Gene Symbol: bcd
Description: bicoid
Alias: BCD, BG:DS00276.7, Bcd, Bicoid, CG1034, Dmel\CG1034, bic, mum, prd4, bicoid, CG1034-PA, CG1034-PD, CG1034-PE, CG1034-PF, CG1034-PG, PRD gene 4, bcd-PA, bcd-PD, bcd-PE, bcd-PF, bcd-PG, multimorph
Species: fruit fly
Products:     bcd

Top Publications

  1. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  2. Patel N, Lall S. Precision patterning. Nature. 2002;415:748-9 pubmed
  3. Coppey M, Berezhkovskii A, Kim Y, Boettiger A, Shvartsman S. Modeling the bicoid gradient: diffusion and reversible nuclear trapping of a stable protein. Dev Biol. 2007;312:623-30 pubmed
    The Bicoid gradient in the Drosophila embryo provided the first example of a morphogen gradient studied at the molecular level...
  4. He F, Ren J, Wang W, Ma J. A multiscale investigation of bicoid-dependent transcriptional events in Drosophila embryos. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19122 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, it remains controversial whether the Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd) plays a transient or sustained role in activating its target genes to establish sharp expression boundaries ..
  5. Fu D, Wen Y, Ma J. The co-activator CREB-binding protein participates in enhancer-dependent activities of bicoid. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48725-33 pubmed
    b>Bicoid (Bcd) is a transcriptional activator required for early embryonic patterning in Drosophila...
  6. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
    The Bicoid (Bcd) transcription factor is distributed as a long-range concentration gradient along the anterior posterior (AP) axis of the Drosophila embryo...
  7. Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature. 2001;414:611-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that Egl and BicD are core components of a selective dynein motor complex that drives transcript localization in a variety of tissues. ..
  8. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000303 pubmed publisher
    ..The result confirms the idea that attractors are important for developmental stability and shows a richer variety of dynamical attractors in developmental systems than has been previously recognized...
  9. Mace D, Varnado N, Zhang W, Frise E, Ohler U. Extraction and comparison of gene expression patterns from 2D RNA in situ hybridization images. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genome.duke.edu/generegulation/image_analysis/insitu uwe.ohler@duke.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhao C, York A, Yang F, Forsthoefel D, Dave V, Fu D, et al. The activity of the Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid is inhibited by a domain located outside its homeodomain. Development. 2002;129:1669-80 pubmed
    The Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd) is a homeodomain-containing activator that stimulates the expression of target genes during early embryonic development...
  2. Negre B, Casillas S, Suzanne M, Sánchez Herrero E, Akam M, Nefedov M, et al. Conservation of regulatory sequences and gene expression patterns in the disintegrating Drosophila Hox gene complex. Genome Res. 2005;15:692-700 pubmed
    ..Rather, the organization of Hox genes is modular, and their clustering seems the result of phylogenetic inertia more than functional necessity. ..
  3. Blankenship J, Backovic S, Sanny J, Weitz O, Zallen J. Multicellular rosette formation links planar cell polarity to tissue morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;11:459-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that the generation of higher-order rosette structures links local cell interactions to global tissue reorganization during morphogenesis. ..
  4. Gregor T, Wieschaus E, McGregor A, Bialek W, Tank D. Stability and nuclear dynamics of the bicoid morphogen gradient. Cell. 2007;130:141-52 pubmed
    ..We characterize, through in vivo optical imaging, the development and stability of the Bicoid morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryos that express a Bicoid-eGFP fusion protein...
  5. Zhu W, Foehr M, Jaynes J, Hanes S. Drosophila SAP18, a member of the Sin3/Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex, interacts with Bicoid and inhibits its activity. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:109-17 pubmed
    b>Bicoid directs anterior development in Drosophila embryos by activating different genes along the anterior-posterior axis. However, its activity is down-regulated at the anterior tip of the embryo, in a process known as retraction...
