Gene Symbol: betaTub60D
Description: beta-Tubulin at 60D
Alias: 143391_i_at, B3t, BETA 60D, CG3401, D.m.BETA-60D, DTB3, Dmbeta3, Dmel\CG3401, Tub, Tub2E, Tub60D, beta-Tub60D, beta-Tub6D, beta-tub, beta3, beta3 TU, beta3-Tub, beta3-tubulin, beta3TUB, beta3Tub, beta3t, beta3tub, beta60C, betaTub, betaTub3, betaTub60C, beta[[3]] tubulin, beta[[3]]-Tub, beta[[3]]-tubulin, betatub60D, p50, p50/tubulin, p53, p53/tubulin, beta-Tubulin at 60D, 60C beta tubulin, B3-tubulin, CG3401-PA, CG3401-PB, b-3 tubulin, b3 tubulin, beta 3 tubulin, beta tubulin, beta-3 tubulin, beta-3-tubulin, beta-3tubulin, beta-Tubulin, beta-Tubulin at 60A, beta-tubulin 60D, beta-tubulin at 60D, beta-tubulin60D, beta3 tubulin, beta3-tubulin, beta3tubulin, betaTub60D-PA, betaTub60D-PB, tubulin, tubulin b-3
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Dettman R, Turner F, Raff E. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila beta3-tubulin gene demonstrates that the microtubule cytoskeleton in the cells of the visceral mesoderm is required for morphogenesis of the midgut endoderm. Dev Biol. 1996;177:117-35 pubmed
    ..the cellular basis for lethality of mutant alleles of the Drosophila melanogaster beta3-tubulin gene, betaTub60D. Lethal beta3 mutations can be grouped into two classes: the most severe mutations (Class I alleles) cause death ..
  2. Paululat A, Burchard S, Renkawitz Pohl R. Fusion from myoblasts to myotubes is dependent on the rolling stone gene (rost) of Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:2611-20 pubmed
    ..b>beta 3 tubulin, which is an early marker for the onset of mesoderm differentiation, is still expressed in these cells...
  3. Zaffran S, Frasch M. The beta 3 tubulin gene is a direct target of bagpipe and biniou in the visceral mesoderm of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;114:85-93 pubmed that both genes are required for the activation of beta 3Tub60D in the visceral mesoderm, which encodes beta 3 tubulin. We demonstrate that a 254 bp derivative of a previously defined visceral mesoderm-specific enhancer element, ..
  4. Baena Lopez L, Baonza A, García Bellido A. The orientation of cell divisions determines the shape of Drosophila organs. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1640-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that a subset of planar cell polarity genes is required for the proper orientation of cell division during organ development. ..
  5. Schnorrer F, Kalchhauser I, Dickson B. The transmembrane protein Kon-tiki couples to Dgrip to mediate myotube targeting in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;12:751-66 pubmed
    ..Forced overexpression of Kon stimulates muscle motility. We propose that Kon promotes directed myotube migration and transduces a target-derived signal that initiates the formation of a stable connection. ..
  6. Hoyle H, Raff E. Two Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms are not functionally equivalent. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1009-26 pubmed
    ..These data show that beta 3 tubulin can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by beta 2, and also suggest that the ..
  7. Raff E, Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F. Microtubule architecture specified by a beta-tubulin isoform. Science. 1997;275:70-3 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, a testis-specific beta-tubulin (beta2) is required for spermatogenesis. A sequence motif was identified in carboxyl termini of axonemal beta-tubulins in diverse taxa...
  8. Natzle J, McCarthy B. Regulation of Drosophila alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during development. Dev Biol. 1984;104:187-98 pubmed
    Both the alpha and the beta subunit of tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded by small multigene families...
  9. Nielsen M, Gadagkar S, Gutzwiller L. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:113 pubmed publisher
    ..CTT residues overwhelming comprise the co-evolving residues between Drosophila alpha 2 and beta 3 tubulin proteins, indicating CTT specializations can be mediated at the level of the tubulin dimer...

More Information


  1. Bour B, O Brien M, Lockwood W, Goldstein E, Bodmer R, Taghert P, et al. Drosophila MEF2, a transcription factor that is essential for myogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:730-41 pubmed
    ..early differentiation of somatic muscle precursors are not affected because even-skipped-, nautilus-, and beta 3-tubulin-expressing myoblasts are present...
