Gene Symbol: beta-Spec
Description: beta Spectrin
Alias: B-spec, CG5870, Dmel\CG5870, SPEC8, Spec, Spec-beta, Specbeta, anon-EST:fe1B3, b spectrin, b-Spec, beta, beta-spec, betaSpec, betaspec, i168, kus, l(1)G0074, l(1)G0108, l(1)G0198, beta spectrin, CG5870-PA, CG5870-PB, CG5870-PC, anon-fast-evolving-1B3, beta-Spec-PA, beta-Spec-PB, beta-Spec-PC, beta-spectrin, karussell, spectrin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Byers T, Husain Chishti A, Dubreuil R, Branton D, Goldstein L. Sequence similarity of the amino-terminal domain of Drosophila beta spectrin to alpha actinin and dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:1633-41 pubmed
    We used chicken alpha spectrin as a ligand probe to isolate Drosophila beta spectrin cDNA sequences from a lambda gt11 expression library...
  2. Gregory S, Brown N. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1271-82 pubmed
    ..Kakapo is also expressed more widely at a lower level where it is essential for epidermal cell layer stability. These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules. ..
  3. McGrail M, Hays T. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for spindle orientation during germline cell divisions and oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:2409-19 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for a novel developmental role for the cytoplasmic dynein motor in cellular determination and differentiation. ..
  4. Lee J, Brandin E, Branton D, Goldstein L. alpha-Spectrin is required for ovarian follicle monolayer integrity in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:353-62 pubmed
    To understand the role of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in generating epithelial polarity, we characterized the distribution of membrane skeletal components in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells and in somatic clones of mutant cells ..
  5. Thomas G, Williams J. Dynamic rearrangement of the spectrin membrane skeleton during the generation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 17):2843-52 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton has long been thought to participate in the generation of this asymmetry...
  6. Zhang P, Talluri S, Deng H, Branton D, Wagner G. Solution structure of the pleckstrin homology domain of Drosophila beta-spectrin. Structure. 1995;3:1185-95 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable that the PH domain of beta-spectrin plays a part in the association of spectrin with the plasma membrane of cells...
  7. Dubreuil R, Frankel J, Wang P, Howrylak J, Kappil M, Grushko T. Mutations of alpha spectrin and labial block cuprophilic cell differentiation and acid secretion in the middle midgut of Drosophila larvae. Dev Biol. 1998;194:1-11 pubmed
    Mutations in Drosophila alpha spectrin cause larval lethality and defects in cell shape and adhesion (J. Lee et al., 1993, J. Cell Biol. 123, 1797-1809)...
  8. Röper K, Gregory S, Brown N. The 'spectraplakins': cytoskeletal giants with characteristics of both spectrin and plakin families. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4215-25 pubmed the products of these genes as spectraplakins to highlight the fact that they share features with both the spectrin and plakin superfamilies...
  9. Pielage J, Cheng L, Fetter R, Carlton P, Sedat J, Davis G. A presynaptic giant ankyrin stabilizes the NMJ through regulation of presynaptic microtubules and transsynaptic cell adhesion. Neuron. 2008;58:195-209 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a presynaptic Ank2-L lattice links synaptic membrane proteins and spectrin to the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton to organize and stabilize the presynaptic terminal.

More Information


  1. Das A, Base C, Dhulipala S, Dubreuil R. Spectrin functions upstream of ankyrin in a spectrin cytoskeleton assembly pathway. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:325-35 pubmed
    ..rescue strategy in Drosophila melanogaster to test contributions of four specific functional sites in beta spectrin to its assembly and function...
  2. Byers T, Brandin E, Lue R, Winograd E, Branton D. The complete sequence of Drosophila beta-spectrin reveals supra-motifs comprising eight 106-residue segments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6187-91 pubmed
    The alpha and beta chains of spectrin are homologous, yet they have acquired different structural features that work in synergy to give the multimer its overall properties...
  3. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. Presynaptic spectrin is essential for synapse stabilization. Curr Biol. 2005;15:918-28 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that presynaptic spectrin is an essential scaffold that is required to maintain synapse stability at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (..