  6. Kulkarni M, Arnosti D. cis-regulatory logic of short-range transcriptional repression in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3411-20 pubmed
    ..This cis-regulatory "grammar" may aid the identification of enhancers regulated by short-range repressors and facilitate bioinformatic prediction of the functional output of transcriptional regulatory sequences. ..
  7. Gregor T, Bialek W, de Ruyter van Steveninck R, Tank D, Wieschaus E. Diffusion and scaling during early embryonic pattern formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18403-7 pubmed
    ..In the Drosophila embryo, Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen controls cell fate along 70% of the anteroposterior axis but is translated from mRNA localized at ..
  8. Lucchetta E, Vincent M, Ismagilov R. A precise Bicoid gradient is nonessential during cycles 11-13 for precise patterning in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3651 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of the morphogen Bicoid and its profound effect on developmental programming in the Drosophila embryo has been a cornerstone in ..
  9. Dilão R, Muraro D. mRNA diffusion explains protein gradients in Drosophila early development. J Theor Biol. 2010;264:847-53 pubmed publisher
    We propose a new model describing the production and the establishment of the stable gradient of the Bicoid protein along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo of Drosophila...
  10. Janody F, Sturny R, Catala F, Desplan C, Dostatni N. Phosphorylation of bicoid on MAP-kinase sites: contribution to its interaction with the torso pathway. Development. 2000;127:279-89 pubmed
    The Torso signal transduction pathway exhibits two opposite effects on the activity of the Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen: (i) Bcd function is repressed by Torso (Tor) at the anterior pole of the embryo leading to a retraction of the expression ..
  11. MacArthur S, Brookfield J. Expected rates and modes of evolution of enhancer sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1064-73 pubmed
    ..One result of this is that any incremental selective benefits that result from the relative positioning of sites have a surprisingly small impact on the final binding-site positions. ..
  12. Januschke J, Gervais L, Gillet L, Keryer G, Bornens M, Guichet A. The centrosome-nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2006;133:129-39 pubmed
    Molecular motors transport the axis-determining mRNAs oskar, bicoid and gurken along microtubules (MTs) in the Drosophila oocyte. However, it remains unclear how the underlying MT network is organized and how this transport takes place...
  13. Peel A, Chipman A, Akam M. Arthropod segmentation: beyond the Drosophila paradigm. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:905-16 pubmed
    ..A model is emerging, although slowly, for the way that arthropod segmentation mechanisms have evolved. ..
  14. Holloway D, Lopes F, da Fontoura Costa L, Travençolo B, Golyandina N, Usevich K, et al. Gene expression noise in spatial patterning: hunchback promoter structure affects noise amplitude and distribution in Drosophila segmentation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1001069 pubmed publisher
    ..of the hunchback (hb) gene in early fruit fly (Drosophila) segmentation by the maternally-derived gradient of the Bicoid (Bcd) protein. Gene regulation is subject to intrinsic noise which can produce variable expression...
  15. Little S, Tkacik G, Kneeland T, Wieschaus E, Gregor T. The formation of the Bicoid morphogen gradient requires protein movement from anteriorly localized mRNA. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000596 pubmed publisher
    The Bicoid morphogen gradient directs the patterning of cell fates along the anterior-posterior axis of the syncytial Drosophila embryo and serves as a paradigm of morphogen-mediated patterning...
  16. Xu Z, Chen H, Ling J, Yu D, Struffi P, Small S. Impacts of the ubiquitous factor Zelda on Bicoid-dependent DNA binding and transcription in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2014;28:608-21 pubmed publisher
    In vivo cross-linking studies suggest that the Drosophila transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) binds to several thousand sites during early embryogenesis, but it is not clear how many of these binding events are functionally important...
  17. Spirov A, Holloway D. Making the body plan: precision in the genetic hierarchy of Drosophila embryo segmentation. In Silico Biol. 2003;3:89-100 pubmed
    ..members of the first three levels of a signalling hierarchy which determines the segmented body plan: maternal (Bicoid protein); gap (Hunchback protein); and pair-rule (Even-skipped protein)...