  2. Sharp D, McDonald K, Brown H, Matthies H, Walczak C, Vale R, et al. The bipolar kinesin, KLP61F, cross-links microtubules within interpolar microtubule bundles of Drosophila embryonic mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:125-38 pubmed
    ..Thus we propose that bipolar kinesin motors and MTs interact by a "sliding filament mechanism" during the formation and function of the mitotic spindle. ..
  3. Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:295-313 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary...
  4. Logarinho E, Sunkel C. The Drosophila POLO kinase localises to multiple compartments of the mitotic apparatus and is required for the phosphorylation of MPM2 reactive epitopes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2897-909 pubmed
  5. Albrecht S, Wang S, Holz A, Bergter A, Paululat A. The ADAM metalloprotease Kuzbanian is crucial for proper heart formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 2006;123:372-87 pubmed
    ..Our data presented herein suggest that Kuzbanian acts during lateral inhibition within the cardiac primordium. Furthermore we discuss a second function of Kuzbanian in heart cell morphogenesis. ..
  6. Gasch A, Hinz U, Renkawitz Pohl R. Intron and upstream sequences regulate expression of the Drosophila beta 3-tubulin gene in the visceral and somatic musculature, respectively. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:3215-8 pubmed
    ..beta 3-tubulin has proved to be a good marker for mesoderm development as this tubulin isotype is detectable soon after mesoderm ..
  7. Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:481-500 pubmed
    We used transgenic analysis in Drosophila to compare the ability of two structurally similar alpha-tubulin isoforms to support microtubule assembly in vivo...
  8. Zaffran S, Kuchler A, Lee H, Frasch M. biniou (FoxF), a central component in a regulatory network controlling visceral mesoderm development and midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2900-15 pubmed
  9. Robinson J, Wojcik E, Sanders M, McGrail M, Hays T. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for the nuclear attachment and migration of centrosomes during mitosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:597-608 pubmed
    ..The disruption of these centrosome attachments in mutant embryos reveals a critical role for dynein function and centrosome positioning in the spatial organization of the syncytial cytoplasm of the developing embryo. ..
  10. Ranganayakulu G, Zhao B, Dokidis A, Molkentin J, Olson E, Schulz R. A series of mutations in the D-MEF2 transcription factor reveal multiple functions in larval and adult myogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;171:169-81 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the D-mef2 gene has multiple functions in myogenesis and tissue morphogenesis during Drosophila development. ..
  11. Raff E, Hoyle H, Popodi E, Turner F. Axoneme beta-tubulin sequence determines attachment of outer dynein arms. Curr Biol. 2008;18:911-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that attachment of ODAs requires glycine 56 in the beta-tubulin internal variable region (IVR)...
  12. Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed
    ..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
  13. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed
    ..During anaphase, however, Ncd appears to have no effect on spindle pole movements, suggesting that its activity is down-regulated at this time, allowing dynein and KLP61F to drive spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..
  14. Damm C, Wolk A, Buttgereit D, Löher K, Wagner E, Lilly B, et al. Independent regulatory elements in the upstream region of the Drosophila beta 3 tubulin gene (beta Tub60D) guide expression in the dorsal vessel and the somatic muscles. Dev Biol. 1998;199:138-49 pubmed
    The beta 3 tubulin gene (beta Tub60D) is a structural gene expressed during mesoderm development from the extended germ band stage onward. Expression within the individual mesodermal derivatives is guided by different control elements...
  15. Liotta D, Han J, Elgar S, Garvey C, Han Z, Taylor M. The Him gene reveals a balance of inputs controlling muscle differentiation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1409-13 pubmed
  16. Hoyle H, Turner F, Brunick L, Raff E. Tubulin sorting during dimerization in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2185-94 pubmed
    We demonstrate sorting of beta-tubulins during dimerization in the Drosophila male germ line. Different beta-tubulin isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for alpha-tubulin during dimerization...
