Gene Symbol: betaTub56D
Description: beta-Tubulin at 56D
Alias: A1ZBL0_DROME, B1t, BETA 56D, CG9277, DTB2, Dmbeta1, Dmel\CG9277, TBB1_DROME, Tub, Tub2D, Tubulin, beta, beta-Tub, beta-Tub56D, beta-tub, beta-tub56D, beta-tubulin56D, beta1, beta1-Tubulin, beta1-tub, beta1Tub, beta1t, beta1tub, beta56D, betaTub, betaTub1, beta[[1]] tubulin, beta[[1]]-tubulin, betatub(56D), betatub56D, l(2)k00705, beta-Tubulin at 56D, CG9277-PA, CG9277-PB, TUBULIN B-1 CHAIN, b-tubulin56D, beta tubulin, beta-1 tubulin, beta-1-tubulin, beta-Tubulin, beta-Tubulin 56D, beta-Tubulin at 56 D, beta-tubulin-56D, beta1 tubulin, beta1-Tubulin, betaTub56D-PA, betaTub56D-PB, betatubulin, lethal (2) k00705, tubulin, tubulin beta-1 chain, tubulin beta1-chain
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Popodi E, Hoyle H, Turner F, Xu K, Kruse S, Raff E. Axoneme specialization embedded in a "generalist" beta-tubulin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:216-37 pubmed
    The relationship between the primary structure of the beta-tubulin C-terminal tail (CTT) and axoneme structure and function is explored using the spermatogenesis-specific beta2-tubulin of Drosophila...
  2. Vorbrüggen G, Jackle H. Epidermal muscle attachment site-specific target gene expression and interference with myotube guidance in response to ectopic stripe expression in the developing Drosophila epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8606-11 pubmed ectodermal cells generate long-range signals that interfere with the spatial orientation of the elongating myotubes. ..
  3. Buttgereit D, Renkawitz Pohl R. Expression of beta 1 tubulin (beta Tub56D) in Drosophila testis stem cells is regulated by a short upstream sequence while intron elements guide expression in somatic cells. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:263-70 pubmed
    ..In the early, mitotically active stages of spermatogenesis, only the beta 1 tubulin isotype is expressed...
  4. Buttgereit D, Leiss D, Michiels F, Renkawitz Pohl R. During Drosophila embryogenesis the beta 1 tubulin gene is specifically expressed in the nervous system and the apodemes. Mech Dev. 1991;33:107-18 pubmed
    We determined the in vivo distribution of the beta 1 tubulin from D. melanogaster using isotype specific antibodies. Maternally expressed beta 1 tubulin is incorporated into mitotic spindles...
  5. Sharp D, McDonald K, Brown H, Matthies H, Walczak C, Vale R, et al. The bipolar kinesin, KLP61F, cross-links microtubules within interpolar microtubule bundles of Drosophila embryonic mitotic spindles. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:125-38 pubmed
    ..Thus we propose that bipolar kinesin motors and MTs interact by a "sliding filament mechanism" during the formation and function of the mitotic spindle. ..
  6. Adams R, Tavares A, Salzberg A, Bellen H, Glover D. pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1483-94 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PAV-KLP is required both to establish the structure of the telophase spindle to provide a framework for the assembly of the contractile ring, and to mobilize mitotic regulator proteins. ..
  7. Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:295-313 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary...
  8. Raff E, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Nielsen M, Turner F. Conserved axoneme symmetry altered by a component beta-tubulin. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1391-4 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, these organelles contain distinct but similar beta-tubulin isoforms [4-10]: basal bodies contain only beta1-tubulin, and only beta2-tubulin is used for assembly of sperm ..
  9. Trotta N, Orso G, Rossetto M, Daga A, Broadie K. The hereditary spastic paraplegia gene, spastin, regulates microtubule stability to modulate synaptic structure and function. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1135-47 pubmed
    ..By using antibodies against posttranslationally modified alpha-Tubulin, we find that Dspastin regulates microtubule stability...