  4. Jefford G, Dubreuil R. Receptor clustering drives polarized assembly of ankyrin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27726-32 pubmed
    ..Thus neuroglian adhesion generates a spatial cue for polarized assembly of ankyrin and the spectrin cytoskeleton...
  5. LORENZO D, Li M, Mische S, Armbrust K, Ranum L, Hays T. Spectrin mutations that cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 impair axonal transport and induce neurodegeneration in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:143-58 pubmed publisher an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the SPBTN2 gene encoding beta-III-spectrin. To investigate the molecular basis of SCA5, we established a series of transgenic Drosophila models that express ..
  6. Phillips M, Thomas G. Brush border spectrin is required for early endosome recycling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1361-70 pubmed
    ..microvilli supported by F-actin bundles that protrude into the apical cytoplasm, where they are crosslinked by spectrin and myosin II to form the terminal web...
  7. Wodarz A, Hinz U, Engelbert M, Knust E. Expression of crumbs confers apical character on plasma membrane domains of ectodermal epithelia of Drosophila. Cell. 1995;82:67-76 pubmed
    ..This is followed by the redistribution of beta Heavy-spectrin, a component of the membrane cytoskeleton, and by the ectopic deposition of cuticle and other apical components ..
  8. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Stewart C, Kiehart D. A beta-spectrin isoform from Drosophila (beta H) is similar in size to vertebrate dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1849-58 pubmed
    ..Diversity among spectrin isoforms, especially their beta subunits, is associated with diversity in cell shape and membrane architecture...
  9. Featherstone D, Davis W, Dubreuil R, Broadie K. Drosophila alpha- and beta-spectrin mutations disrupt presynaptic neurotransmitter release. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4215-24 pubmed
    ..To test these hypotheses, we characterized Drosophila mutants lacking either alpha- or beta-spectrin. The Drosophila genome contains only one alpha-spectrin and one conventional beta-spectrin gene, making it an ..
  10. Dubreuil R, Grushko T. Genetic studies of spectrin: new life for a ghost protein. Bioessays. 1998;20:875-8 pubmed
    b>Spectrin, together with actin and a number of other accessory proteins, forms a submembrane cytoskeletal network in the human erythrocyte ghost...
  11. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. A postsynaptic spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:491-503 pubmed
    ..In this study, we document a role for the postsynaptic Spectrin skeleton in this process...
  12. Thomas G, Kiehart D. Beta heavy-spectrin has a restricted tissue and subcellular distribution during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1994;120:2039-50 pubmed
    ..beta Heavy-spectrin is a unique beta-spectrin from Drosophila melanogaster that is closer in size (M(r) = 430 x 10(3)) to dystrophin ..
  13. Hülsmeier J, Pielage J, Rickert C, Technau G, Klämbt C, Stork T. Distinct functions of alpha-Spectrin and beta-Spectrin during axonal pathfinding. Development. 2007;134:713-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila karussell mutations affect beta-spectrin and lead to distinct axonal patterning defects in the embryonic CNS...
  14. Garbe D, Das A, Dubreuil R, Bashaw G. beta-Spectrin functions independently of Ankyrin to regulate the establishment and maintenance of axon connections in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2007;134:273-84 pubmed
    alpha- and beta-Spectrin are major components of a submembrane cytoskeletal network connecting actin filaments to integral plasma membrane proteins...
  15. Dubreuil R, Wang P, Dahl S, Lee J, Goldstein L. Drosophila beta spectrin functions independently of alpha spectrin to polarize the Na,K ATPase in epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:647-56 pubmed
    ..b>beta Spectrin mutations were lethal during late embryonic/early larval development and they produced subtle defects in ..
  16. Deng H, Lee J, Goldstein L, Branton D. Drosophila development requires spectrin network formation. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:71-9 pubmed
    The head-end associations of spectrin give rise to tetramers and make it possible for the molecule to form networks. We analyzed the head-end associations of Drosophila spectrin in vitro and in vivo...