  17. Knirr S, Breuer S, Paululat A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Somatic mesoderm differentiation and the development of a subset of pericardial cells depend on the not enough muscles (nem) locus, which contains the inscuteable gene and the intron located gene, skittles. Mech Dev. 1997;67:69-81 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a role for insc in the specification process of a subset of muscle progenitors/founders. Furthermore, in insc mutants the eve expressing pericardial cells of the developing heart are significantly reduced in numbers. ..
  18. Gigliotti S, Callaini G, Andone S, Riparbelli M, Pernas Alonso R, Hoffmann G, et al. Nup154, a new Drosophila gene essential for male and female gametogenesis is related to the nup155 vertebrate nucleoporin gene. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:1195-207 pubmed
    ..Finally, the multiplicity of phenotypes observed in Nup154 mutant alleles suggests that this gene plays a crucial role in cell physiology. ..
  19. Vidwans S, Wong M, O Farrell P. Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1371-8 pubmed
    ..Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome. ..
  20. Sellin J, Drechsler M, Nguyen H, Paululat A. Antagonistic function of Lmd and Zfh1 fine tunes cell fate decisions in the Twi and Tin positive mesoderm of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2009;326:444-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We show further that Tin repression and pericardial restriction in the dorsal mesoderm facilitated by Lmd is instructed by a late Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signal that is abolished in embryos carrying the disk region mutation dpp(d6). ..
  21. Hornbruch Freitag C, Griemert B, Buttgereit D, Renkawitz Pohl R. Drosophila Swiprosin-1/EFHD2 accumulates at the prefusion complex stage during Drosophila myoblast fusion. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3266-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we hypothesise that Drosophila Swip-1 participates in the breakdown of the prefusion complex during the progression of myoblast fusion. ..
  22. Schmidt I, Thomas S, Kain P, Risse B, Naffin E, Kl mbt C. Kinesin heavy chain function in Drosophila glial cells controls neuronal activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work shows that the role of Khc for neuronal excitability must be considered in the light of its necessity for directed transport in glia...
  23. Gotwals P, Fristrom J. Three neighboring genes interact with the Broad-Complex and the Stubble-stubbloid locus to affect imaginal disc morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genetics. 1991;127:747-59 pubmed
    ..6-map unit interval between the genetic markers speck and Irregular facets and to the cytological region 60C5-6; 60E9-10 at the tip of chromosome 2R. Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that the BR-C regulates blistered. ..
  24. Perkins A, Tanentzapf G. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99362 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal. ..
  25. Klein Y, Halachmi N, Egoz Matia N, Toder M, Salzberg A. The proprioceptive and contractile systems in Drosophila are both patterned by the EGR family transcription factor Stripe. Dev Biol. 2010;337:458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly to the biphasic differentiation program of tendons, terminal differentiation of chordotonal attachment cells is associated with sequential activation of the two Stripe isoforms-Stripe B and Stripe A. ..
  26. Dettman R, Turner F, Hoyle H, Raff E. Embryonic expression of the divergent Drosophila beta3-tubulin isoform is required for larval behavior. Genetics. 2001;158:253-63 pubmed
    ..Drosophila beta3-tubulin (beta3) is a structurally divergent isoform transiently expressed during midembryogenesis...
  27. Albrecht S, Altenhein B, Paululat A. The transmembrane receptor Uncoordinated5 (Unc5) is essential for heart lumen formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2011;350:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the idea that Unc5 is crucial for lumen formation and thereby represents a repulsive cue acting during Drosophila heart tube formation. ..
  28. Rudolf A, Buttgereit D, Rexer K, Renkawitz Pohl R. The syncytial visceral and somatic musculature develops independently of ?3-Tubulin during Drosophila embryogenesis, while maternally supplied ?1-Tubulin is stable until the early steps of myoblast fusion. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, several isoforms of ?-Tubulin, the functional subunit of microtubules, are expressed in different tissues of the developing embryo, while ..
  29. Grieder N, de Cuevas M, Spradling A. The fusome organizes the microtubule network during oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:4253-64 pubmed
    ..We have investigated how the microtubule network polarizes using a GFP-tubulin construct that allows germ-cell microtubules to be visualized with greater sensitivity than in previous studies...