  18. Crauk O, Dostatni N. Bicoid determines sharp and precise target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1888-98 pubmed
    The activity of the Bicoid (Bcd) transcription factor is a useful example of how quantitative information contained in a smooth morphogen gradient is transformed into discrete and precise patterns of target gene expression...
  19. He X, Samee M, Blatti C, Sinha S. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation by enhancers: the roles of synergistic activation, cooperative binding and short-range repression. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Our implementation of the model, called GEMSTAT, is the first publicly available program for simultaneously modeling the regulatory activities of a given set of sequences. ..
  20. Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Two new roles for the Drosophila AP patterning system in early morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5129-38 pubmed
    ..These domains are established under the control of the AP patterning system and require bicoid activity...
  21. Zinzen R, Papatsenko D. Enhancer responses to similarly distributed antagonistic gradients in development. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e84 pubmed
  22. Weil T, Parton R, Davis I, Gavis E. Changes in bicoid mRNA anchoring highlight conserved mechanisms during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1055-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior...
  23. Marco A, Konikoff C, Karr T, Kumar S. Relationship between gene co-expression and sharing of transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2473-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in light of reverse engineering approaches to computationally predict regulatory sequences by using comparative genomics. ..
  24. Fomekong Nanfack Y, Postma M, Kaandorp J. Inferring Drosophila gap gene regulatory network: a parameter sensitivity and perturbation analysis. BMC Syst Biol. 2009;3:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that multi-objective optimization based on robustness and sensitivity analysis has to be considered. ..
  25. He X, Chen C, Hong F, Fang F, Sinha S, Ng H, et al. A biophysical model for analysis of transcription factor interaction and binding site arrangement from genome-wide binding data. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8155 pubmed publisher
    ..STAP is an effective method to analyze binding site arrangements, TF cooperativity, and TF target genes from genome-wide TF-DNA binding data. ..
  26. Liu J, He F, Ma J. Morphogen gradient formation and action: insights from studying Bicoid protein degradation. Fly (Austin). 2011;5:242-6 pubmed
    ..publication, we identified a novel F-box protein, encoded by fates-shifted (fsd), that plays a role in targeting Bcd for ubiquitination and degradation...
  27. Wagner C, Palacios I, Jaeger L, St Johnston D, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, et al. Dimerization of the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA involves a two-step mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2001;313:511-24 pubmed
    The proper localization of bicoid (bcd) mRNA requires cis-acting signals within its 3' untranslated region (UTR) and trans-acting factors such as Staufen...
  28. Yucel G, Small S. Morphogens: precise outputs from a variable gradient. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R29-31 pubmed
    ..Several recent papers examine the patterning activities of Drosophila Bicoid, the first known molecular morphogen and reach different conclusions about the patterning power of a single ..
  29. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. ..
  30. Lopes F, Vieira F, Holloway D, Bisch P, Spirov A. Spatial bistability generates hunchback expression sharpness in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000184 pubmed publisher
    ..of the hunchback (hb) gene at midembryo, in response to local concentrations of the smooth anterior-posterior Bicoid (Bcd) gradient...
  31. Okabe Oho Y, Murakami H, Oho S, Sasai M. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000486 pubmed publisher
    ..have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial ..
  32. Singh N, Zhu W, Hanes S. Sap18 is required for the maternal gene bicoid to direct anterior patterning in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2005;278:242-54 pubmed
    Development of the insect head is a complex process that in Drosophila requires the anterior determinant, Bicoid. Bicoid is present in an anterior-to-posterior concentration gradient, and binds DNA and stimulates transcription of head-..
  33. Tkacik G, Callan C, Bialek W. Information flow and optimization in transcriptional regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..to a single TF, we find that these predictions are in surprisingly good agreement with recent experiments on the Bicoid/Hunchback system in the early Drosophila embryo and that this system achieves approximately 90% of its theoretical ..