  17. Koch I, Schwarz H, Beuchle D, Goellner B, Langegger M, Aberle H. Drosophila ankyrin 2 is required for synaptic stability. Neuron. 2008;58:210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, Ank2 functions downstream of spectrin in the anchorage of synaptic microtubules, providing the cytoskeletal scaffold that is essential for synaptic ..
  18. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Branton D, Goldstein L, Kiehart D. Drosophilia spectrin. I. Characterization of the purified protein. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2095-102 pubmed
    We purified a protein from Drosophila S3 tissue culture cells that has many of the diagnostic features of spectrin from vertebrate organisms: (a) The protein consists of two equimolar subunits (Mr = 234 and 226 kD) that can be reversibly ..
  19. Dubreuil R, Maddux P, Grushko T, MacVicar G. Segregation of two spectrin isoforms: polarized membrane-binding sites direct polarized membrane skeleton assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1933-42 pubmed
    ..It was previously shown that ankyrin and beta spectrin are recruited to sites of cell-cell contact in Drosophila S2 cells expressing the homophilic adhesion molecule ..
  20. Khanna M, Mattie F, Browder K, Radyk M, Crilly S, Bakerink K, et al. Spectrin tetramer formation is not required for viable development in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:706-15 pubmed publisher
    The dominant paradigm for spectrin function is that (αβ)2-spectrin tetramers or higher order oligomers form membrane-associated two-dimensional networks in association with F-actin to reinforce the plasma membrane...
  21. Smith O. Biomedicine. Nota bene. In the nic of time. Science. 2001;294:2118 pubmed
  22. Doerflinger H, Benton R, Shulman J, St Johnston D. The role of PAR-1 in regulating the polarised microtubule cytoskeleton in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Development. 2003;130:3965-75 pubmed
    ..However, all cells that lack PAR-1 accumulate spectrin and F-actin laterally, and show a strong increase in the density of microtubules...
  23. Bilder D, Perrimon N. Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature. 2000;403:676-80 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the lateral domain of epithelia, particularly the septate junction, functions in restricting apical membrane identity and correctly placing adherens junctions. ..
  24. Deng H, Wang W, Yu J, Zheng Y, Qing Y, Pan D. Spectrin regulates Hippo signaling by modulating cortical actomyosin activity. elife. 2015;4:e06567 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify spectrin, a contractile protein at the cytoskeleton-membrane interface, as an upstream regulator of the Hippo signaling ..
  25. Hummel T, Schimmelpfeng K, Klämbt C. Commissure formation in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:771-9 pubmed
    ..A novel repulsive component is encoded by the karussell gene. Furthermore the midline glial cells separate anterior and posterior commissures...
  26. Blunk A, Akbergenova Y, Cho R, Lee J, Walldorf U, Xu K, et al. Postsynaptic actin regulates active zone spacing and glutamate receptor apposition at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014;61:241-54 pubmed publisher
    ..conserved glutamate residue in subdomain 1 that binds members of the Calponin Homology protein family, including spectrin. Homozygous act(E84K) mutants show impaired alignment and spacing of presynaptic active zones, as well as defects ..
  27. Wei J, Hortsch M, Goode S. Neuroglian stabilizes epithelial structure during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:800-8 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that Ig superfamily members have significant functional redundancy in maintaining epithelial polarity, with individual members playing subtle, unique roles during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  28. Chavez V, Marques G, Delbecque J, Kobayashi K, Hollingsworth M, Burr J, et al. The Drosophila disembodied gene controls late embryonic morphogenesis and codes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme that regulates embryonic ecdysone levels. Development. 2000;127:4115-26 pubmed
  29. Ohler S, Hakeda Suzuki S, Suzuki T. Hts, the Drosophila homologue of Adducin, physically interacts with the transmembrane receptor Golden goal to guide photoreceptor axons. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:135-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results fit with a model where Gogo both positively and negatively regulates Hts that affects the Actin-Spectrin cytoskeleton in growth cone filopodia, thereby guiding R axons.