  30. de Cock J, Klink E, Ferro W, Lohman P, Eeken J. Neither enhanced removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers nor strand-specific repair is found after transcription induction of the beta 3-tubulin gene in a Drosophila embryonic cell line Kc. Mutat Res. 1992;293:11-20 pubmed
    ..In this cell line the hormone induces transcription of the beta 3-tubulin gene which is not expressed under standard culture conditions...
  31. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of our results for Wg signaling, and suggest a role for dAPC2 as a mediator of Wg effects on the cytoskeleton. We also speculate on more general roles that APCs may play in cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  32. Burchard S, Paululat A, Hinz U, Renkawitz Pohl R. The mutant not enough muscles (nem) reveals reduction of the Drosophila embryonic muscle pattern. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 4):1443-54 pubmed
    ..are characterized by partial absence of muscles, monitored by immunostainings with mesoderm-specific anti-beta 3 tubulin and anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies...
  33. Zaffran S, Reim I, Qian L, Lo P, Bodmer R, Frasch M. Cardioblast-intrinsic Tinman activity controls proper diversification and differentiation of myocardial cells in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4073-83 pubmed
  34. Botas J. Control of morphogenesis and differentiation by HOM/Hox genes. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993;5:1015-22 pubmed
    ..Some of the genes they regulate and that mediate specific identify functions have been identified. Research in Drosophila has shown that HOM genes are continuously required during development for correct axial identity. ..
  35. Jin Z, Homola E, Goldbach P, Choi Y, Brill J, Campbell S. Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4075-85 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. ..
  36. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  37. Dilks S, Dinardo S. Non-cell-autonomous control of denticle diversity in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that stripe mediates its effect on hook orientation, in part, via upregulation of shot. ..
  38. Raff E, Fuller M, Kaufman T, Kemphues K, Rudolph J, Raff R. Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1982;28:33-40 pubmed
    ..Two alpha-tubulin subunits (alpha 1 and alpha 2) and one beta-tubulin subunit (beta 1) are expressed throughout embryonic ..
  39. Ghosh Roy A, Kulkarni M, Kumar V, Shirolikar S, Ray K. Cytoplasmic dynein-dynactin complex is required for spermatid growth but not axoneme assembly in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2470-83 pubmed
  40. Wolfstetter G, Shirinian M, Stute C, Grabbe C, Hummel T, Baumgartner S, et al. Fusion of circular and longitudinal muscles in Drosophila is independent of the endoderm but further visceral muscle differentiation requires a close contact between mesoderm and endoderm. Mech Dev. 2009;126:721-36 pubmed publisher
  41. Hinz U, Wolk A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Ultrabithorax is a regulator of beta 3 tubulin expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm. Development. 1992;116:543-54 pubmed
    b>beta 3 tubulin expression accompanies the specification and differentiation of the Drosophila mesoderm. The genetic programs involved in these processes are largely unknown...
  42. Miller D, Holtzman S, Kalkbrenner A, Kaufman T. Homeotic Complex (Hox) gene regulation and homeosis in the mesoderm of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo: the roles of signal transduction and cell autonomous regulation. Mech Dev. 2001;102:17-32 pubmed
    ..We find that extrinsic specification of cell fate by signaling can be overridden by Hox protein expression in mesodermal cells and propose the term autonomic dominance for this phenomenon. ..
  43. Sanchez F, Natzle J, Cleveland D, Kirschner M, McCarthy B. A dispersed multigene family encoding tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1980;22:845-54 pubmed
    We have used cloned chicken cDNA sequences for alpha- and beta-tubulin to investigate tubulin gene organization in Drosophila melanogaster...
  44. Bulgheresi S, Kleiner E, Knoblich J. Inscuteable-dependent apical localization of the microtubule-binding protein Cornetto suggests a role in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3655-62 pubmed
  45. Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed
    ..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes. ..
  46. Serrano N, Brock H, Maschat F. beta3-tubulin is directly repressed by the engrailed protein in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:2527-36 pubmed
    ..We report here the identification of an effector gene, the beta3-tubulin gene, as a direct target of Engrailed...
  47. Carmena M, Riparbelli M, Minestrini G, Tavares A, Adams R, Callaini G, et al. Drosophila polo kinase is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:659-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss these findings in respect to conserved functions for the Polo-like kinases in regulating progression through M phase, including the earliest events of cytokinesis. ..