More Information


  1. Natzle J, McCarthy B. Regulation of Drosophila alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during development. Dev Biol. 1984;104:187-98 pubmed
    Both the alpha and the beta subunit of tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded by small multigene families...
  2. Boehm A, Saunders A, Werner J, Lis J. Transcription factor and polymerase recruitment, modification, and movement on dhsp70 in vivo in the minutes following heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7628-37 pubmed
    ..These studies of factor choreography set important limits in modeling transcription regulatory mechanisms. ..
  3. Gopalakrishnan J, Mennella V, Blachon S, Zhai B, Smith A, Megraw T, et al. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome. Nat Commun. 2011;2:359 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome. ..
  4. Raff E, Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F. Microtubule architecture specified by a beta-tubulin isoform. Science. 1997;275:70-3 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, a testis-specific beta-tubulin (beta2) is required for spermatogenesis. A sequence motif was identified in carboxyl termini of axonemal beta-tubulins in diverse taxa...
  5. Yarnitzky T, Min L, Volk T. The Drosophila neuregulin homolog Vein mediates inductive interactions between myotubes and their epidermal attachment cells. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2691-700 pubmed
    ..differentiation of tendon cells, measured by the level of expression of specific markers (Delilah and beta1 tubulin) is blocked...
  6. Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed
    ..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
  7. Raff E, Hoyle H, Popodi E, Turner F. Axoneme beta-tubulin sequence determines attachment of outer dynein arms. Curr Biol. 2008;18:911-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that attachment of ODAs requires glycine 56 in the beta-tubulin internal variable region (IVR)...
  8. Nielsen M, Gadagkar S, Gutzwiller L. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:113 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-six alpha tubulins and eighty-six beta tubulin gene copies were retrieved and subjected to molecular evolutionary analyses...
  9. Nielsen M, Turner F, Hutchens J, Raff E. Axoneme-specific beta-tubulin specialization: a conserved C-terminal motif specifies the central pair. Curr Biol. 2001;11:529-33 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this, alpha- and beta-tubulins utilized in motile axonemes fall among the most conserved tubulin sequences [1, 2], and the beta-tubulins contain a sequence motif at the same position in the carboxyl terminus [3]..
  10. Muse G, Gilchrist D, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker J, Grissom S, et al. RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1507-11 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates a role for regulation of polymerase elongation in the transcriptional responses to dynamic environmental and developmental cues. ..
  11. Frommer G, Vorbrüggen G, Pasca G, Jackle H, Volk T. Epidermal egr-like zinc finger protein of Drosophila participates in myotube guidance. EMBO J. 1996;15:1642-9 pubmed
  12. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed
    ..During anaphase, however, Ncd appears to have no effect on spindle pole movements, suggesting that its activity is down-regulated at this time, allowing dynein and KLP61F to drive spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..
  13. Robinson J, Wojcik E, Sanders M, McGrail M, Hays T. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for the nuclear attachment and migration of centrosomes during mitosis in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:597-608 pubmed
    ..The disruption of these centrosome attachments in mutant embryos reveals a critical role for dynein function and centrosome positioning in the spatial organization of the syncytial cytoplasm of the developing embryo. ..
  14. Drosopoulou E, Scouras Z. The beta-tubulin gene family evolution in the Drosophila montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. J Mol Evol. 1995;41:293-8 pubmed
    The beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-tubulin genes have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the polytene chromosomes of 11 selected species (15 strains) belonging to the Drosophila montium subgroup...
  15. Tapadia M, Gautam N. Non-apoptotic function of apoptotic proteins in the development of Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biosci. 2011;36:531-44 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, the localization of beta-tubulin, F-actin and Disclarge (Dlg) is also disrupted...
  16. Szafer Glusman E, Giansanti M, Nishihama R, Bolival B, Pringle J, Gatti M, et al. A role for very-long-chain fatty acids in furrow ingression during cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatocytes. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate very-long-chain fatty acids or their derivative complex lipids in allowing supple membrane deformation and the stable connection of cortical contractile components to the plasma membrane during cell division. ..