  34. Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J. Efficient reverse-engineering of a developmental gene regulatory network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002589 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to discover whether there are rules or regularities governing development and evolution of complex multi-cellular organisms. ..
  35. Barker M, Demuth J, Wade M. Maternal expression relaxes constraint on innovation of the anterior determinant, bicoid. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e57 pubmed publisher
    ..of anterior patterning during embryogenesis is a major developmental innovation and the rapidly evolving Hox gene, bicoid (bcd), plays a critical role...
  36. Morishita Y, Iwasa Y. Accuracy of positional information provided by multiple morphogen gradients with correlated noise. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2009;79:061905 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the theory by analyzing experimental data for the gradients of two diffusive chemicals, Bicoid and Caudal, in the early development of Drosophila embryo...
  37. Umulis D, Shimmi O, O Connor M, Othmer H. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via bone morphogenetic proteins. Dev Cell. 2010;18:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a three-dimensional model provides significant insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. ..
  38. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system...
  39. Kim J, He X, Sinha S. Evolution of regulatory sequences in 12 Drosophila species. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000330 pubmed publisher
  40. He F, Saunders T, Wen Y, Cheung D, Jiao R, ten Wolde P, et al. Shaping a morphogen gradient for positional precision. Biophys J. 2010;99:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we compare the positional precision provided by the Drosophila morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd) in wild-type (wt) embryos with embryos lacking an interacting cofactor...
  41. Grimm O, Wieschaus E. The Bicoid gradient is shaped independently of nuclei. Development. 2010;137:2857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have addressed the role of the increasing number of nuclei during the formation of the Bicoid gradient in embryos of Drosophila melanogaster...
  42. Hartmann B, Reichert H, Walldorf U. Interaction of gap genes in the Drosophila head: tailless regulates expression of empty spiracles in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;109:161-72 pubmed
    ..the ems-enhancer which is sufficient to drive expression in the head and brain and which contains two TLL and two BCD binding sites...
  43. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  44. Lebrecht D, Foehr M, Smith E, Lopes F, Vanario Alonso C, Reinitz J, et al. Bicoid cooperative DNA binding is critical for embryonic patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13176-81 pubmed
    ..Here, we tested the importance of cooperative DNA binding by the Bicoid protein in establishing a pattern along the anterior-posterior axis of the early Drosophila embryo...
  45. Alves F, Dilão R. Modeling segmental patterning in Drosophila: Maternal and gap genes. J Theor Biol. 2006;241:342-59 pubmed
    ..organization of the embryo is determined by three main factors: (1) the initial positioning of the maternal bicoid and torso mRNA inside the egg, and subsequent diffusion of the corresponding proteins; (2) the structure of the ..
  46. Janssens H, Hou S, Jaeger J, Kim A, Myasnikova E, Sharp D, et al. Quantitative and predictive model of transcriptional control of the Drosophila melanogaster even skipped gene. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1159-65 pubmed
    ..It also shows that the nonclassical expression of stripe 7 driven by this fragment is activated by the protein Caudal (Cad), and repressed by the proteins Tailless (Tll) and Giant (Gt). ..
  47. Gregor T, McGregor A, Wieschaus E. Shape and function of the Bicoid morphogen gradient in dipteran species with different sized embryos. Dev Biol. 2008;316:350-8 pubmed publisher
    The Bicoid morphogen evolved approximately 150 MYA from a Hox3 duplication and is only found in higher dipterans. A major difference between dipteran species, however, is the size of the embryo, which varies up to 5-fold...
  48. Lusk R, Eisen M. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher
    ..Overlapping sites, such as those frequently observed for the activator Bicoid and repressor Krüppel, had significantly longer evolutionary half-lives than isolated sites for the same factors...
  49. Harrison M, Li X, Kaplan T, Botchan M, Eisen M. Zelda binding in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo marks regions subsequently activated at the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002266 pubmed publisher
    ..This strong early association of ZLD with regions not active until the MZT suggests that ZLD is not only required for the earliest wave of transcription but also plays a major role in activating the genome at the MZT. ..
