in corresponding beta-tubulin isoforms in different vertebrate species...
  36. Rathke C, Barckmann B, Burkhard S, Jayaramaiah Raja S, Roote J, Renkawitz Pohl R. Distinct functions of Mst77F and protamines in nuclear shaping and chromatin condensation during Drosophila spermiogenesis. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the long-standing hypothesis that the switch from a histone- to protamine-based chromatin protects the paternal genome from mutagens. ..
  37. Green L, Wolf N, McDonald K, Fuller M. Two types of genetic interaction implicate the whirligig gene of Drosophila melanogaster in microtubule organization in the flagellar axoneme. Genetics. 1990;126:961-73 pubmed
    The mutant nc4 allele of whirligig (3-54.4) of Drosophila melanogaster fails to complement mutations in an alpha-tubulin locus, alpha 1t, mutations in a beta-tubulin locus, B2t, or a mutation in the haywire locus...
  38. Wei G, Oliver B, Pauli D, Mahowald A. Evidence for sex transformation of germline cells in ovarian tumor mutants of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1994;161:318-20 pubmed
    ..Thus these genes are likely to be required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity. ..
  39. Jattani R, Patel U, Kerman B, Myat M. Deficiency screen identifies a novel role for beta 2 tubulin in salivary gland and myoblast migration in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on the analysis of the beta 2 tubulin isoform (beta2t) that maps at 85D15...
  40. Fuller M, Caulton J, Hutchens J, Kaufman T, Raff E. Mutations that encode partially functional beta 2 tubulin subunits have different effects on structurally different microtubule arrays. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:141-52 pubmed
    The testis-specific beta 2 tubulin of Drosophila is required for assembly and function of at least three architecturally different microtubule arrays (Kemphues et al., 1982)...
  41. Robida M, Singh R. Drosophila polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) functions specifically in the male germline. EMBO J. 2003;22:2924-33 pubmed
    ..This male-specific expression of PTB is conserved in D.virilis. Thus, PTB appears to be a particularly potent downstream target of the sex-determination pathway in the male germline, since it can regulate multiple mRNAs. ..
  42. Bulgheresi S, Kleiner E, Knoblich J. Inscuteable-dependent apical localization of the microtubule-binding protein Cornetto suggests a role in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3655-62 pubmed
  43. Aoyagi N, Wassarman D. Developmental and transcriptional consequences of mutations in Drosophila TAF(II)60. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6808-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, TAF(II)60 plays roles in developmental regulation of gene expression that are distinct from those of other TAF(II) proteins. ..
  44. Hirth F, Hartmann B, Reichert H. Homeotic gene action in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1579-89 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the action of the homeotic genes labial and Deformed are required for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain of Drosophila. ..
  45. Fuller M, Caulton J, Hutchens J, Kaufman T, Raff E. Genetic analysis of microtubule structure: a beta-tubulin mutation causes the formation of aberrant microtubules in vivo and in vitro. J Cell Biol. 1987;104:385-94 pubmed
    A recessive male sterile mutation (B2t8) that encodes a stable variant of the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin of Drosophila causes the assembly of aberrant microtubules both in vivo and in vitro...
  46. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in respect to conserved functions for the Polo-like kinases in regulating progression through M phase, including the earliest events of cytokinesis. ..
  47. Drosopoulou E, Scouras Z. The beta-tubulin gene family evolution in the Drosophila montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. J Mol Evol. 1995;41:293-8 pubmed
    The beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-tubulin genes have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the polytene chromosomes of 11 selected species (15 strains) belonging to the Drosophila montium subgroup...
  48. Popodi E, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. The proximal region of the beta-tubulin C-terminal tail is sufficient for axoneme assembly. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2005;62:48-64 pubmed
    We have used Drosophila testis-specific beta2-tubulin to determine sequence requirements for different microtubules...
  49. Jin Z, Homola E, Goldbach P, Choi Y, Brill J, Campbell S. Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4075-85 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. ..
  50. Yasuno Y, Kawano J, Inoue Y, Yamamoto M. Distribution and morphological changes of the Golgi apparatus during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Growth Differ. 2013;55:635-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of the Golgi distribution in ?2-tubulin mutants showed aberrant and uneven distributions of the Golgi among sister cells in the meiotic spermatocytes and ..
  51. Pal Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Birchler J. Misregulation of sex-lethal and disruption of male-specific lethal complex localization in Drosophila species hybrids. Genetics. 2006;174:1151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), which allows hybrid males from this cross to survive, corrects the SXL and MSL defects. The reciprocal cross of D. simulans mothers by D. melanogaster males exhibits underexpression of Sxl in embryos...
  52. Murphy D. Functions of tubulin isoforms. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1991;3:43-51 pubmed
    The biological significance of tubulin isotypes lies in their ability to function in different chemical and physical environments...
  53. Regan C, Fuller M. Interacting genes that affect microtubule function in Drosophila melanogaster: two classes of mutation revert the failure to complement between haync2 and mutations in tubulin genes. Genetics. 1990;125:77-90 pubmed
    The recessive male sterile mutation haync2 of Drosophila melanogaster fails to complement certain beta 2-tubulin and alpha-tubulin mutations, suggesting that the haywire product plays a role in microtubule function, perhaps as a ..
  54. Rudolf A, Buttgereit D, Rexer K, Renkawitz Pohl R. The syncytial visceral and somatic musculature develops independently of ?3-Tubulin during Drosophila embryogenesis, while maternally supplied ?1-Tubulin is stable until the early steps of myoblast fusion. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, several isoforms of ?-Tubulin, the functional subunit of microtubules, are expressed in different tissues of the developing embryo, while ..