  48. Buttgereit D, Paululat A, Renkawitz Pohl R. Muscle development and attachment to the epidermis is accompanied by expression of beta 3 and beta 1 tubulin isotypes, respectively. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:189-96 pubmed
    ..Here we focus on the expression of the beta 3 tubulin isotype during mesoderm differentiation and beta 1 tubulin expression in the apodemes during embryonic ..
  49. Muñoz Soriano V, Santos D, Durupt F, Casani S, Paricio N. Scabrous overexpression in the eye affects R3/R4 cell fate specification and inhibits notch signaling. Dev Dyn. 2016;245:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that microtubule motors and other proteins involved in intracellular transport are related with Sca function. ..
  50. Bruhat A, Tourmente S, Chapel S, Sobrier M, Couderc J, Dastugue B. Regulatory elements in the first intron contribute to transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila Kc cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:2861-7 pubmed
    We have studied the transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OH-E) in Drosophila Kc cells...
  51. Kaltschmidt B, Glätzer K, Michiels F, Leiss D, Renkawitz Pohl R. During Drosophila spermatogenesis beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 tubulin isotypes are cell-type specifically expressed but have the potential to coassemble into the axoneme of transgenic flies. Eur J Cell Biol. 1991;54:110-20 pubmed
    ..b>beta 3 Tubulin is present exclusively in cytoplasmic microtubules of cells somatic in origin, while the beta 1 isotype is ..
  52. Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Turner F, Raff E. Structural analysis of mutations in the Drosophila beta 2-tubulin isoform reveals regions in the beta-tubulin molecular required for general and for tissue-specific microtubule functions. Genetics. 1995;139:267-86 pubmed
    ..the lesions in a number of mutant alleles of beta Tub85D, the gene that encodes the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin isoform in Drosophila melanogaster...
  53. Chen Q, Haddad G. Role of trehalose phosphate synthase and trehalose during hypoxia: from flies to mammals. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3125-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this protection is probably related to a decrease in protein denaturation through protein-trehalose interactions. ..
  54. Figeac N, Jagla T, Aradhya R, Da Ponte J, Jagla K. Drosophila adult muscle precursors form a network of interconnected cells and are specified by the rhomboid-triggered EGF pathway. Development. 2010;137:1965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results reveal an unsuspected capacity of embryonic AMPs to form a cell network, and shed light on the mechanisms governing their specification and maintenance. ..
  55. Cuenca J, Galindo M, Saura A, Sorsa V, De Frutos R. Ultrastructure of regions containing homologous loci in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura. Chromosoma. 1998;107:113-26 pubmed
    ..elements: the myospheroid gene, the collagen type IV gene, the collagen-like gene, the w26 homeobox gene, the beta3 tubulin gene, the kinesin heavy chain gene, the tryptophan hydrolase gene, the Hsp82, Hsp22-26 and Hsp23-28, Hsp68, ..
  56. Stephan R, Goellner B, Moreno E, Frank C, Hugenschmidt T, Genoud C, et al. Hierarchical microtubule organization controls axon caliber and transport and determines synaptic structure and stability. Dev Cell. 2015;33:5-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify control of microtubule architecture as a central mechanism to selectively control neuronal dimensions, functional properties, and connectivity. ..
  57. Soler C, Taylor M. The Him gene inhibits the development of Drosophila flight muscles during metamorphosis. Mech Dev. 2009;126:595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence for a link between Notch function and Him and mef2 in this balance. ..
  58. Jakobsen J, Braun M, Astorga J, Gustafson E, Sandmann T, Karzynski M, et al. Temporal ChIP-on-chip reveals Biniou as a universal regulator of the visceral muscle transcriptional network. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2448-60 pubmed
    ..The regulatory connection of a number of Biniou target genes is conserved in mice, suggesting an ancient wiring of this developmental program. ..
  59. Popodi E, Hoyle H, Turner F, Xu K, Kruse S, Raff E. Axoneme specialization embedded in a "generalist" beta-tubulin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:216-37 pubmed
    The relationship between the primary structure of the beta-tubulin C-terminal tail (CTT) and axoneme structure and function is explored using the spermatogenesis-specific beta2-tubulin of Drosophila...