  17. Ring H, Lis J. The SR protein B52/SRp55 is essential for Drosophila development. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:7499-506 pubmed
    ..Therefore, B52 is not required for all splicing in vivo. This is the first in vivo deficiency analysis of a member of the SR protein family. ..
  18. Raff E, Fuller M, Kaufman T, Kemphues K, Rudolph J, Raff R. Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1982;28:33-40 pubmed
    ..Two alpha-tubulin subunits (alpha 1 and alpha 2) and one beta-tubulin subunit (beta 1) are expressed throughout embryonic ..
  19. Chen Q, Haddad G. Role of trehalose phosphate synthase and trehalose during hypoxia: from flies to mammals. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3125-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this protection is probably related to a decrease in protein denaturation through protein-trehalose interactions. ..
  20. Sameny A, Locke J. The P-element-induced silencing effect of KP transposons is dose dependent in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2011;54:752-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A logarithmic dose dependency is consistent with the KP products interacting with heterochromatic proteins in a concentration-dependent manner such that two molecules are needed to induce gene silencing. ..
  21. Dallman J, Allopenna J, Bassett A, Travers A, Mandel G. A conserved role but different partners for the transcriptional corepressor CoREST in fly and mammalian nervous system formation. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7186-93 pubmed
  22. Ramdas N, Shivashankar G. Cytoskeletal control of nuclear morphology and chromatin organization. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we suggest that perinuclear actin and basolateral microtubule organization exerts mechanical control on nuclear morphology and chromatin dynamics. ..
  23. Eberl D, Lorenz L, Melnick M, Sood V, Lasko P, Perrimon N. A new enhancer of position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative RNA helicase that binds chromosomes and is regulated by the cell cycle. Genetics. 1997;146:951-63 pubmed
  24. Scouras Z, Milioni D, Yiangou M, Duchene M, Domdey H. The beta-tubulin genes of Drosophila auraria are arranged in a cluster. Curr Genet. 1994;25:84-7 pubmed
    When the beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-tubulin-specific DNAs from Drosophila melanogaster were used as probes to recognize tubulin-specific sequences in the chromosomes of Drosophila auraria, they were found to hybridize to the same ..
  25. Gasch A, Hinz U, Leiss D, Renkawitz Pohl R. The expression of beta 1 and beta 3 tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster is spatially regulated during embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;211:8-16 pubmed
    ..While the beta 1 tubulin gene is constitutively expressed during development, beta 3 mRNA is restricted to two distinct phases: mid ..
  26. Wu C, Lee C, Fan R, Smith M, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, et al. Molecular characterization of Drosophila NELF. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1269-79 pubmed
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses detect NELF at the promoters of the hsp70 and beta1-tubulin genes where promoter proximal pausing has been previously detected...
  27. Jin Z, Homola E, Goldbach P, Choi Y, Brill J, Campbell S. Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4075-85 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. ..
  28. Raff E. Genetics of microtubule systems. J Cell Biol. 1984;99:1-10 pubmed
    In most eucaryotes the tubulin genes comprise small multigene families with approximately equal numbers of genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, the structural proteins of microtubules...
  29. Bhadra U, Pal Bhadra M, Birchler J. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;155:753-63 pubmed
    ..In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. ..
  30. Delgehyr N, Wieland U, Rangone H, Pinson X, Mao G, Dzhindzhev N, et al. Drosophila Mgr, a Prefoldin subunit cooperating with von Hippel Lindau to regulate tubulin stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes are associated with reductions of tubulin levels in both mgr flies and mgr RNAi-treated cultured cells...
  31. Kohler J, Schäfer Preuss S, Buttgereit D. Related enhancers in the intron of the beta1 tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster are essential for maternal and CNS-specific expression during embryogenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2543-50 pubmed
    Expression of the beta1 tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster is under complex developmental control...
  32. Hiebert J, Birchler J. Effects of the maleless mutation on X and autosomal gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;136:913-26 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that if mle plays a role in the discrimination of the X and the autosomes, it may do so by modification of the effects of dosage sensitive regulatory genes. ..