  55. Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Hales K, Hays T, Lee L. Asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2709-21 pubmed publisher
  56. Raff E. Genetics of microtubule systems. J Cell Biol. 1984;99:1-10 pubmed
    In most eucaryotes the tubulin genes comprise small multigene families with approximately equal numbers of genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, the structural proteins of microtubules...
  57. Mischke D, Pardue M. Organization and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. One member of the alpha-tubulin multigene family is transcribed in both oogenesis and later embryonic development. J Mol Biol. 1982;156:449-66 pubmed
  58. Crawford J, Harden N, Leung T, Lim L, Kiehart D. Cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster is disrupted by the inhibition of rho activity and the activation of Cdc42 function. Dev Biol. 1998;204:151-64 pubmed
    ..These embryos halt in cellularization and do not proceed to gastrulation. We conclude that Rho activity and Cdc42 regulation are required for cytoskeletal function in actomyosin-driven furrow canal formation and nuclear positioning. ..
  59. Mounkes L, Fuller M. Molecular characterization of mutant alleles of the DNA repair/basal transcription factor haywire/ERCC3 in Drosophila. Genetics. 1999;152:291-7 pubmed
    ..This mutation results in accumulation of a 68-kD polypeptide that is much more abundant than the wild-type haywire protein. ..
  60. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  61. Hoyle H, Turner F, Brunick L, Raff E. Tubulin sorting during dimerization in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2185-94 pubmed
    We demonstrate sorting of beta-tubulins during dimerization in the Drosophila male germ line. Different beta-tubulin isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for alpha-tubulin during dimerization...
  62. Corbin V, Michelson A, Abmayr S, Neel V, Alcamo E, Maniatis T, et al. A role for the Drosophila neurogenic genes in mesoderm differentiation. Cell. 1991;67:311-23 pubmed
    ..Altered patterns of beta 3-tubulin and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the mutants indicate a role for the neurogenic genes in development of ..
  63. Hays T, Deuring R, Robertson B, Prout M, Fuller M. Interacting proteins identified by genetic interactions: a missense mutation in alpha-tubulin fails to complement alleles of the testis-specific beta-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:875-84 pubmed
    ..nc33) identified because it failed to complement mutant alleles of the gene encoding the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin of Drosophila melanogaster (B2t) did not map to the B2t locus...
  64. Michiels F, Wolk A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Further sequence requirements for male germ cell-specific expression under the control of the 14 bp promoter element (beta 2UE1) of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:4515-21 pubmed
    ..a 14 bp promoter element (beta 2UE1) that is required for testis-specific expression of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene. To further elucidate the role of the 14 bp element, we fused different promoter constructs to the E...
  65. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..
  66. Eaton S, Wepf R, Simons K. Roles for Rac1 and Cdc42 in planar polarization and hair outgrowth in the wing of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1277-89 pubmed
    ..During hair formation, the apical microtubules that point distally elongate and fill the emerging wing hair. As the hair elongates, junctional proteins are reorganized on the proximal and distal edges of each cell. ..
  67. Santel A, Winhauer T, Blumer N, Renkawitz Pohl R. The Drosophila don juan (dj) gene encodes a novel sperm specific protein component characterized by an unusual domain of a repetitive amino acid motif. Mech Dev. 1997;64:19-30 pubmed
    ..With regard to the characteristic expression pattern of DJ protein and its conspicuous repeat units possible functional roles are discussed. ..
  68. Kaltschmidt B, Glätzer K, Michiels F, Leiss D, Renkawitz Pohl R. During Drosophila spermatogenesis beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 tubulin isotypes are cell-type specifically expressed but have the potential to coassemble into the axoneme of transgenic flies. Eur J Cell Biol. 1991;54:110-20 pubmed
    ..In contrast, beta 2 tubulin is present in all microtubular arrays (cytoskeleton, meiotic spindles, axoneme) of germ cells from meiotic ..
  69. Kearse M, Chen A, Ware V. Expression of ribosomal protein L22e family members in Drosophila melanogaster: rpL22-like is differentially expressed and alternatively spliced. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2701-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data show that alternative splicing of rpL22-like generates structurally distinct protein products: ribosomal component RpL22-like and a novel protein with a role distinct from RpL22-like. ..
  70. Kemphues K, Kaufman T, Raff R, Raff E. The testis-specific beta-tubulin subunit in Drosophila melanogaster has multiple functions in spermatogenesis. Cell. 1982;31:655-70 pubmed
    ..isolated four recessive male sterile mutations in the structural gene for the testis-specific Drosophila beta 2-tubulin. Each of these mutations encodes a variant beta 2-tubulin subunit synthesized at normal levels, but which is ..
  71. Blümer N, Schreiter K, Hempel L, Santel A, Hollmann M, Schäfer M, et al. A new translational repression element and unusual transcriptional control regulate expression of don juan during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;110:97-112 pubmed
    ..This proves that translational activation of dormant mRNAs in spermatogenesis occurs at different time-points which are characteristic for each gene, an essential feature for coordinated sperm morphogenesis. ..
  72. Chen Q, Haddad G. Role of trehalose phosphate synthase and trehalose during hypoxia: from flies to mammals. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3125-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this protection is probably related to a decrease in protein denaturation through protein-trehalose interactions. ..
  73. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. DNA binding properties of TAF1 isoforms with two AT-hooks. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30015-23 pubmed publisher