  60. Kaipa B, Shao H, Schäfer G, Trinkewitz T, Groth V, Liu J, et al. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar- or Vrp1-WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. ..
  61. Lin M, Bour B, Abmayr S, Storti R. Ectopic expression of MEF2 in the epidermis induces epidermal expression of muscle genes and abnormal muscle development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1997;182:240-55 pubmed
    ..We also find that the level of MEF2 in the mesoderm and/or muscles in embryos is critical to body-wall muscle formation; however, no effect is observed on the development of the visceral muscle or dorsal vessel. ..
  62. Conant G, Wagner A. Asymmetric sequence divergence of duplicate genes. Genome Res. 2003;13:2052-8 pubmed
    ..The method is also more sensitive in detecting positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) than models relying only on pairwise gene comparisons. ..
  63. Fernandes J, Atreya K, Desai K, Hall R, Patel M, Desai A, et al. A dominant negative form of Rac1 affects myogenesis of adult thoracic muscles in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;285:11-27 pubmed
    ..We also show that the recently described DVM founder cells can be labeled with 22C10 and beta-3 tubulin, and that they are present under conditions of dominant negative Rac1(N17) expression...
  64. Drosopoulou E, Scouras Z. The beta-tubulin gene family evolution in the Drosophila montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. J Mol Evol. 1995;41:293-8 pubmed
    The beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-tubulin genes have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the polytene chromosomes of 11 selected species (15 strains) belonging to the Drosophila montium subgroup...
  65. De Velasco B, Mandal L, Mkrtchyan M, Hartenstein V. Subdivision and developmental fate of the head mesoderm in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:39-51 pubmed
    ..The lSHM contributes hemocytes, as well as the nephrocytes forming the subesophageal body, also called garland cells. ..
  66. Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed
    ..These results reveal key steps in the assembly of the apical domain in Drosophila. ..
  67. Baker R, Schubiger G. Ectoderm induces muscle-specific gene expression in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1995;121:1387-98 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that muscle determination in Drosophila is regulated by induction between germ layers during gastrulation. ..
  68. Wolfstetter G, Holz A. The role of LamininB2 (LanB2) during mesoderm differentiation in Drosophila. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:267-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed genetic interactions with kon-tiki and thrombospondin, indicating a role for laminin during muscle attachment. ..
  69. Eberl D, Lorenz L, Melnick M, Sood V, Lasko P, Perrimon N. A new enhancer of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative RNA helicase that binds chromosomes and is regulated by the cell cycle. Genetics. 1997;146:951-63 pubmed
  70. Yu F, Morin X, Cai Y, Yang X, Chia W. Analysis of partner of inscuteable, a novel player of Drosophila asymmetric divisions, reveals two distinct steps in inscuteable apical localization. Cell. 2000;100:399-409 pubmed
  71. Lloyd T, Machamer J, O Hara K, Kim J, Collins S, Wong M, et al. The p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates initiation of retrograde transport at synaptic termini. Neuron. 2012;74:344-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport at synaptic termini, and this function of dynactin is disrupted by a mutation that causes motor neuron disease. ..
  72. Bialojan S, Falkenburg D, Renkawitz Pohl R. Characterization and developmental expression of beta tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1984;3:2543-8 pubmed
    Genomic clones containing beta tubulin sequences were isolated from a lambda library of Drosophila melanogaster. In situ hybridization localized three genes to 56D and 60B on chromosome 2 as well as to 85D on chromosome 3...
  73. Duchi S, Fagnocchi L, Cavaliere V, Hsouna A, Gargiulo G, Hsu T. Drosophila VHL tumor-suppressor gene regulates epithelial morphogenesis by promoting microtubule and aPKC stability. Development. 2010;137:1493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The results establish a developmental function of the VHL gene that is relevant to its tumor-suppressor activity. ..
  74. Mace K, Tugores A. The product of the split ends gene is required for the maintenance of positional information during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:15 pubmed
    ..This role for spen may explain why mutations in this gene interact with the outcome of multiple signaling pathways. ..
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