  30. Harris K, Zhang Y, Piccioli Z, Perrimon N, Littleton J. The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a conserved postsynaptic SNARE machinery controls multiple aspects of retrograde signaling and cargo trafficking within the postsynaptic compartment. ..
  31. Dubreuil R, MacVicar G, Maddux P. Functional studies of the membrane skeleton in Drosophila: identification of a positional cue that targets polarized membrane skeleton assembly. Soc Gen Physiol Ser. 1997;52:91-106 pubmed
  32. Lin H. The tao of stem cells in the germline. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:455-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, the GSC mechanism is related to that for germline and sex determination. Current knowledge has provided a solid framework for further study of GSCs and stem cells in general. ..
  33. Ramachandran P, Barria R, Ashley J, Budnik V. A critical step for postsynaptic F-actin organization: regulation of Baz/Par-3 localization by aPKC and PTEN. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:583-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have suggested that the actin-binding proteins Spectrin and Coracle play a critical role in NMJ development and the anchoring of glutamate receptors most likely through ..
  34. Dubreuil R, Grushko T, Baumann O. Differential effects of a labial mutation on the development, structure, and function of stomach acid-secreting cells in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;306:167-78 pubmed
    ..between copper cells and their neighbors consisted of smooth septate junctions that were enriched in alphabeta-spectrin and ankyrin...
  35. Chen C, Buhl E, Xu M, Croset V, Rees J, Lilley K, et al. Drosophila Ionotropic Receptor 25a mediates circadian clock resetting by temperature. Nature. 2015;527:516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway operates in the absence of known 'hot' and 'cold' sensors in the Drosophila antenna, revealing the existence of novel periphery-to-brain temperature signalling channels. ..
  36. Mosca T. On the Teneurin track: a new synaptic organization molecule emerges. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:204 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will examine the Teneurins as synaptic cell adhesion molecules, explore how they regulate synaptic organization, and consider how some consequences of human Teneurin mutations may have synaptopathic origins. ..
  37. Chen T, Chen G, Funkhouser L, Nam S. Membrane domain modulation by Spectrins in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. Genesis. 2009;47:744-50 pubmed publisher
    Spectrins are major proteins in the cytoskeletal network of most cells. In Drosophila, beta(Heavy)-Spectrin encoded by the karst gene functions together with Crb during photoreceptor morphogenesis...
  38. Viel A, Branton D. Interchain binding at the tail end of the Drosophila spectrin molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10839-43 pubmed
    b>Spectrin's function as an actin-crosslinking protein and membrane skeleton component involves the tail end of the molecule, where multiple interactions between two spectrin chains and between these chains and other proteins give rise to ..
  39. Jin Y. Synaptogenesis: insights from worm and fly. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:71-9 pubmed
  40. Mazock G, Das A, Base C, Dubreuil R. Transgene rescue identifies an essential function for Drosophila beta spectrin in the nervous system and a selective requirement for ankyrin-2-binding activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2860-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments here were undertaken to identify sites of essential beta spectrin function in Drosophila and to determine whether spectrin and ankyrin function are strictly linked to one ..
  41. Khanal I, Elbediwy A, Díaz de la Loza M, Fletcher G, Thompson B. Shot and Patronin polarise microtubules to direct membrane traffic and biogenesis of microvilli in epithelia. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Core apical-basal polarity determinants polarise the spectrin cytoskeleton to recruit the microtubule-binding proteins Patronin (CAMSAP1, CAMSAP2 and CAMSAP3 in humans) and ..
  42. Röper K, Brown N. A spectraplakin is enriched on the fusome and organizes microtubules during oocyte specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:99-110 pubmed
    ..Shot associates with the fusome and is required for microtubule organization. We suggest that it does this directly, via its microtubule binding GAS2 domain. ..
  43. Williams J, MacIver B, Klipfell E, Thomas G. The C-terminal domain of Drosophila (beta) heavy-spectrin exhibits autonomous membrane association and modulates membrane area. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:771-82 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is thought to contribute to such stabilization by increasing the half-life of many ..