  33. Law A, Hirayoshi K, O BRIEN T, Lis J. Direct cloning of DNA that interacts in vivo with a specific protein: application to RNA polymerase II and sites of pausing in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:919-24 pubmed
    ..At least some of these map to the 5'-ends of genes. These results suggest that transcriptional pausing of Pol II is a general phenomenon in vivo. ..
  34. Inbal A, Volk T, Salzberg A. Recruitment of ectodermal attachment cells via an EGFR-dependent mechanism during the organogenesis of Drosophila proprioceptors. Dev Cell. 2004;7:241-50 pubmed
    ..Molecular characterization of lch5 attachment cells demonstrated that they share significant properties with Drosophila tendon cells and with mammalian proprioceptive organs. ..
  35. Casal J, Leptin M. Identification of novel genes in Drosophila reveals the complex regulation of early gene activity in the mesoderm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10327-32 pubmed
    ..These novel genes show a variety of expression patterns and also differ in their dependence on twist and snail functions. This indicates that the regulation of early gene activity in the mesoderm is more complex than previously thought. ..
  36. Liebl F, Chen K, Karr J, Sheng Q, Featherstone D. Increased synaptic microtubules and altered synapse development in Drosophila sec8 mutants. BMC Biol. 2005;3:27 pubmed
    ..We did not find any evidence that Sec8 is required for basal neurotransmission. ..
  37. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..
  38. Bulgheresi S, Kleiner E, Knoblich J. Inscuteable-dependent apical localization of the microtubule-binding protein Cornetto suggests a role in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3655-62 pubmed
  39. Dettman R, Turner F, Raff E. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila beta3-tubulin gene demonstrates that the microtubule cytoskeleton in the cells of the visceral mesoderm is required for morphogenesis of the midgut endoderm. Dev Biol. 1996;177:117-35 pubmed
    We have investigated the cellular basis for lethality of mutant alleles of the Drosophila melanogaster beta3-tubulin gene, betaTub60D...
  40. Eaton S, Wepf R, Simons K. Roles for Rac1 and Cdc42 in planar polarization and hair outgrowth in the wing of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1277-89 pubmed
    ..During hair formation, the apical microtubules that point distally elongate and fill the emerging wing hair. As the hair elongates, junctional proteins are reorganized on the proximal and distal edges of each cell. ..
  41. McKim K, Hayashi Hagihara A. mei-W68 in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a Spo11 homolog: evidence that the mechanism for initiating meiotic recombination is conserved. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2932-42 pubmed
    ..In contrast to spo11, mei-W68 is not required for synaptonemal complex formation and does have a mitotic role. ..
  42. Logarinho E, Sunkel C. The Drosophila POLO kinase localises to multiple compartments of the mitotic apparatus and is required for the phosphorylation of MPM2 reactive epitopes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2897-909 pubmed
  43. Gurskiy D, Orlova A, Vorobyeva N, Nabirochkina E, Krasnov A, Shidlovskii Y, et al. The DUBm subunit Sgf11 is required for mRNA export and interacts with Cbp80 in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:10689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Sgf11 functions as a component of both SAGA DUBm and the mRNA biogenesis machinery. ..
  44. Bhadra M, Bhadra U, Kundu J, Birchler J. Gene expression analysis of the function of the male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;169:2061-74 pubmed
  45. Fackenthal J, Hutchens J, Turner F, Raff E. Structural analysis of mutations in the Drosophila beta 2-tubulin isoform reveals regions in the beta-tubulin molecular required for general and for tissue-specific microtubule functions. Genetics. 1995;139:267-86 pubmed
    ..the lesions in a number of mutant alleles of beta Tub85D, the gene that encodes the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin isoform in Drosophila melanogaster...
  46. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Assembly of yolk spindles in the early Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2003;120:441-54 pubmed
    ..The presence of normal and abnormal centrosomes in the same cytoplasm provides an useful model for investigating the common regulators of the nucleus and centrosome cycle which ensure precise spindle pole duplication. ..