  44. Hoover K, Bryant P. Drosophila Yurt is a new protein-4.1-like protein required for epithelial morphogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:230-8 pubmed
    ..A mammalian homolog of Yurt is up-regulated in metastatic melanoma cells. These novel cytoskeletal proteins appear to play important roles in epithelial cell movements and in the morphogenetic tissue changes that depend on them. ..
  45. Bellaiche Y, Radovic A, Woods D, Hough C, Parmentier M, O Kane C, et al. The Partner of Inscuteable/Discs-large complex is required to establish planar polarity during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Cell. 2001;106:355-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, Baz and the Dlg/Pins complex are required for the asymmetric localization of Numb. Thus, the Dlg/Pins complex responds to Fz signaling to establish planar asymmetry in the pI cell. ..
  46. Röper K, Brown N. Maintaining epithelial integrity: a function for gigantic spectraplakin isoforms in adherens junctions. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1305-15 pubmed
    ..spectraplakin is a giant cytoskeletal protein, which exists in multiple isoforms with characteristics of both spectrin and plakin superfamilies...
  47. Shulman J, Chipendo P, Chibnik L, Aubin C, Tran D, Keenan B, et al. Functional screening of Alzheimer pathology genome-wide association signals in Drosophila. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy of coupling genome-wide association in humans with functional screening in a model organism is likely to be a powerful approach for gene discovery in AD and other complex genetic disorders. ..
  48. Schimmelpfeng K, Strunk M, Stork T, Klämbt C. Mummy encodes an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dipohosphorylase and is required during Drosophila dorsal closure and nervous system development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:487-99 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes correlate well with specific glycosylation and GPI-anchorage defects in mummy mutants. ..
  49. Mosca T, Luo L. Synaptic organization of the Drosophila antennal lobe and its regulation by the Teneurins. elife. 2014;3:e03726 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten-a acts in ORNs to organize presynaptic active zones via the spectrin cytoskeleton...
  50. Grieder N, de Cuevas M, Spradling A. The fusome organizes the microtubule network during oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:4253-64 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the fusome, a specialized membrane-skeletal structure, which arises in early germ cells, plays a crucial role in polarizing 16-cell cysts, at least in part by interacting with microtubules and centrosomes. ..
  51. BACHMANN A, Kobler O, Kittel R, Wichmann C, Sierralta J, Sigrist S, et al. A perisynaptic ménage à trois between Dlg, DLin-7, and Metro controls proper organization of Drosophila synaptic junctions. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5811-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings accentuate the importance of perisynaptic scaffold complexes for synaptic stabilization and organization. ..
  52. Baum B, Perrimon N. Spatial control of the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:883-90 pubmed
    ..The Abl tyrosine kinase also collaborates in this process. We therefore propose that CAP, Ena and Abl act in concert to modulate the subcellular distribution of actin filaments in Drosophila. ..
  53. Kapelnikov A, Rivlin P, Hoy R, Heifetz Y. Tissue remodeling: a mating-induced differentiation program for the Drosophila oviduct. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:114 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results establish the oviduct as an attractive system to address mechanisms that regulate the late stages of differentiation and maintenance of a tubular organ. ..
  54. Das A, Base C, Manna D, Cho W, Dubreuil R. Unexpected complexity in the mechanisms that target assembly of the spectrin cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12643-53 pubmed publisher
    The spectrin cytoskeleton assembles within discrete regions of the plasma membrane in a wide range of animal cell types...
  55. MacDougall L, Gagou M, Leevers S, Hafen E, Waterfield M. Targeted expression of the class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Drosophila melanogaster reveals lipid kinase-dependent effects on patterning and interactions with receptor signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:796-808 pubmed
    ..The phenotypes obtained are markedly distinct from those generated by expression of the Drosophila class I PI3K, which affects growth but not pattern formation. ..
  56. Bennett V. Spectrin: a structural mediator between diverse plasma membrane proteins and the cytoplasm. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:51-6 pubmed
    The spectrin skeleton of non-erythroid cells is likely to interact with a variety of integral membrane proteins and participate both in stable linkages as well as dynamic structures capable of rapid disassembly and assembly...
  57. de Cuevas M, Lee J, Spradling A. alpha-spectrin is required for germline cell division and differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 1996;122:3959-68 pubmed
    ..developing germline cysts are spanned by a large cytoplasmic structure called a fusome, containing alpha-spectrin and the adducin-like product of the hu-li tai shao (hts) gene...
  58. McKearin D. The Drosophila fusome, organelle biogenesis and germ cell differentiation: if you build it. Bioessays. 1997;19:147-52 pubmed
    ..Future efforts will consider to what extent an organelle assembly-dependent model for differentiation is heuristic and whether the Drosophila fusome represents a homolog of a similar organelle in vertebrate lymphocytes. ..
  59. Viel A, Gee M, Tomooka L, Branton D. Motifs involved in interchain binding at the tail-end of spectrin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1384:396-404 pubmed
    Segments 20-22 of alpha-spectrin and 1-3 of beta-spectrin are required for high avidity interchain binding at the tail-end of the molecule...
  60. Yeh E, Dermer M, Commisso C, Zhou L, McGlade C, Boulianne G. Neuralized functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase during Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1675-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the role of Neu is to target components of the N-Dl pathway for ubiquitination, allowing for propagation and/or regulation of the signal. ..
  61. Wong K, Li W, An Y, Duan Y, Li Z, Kang Y, et al. β-Spectrin regulates the hippo signaling pathway and modulates the basal actin network. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:6397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..In a genetic screen, we identified a requirement for β-Spectrin in the posterior follicle cells for the oocyte repolarization process during Drosophila mid-oogenesis...
  62. Begg G, Harper S, Morris M, Speicher D. Initiation of spectrin dimerization involves complementary electrostatic interactions between paired triple-helical bundles. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3279-87 pubmed
    The spectrin heterodimer is formed by the antiparallel lateral association of an alpha and a beta subunit, each of which comprises largely a series of homologous triple-helical motifs...
  63. Baumann O. Posterior midgut epithelial cells differ in their organization of the membrane skeleton from other drosophila epithelia. Exp Cell Res. 2001;270:176-87 pubmed
    ..been shown that, in various Drosophila epithelia, the membrane skeleton components ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin reside at the lateral surface, whereas alphabeta(H)-spectrin is restricted to the apical domain...
  64. Tjota M, Lee S, Wu J, Williams J, Khanna M, Thomas G. Annexin B9 binds to ?(H)-spectrin and is required for multivesicular body function in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2914-26 pubmed publisher
    ..a relationship between the small Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding protein Annexin B9 (AnxB9), apical ?(Heavy)-spectrin (?(H)) and the multivesicular body (MVB) in Drosophila...
  65. Broadie K, Richmond J. Establishing and sculpting the synapse in Drosophila and C. elegans. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:491-8 pubmed
    ..Glutamate acts as a negative regulator of its cognate postsynaptic receptor to sculpt receptor field size. Finally, protein translation and degradation regulation emerge as possible key regulators of synaptic efficacy. ..
  66. Lee D, Harris T. Coordinating the cytoskeleton and endocytosis for regulated plasma membrane growth in the early Drosophila embryo. Bioarchitecture. 2014;4:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, it provides a model for understanding how cytoskeletal-endocytic cross-talk regulates the assembly of a cell. ..
  67. Lin H, Spradling A. A novel group of pumilio mutations affects the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 1997;124:2463-76 pubmed
    ..We have also identified a second and novel gene, piwi, whose mutations abolish germline stem cell division. ..
  68. Knust E. Control of epithelial cell shape and polarity. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:471-5 pubmed
    ..largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane-associated cell cortex---a dense network comprising spectrin and other related proteins...
  69. Wodarz A. Establishing cell polarity in development. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E39-44 pubmed
    ..There is growing evidence that the proteins encoded by these genes interact with key regulators of both the actin and the microtubule cytoskeletons. ..