  47. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
  48. Popodi E, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Cooperativity between the beta-tubulin carboxy tail and the body of the molecule is required for microtubule function. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:955-63 pubmed publisher
    Using Drosophila spermatogenesis as a model, we show that function of the beta-tubulin C-terminal tail (CTT) is not independent of the body of the molecule. For optimal microtubule function, the beta-tubulin CTT and body must match...
  49. Reed B, Orr Weaver T. The Drosophila gene morula inhibits mitotic functions in the endo cell cycle and the mitotic cell cycle. Development. 1997;124:3543-53 pubmed
    ..Thus morula serves a dual function as a cell cycle regulator that promotes exit from mitosis and maintains the absence of mitosis during the endo cycle, possibly by activating the cyclin destruction machinery. ..
  50. Mace K, Tugores A. The product of the split ends gene is required for the maintenance of positional information during Drosophila development. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:15 pubmed
    ..This role for spen may explain why mutations in this gene interact with the outcome of multiple signaling pathways. ..
  51. Kaltschmidt B, Glätzer K, Michiels F, Leiss D, Renkawitz Pohl R. During Drosophila spermatogenesis beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 tubulin isotypes are cell-type specifically expressed but have the potential to coassemble into the axoneme of transgenic flies. Eur J Cell Biol. 1991;54:110-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, a switch of beta tubulin isotypes from beta 1 to beta 2 occurs during male germ cell differentiation...
  52. Martin Bermudo M. Integrins modulate the Egfr signaling pathway to regulate tendon cell differentiation in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2000;127:2607-15 pubmed
    ..In the absence of PS integrin function, the expression of tendon cell-specific genes such as stripe and beta1 tubulin is not maintained. In addition, embryos lacking the PS integrins also exhibit reduced levels of activated MAPK...
  53. Strumpf D, Volk T. Kakapo, a novel cytoskeletal-associated protein is essential for the restricted localization of the neuregulin-like factor, vein, at the muscle-tendon junction site. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1259-70 pubmed
    ..This may lead to aberrant differentiation of tendon cells and consequently to the kakapo mutant deranged somatic muscle phenotype. ..
  54. Parmentier M, Woods D, Greig S, Phan P, Radovic A, Bryant P, et al. Rapsynoid/partner of inscuteable controls asymmetric division of larval neuroblasts in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2000;20:RC84 pubmed
    ..Our data show that Raps is a novel protein involved in the control of asymmetric divisions of neuroblasts. ..
  55. Hirth F, Hartmann B, Reichert H. Homeotic gene action in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1579-89 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the action of the homeotic genes labial and Deformed are required for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain of Drosophila. ..
  56. Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed
    ..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes.
  57. Strünkelnberg M, Bonengel B, Moda L, Hertenstein A, de Couet H, Ramos R, et al. rst and its paralogue kirre act redundantly during embryonic muscle development in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4229-39 pubmed
    ..This defect can be rescued by one copy of either gene. Moreover, Rst, like Kirre is a myoblast attractant. ..
  58. Sitaram P, Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Lee L. Regulation of dynein localization and centrosome positioning by Lis-1 and asunder during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2012;139:2945-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model in which Lis-1 and asun cooperate to regulate dynein localization and centrosome positioning during Drosophila spermatogenesis...
  59. Rudolph J, Kimble M, Hoyle H, Subler M, Raff E. Three Drosophila beta-tubulin sequences: a developmentally regulated isoform (beta 3), the testis-specific isoform (beta 2), and an assembly-defective mutation of the testis-specific isoform (B2t8) reveal both an ancient divergence in metazoan isotyp. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:2231-42 pubmed
    ..are presented for three Drosophila melanogaster beta-tubulins: a developmentally regulated isoform beta 3-tubulin, the wild-type testis-specific isoform beta 2-tubulin, and an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced assembly-defective ..
  60. Kimble M, Incardona J, Raff E. A variant beta-tubulin isoform of Drosophila melanogaster (beta 3) is expressed primarily in tissues of mesodermal origin in embryos and pupae, and is utilized in populations of transient microtubules. Dev Biol. 1989;131:415-29 pubmed
    The beta 3-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster codes for a variant tubulin isoform which is expressed at two distinct times during development: (1) during midembryogenesis from 8-16 hr postfertilization, and (2) during the 4 days of ..
  61. Moberg K, Mukherjee A, Veraksa A, Artavanis Tsakonas S, Hariharan I. The Drosophila F box protein archipelago regulates dMyc protein levels in vivo. Curr Biol. 2004;14:965-74 pubmed
  62. Subramanian A, Prokop A, Yamamoto M, Sugimura K, Uemura T, Betschinger J, et al. Shortstop recruits EB1/APC1 and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1086-95 pubmed
    ..This is achieved by Shot association with the cytoplasmic faces of the basal hemiadherens junction and with the EB1/APC1 complex. ..
  63. Debec A, Marcaillou C, Bobinnec Y, Borot C. The centrosome cycle in syncytial Drosophila embryos analyzed by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. Biol Cell. 1999;91:379-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in the early Drosophila embryo there is an unusual delay between the separation of the parent centrioles and their duplication. This leaves a surprisingly short time to assemble a daughter centriole. ..
  64. Findeisen P, Mühlhausen S, Dempewolf S, Hertzog J, Zietlow A, Carlomagno T, et al. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2274-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and ..
  65. Yu F, Morin X, Cai Y, Yang X, Chia W. Analysis of partner of inscuteable, a novel player of Drosophila asymmetric divisions, reveals two distinct steps in inscuteable apical localization. Cell. 2000;100:399-409 pubmed
  66. Matta B, Bitner Mathé B, Alves Ferreira M. Getting real with real-time qPCR: a case study of reference gene selection for morphological variation in Drosophila melanogaster wings. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:49-57 pubmed publisher
  67. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..polyposis coli (APC) negatively regulates Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signal transduction by helping target the Wnt effector beta-catenin or its Drosophila homologue Armadillo (Arm) for destruction...
  68. Girotra M, Srivastava S, Kulkarni A, Barbora A, Bobra K, Ghosal D, et al. The C-terminal tails of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 motor subunits directly bind to ?-tubulin1: Possible implications for cilia-specific tubulin entry. Traffic. 2017;18:123-133 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have indicated that the kinesin-2 family motors transport tubulin into the cilia through intraflagellar transport...
  69. Bate M, Landgraf M, Ruiz Gómez Bate M. Development of larval body wall muscles. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1999;43:25-44 pubmed
  70. Dilks S, Dinardo S. Non-cell-autonomous control of denticle diversity in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that stripe mediates its effect on hook orientation, in part, via upregulation of shot. ..
  71. Klein Y, Halachmi N, Egoz Matia N, Toder M, Salzberg A. The proprioceptive and contractile systems in Drosophila are both patterned by the EGR family transcription factor Stripe. Dev Biol. 2010;337:458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly to the biphasic differentiation program of tendons, terminal differentiation of chordotonal attachment cells is associated with sequential activation of the two Stripe isoforms-Stripe B and Stripe A. ..
  72. Trachtulec Z, Forejt J. Synteny of orthologous genes conserved in mammals, snake, fly, nematode, and fission yeast. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:227-31 pubmed
    ..Such a distribution of transcription units is nonrandom and could indicate a long-range cis-acting relationship among the genes within the conserved syntenic group. ..
  73. Ashley J, Packard M, Ataman B, Budnik V. Fasciclin II signals new synapse formation through amyloid precursor protein and the scaffolding protein dX11/Mint. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5943-55 pubmed
    ..These results provide a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules are regulated and provide fresh insights into the normal operation of APP during synapse development. ..
  74. Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. ..
  75. Palmer R, Fessler L, Edeen P, Madigan S, McKeown M, Hunter T. DFak56 is a novel Drosophila melanogaster focal adhesion kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35621-9 pubmed
    ..Our results imply a role for DFak56 in adhesion-dependent signaling pathways in vivo during D. melanogaster development. ..
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    ..Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome. ..
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