  50. Krauss J, López de Quinto S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Ephrussi A. Myosin-V regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that a balance of microtubule- and actin-based motor activities regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  51. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  52. Papatsenko D, Makeev V, Lifanov A, Regnier M, Nazina A, Desplan C. Extraction of functional binding sites from unique regulatory regions: the Drosophila early developmental enhancers. Genome Res. 2002;12:470-81 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. ..
  53. Sigaut L, Pearson J, Colman Lerner A, Ponce Dawson S. Messages do diffuse faster than messengers: reconciling disparate estimates of the morphogen bicoid diffusion coefficient. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014;10:e1003629 pubmed publisher
    The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos...
  54. He X, Duque T, Sinha S. Evolutionary origins of transcription factor binding site clusters. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative framework we develop here can be used more generally to understand how mechanisms of enhancer action influence their composition and evolution. ..
  55. Dubuis J, Tkacik G, Wieschaus E, Gregor T, Bialek W. Positional information, in bits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. ..
  56. Zhao C, Fu D, Dave V, Ma J. A composite motif of the Drosophila morphogenetic protein bicoid critical to transcription control. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43901-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Bicoid is a molecular morphogen-controlling embryonic patterning in Drosophila. It is a homeodomain-containing protein that activates specific target genes during early embryogenesis...
  57. Wratten N, McGregor A, Shaw P, Dover G. Evolutionary and functional analysis of the tailless enhancer in Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Evol Dev. 2006;8:6-15 pubmed
    ..we find that these highly diverged enhancer sequences encode the same regulatory information necessary for Bicoid, Dorsal, and the terminal system to drive tll expression...
  58. Papatsenko D, Goltsev Y, Levine M. Organization of developmental enhancers in the Drosophila embryo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Linked binding sites are observed for particular combinations of binding motifs, including Bicoid-Bicoid, Hunchback-Hunchback, Bicoid-Dorsal, Bicoid-Caudal and Dorsal-Twist...
  59. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  60. Liu J, Ma J. Drosophila Bicoid is a substrate of sumoylation and its activator function is subject to inhibition by this post-translational modification. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1719-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Bicoid (Bcd) is a Drosophila morphogenetic protein and a transcriptional activator...
  61. Petkova M, Little S, Liu F, Gregor T. Maternal origins of developmental reproducibility. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue in the early Drosophila embryo, we sought to count individual maternally deposited bicoid mRNA molecules and compare variability between embryos with previously observed fluctuations in the Bicoid protein ..
  62. Fu D, Ma J. Interplay between positive and negative activities that influence the role of Bicoid in transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3985-93 pubmed
    The Drosophila mophogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd) can activate transcription in a concentration-dependent manner in embryos. It contains a self-inhibitory domain that can interact with the co-repressor Sin3A...
  63. Papatsenko D, Levine M. The Drosophila gap gene network is composed of two parallel toggle switches. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21145 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified model solutions (parameter combinations) reproduced major dynamic features of the gap gradient system and explained gap expression in a variety of segmentation mutants. ..
  64. Gervais L, Claret S, Januschke J, Roth S, Guichet A. PIP5K-dependent production of PIP2 sustains microtubule organization to establish polarized transport in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2008;135:3829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..to sustain the organization of microtubules and actin cytoskeleton required for the asymmetric transport of oskar, bicoid and gurken mRNAs and thereby controls the establishment of cell polarity...
  65. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  66. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Simões S, Röper J, Eaton S, Zallen J. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation. ..
  67. Kim Y, Coppey M, Grossman R, Ajuria L, Jiménez G, Paroush Z, et al. MAPK substrate competition integrates patterning signals in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2010;20:446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We establish that downregulation of Cic is antagonized by the anterior patterning morphogen Bicoid (Bcd)...
  68. Deng J, Wang W, Lu L, Ma J. A two-dimensional simulation model of the bicoid gradient in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10275 pubmed publisher
    b>Bicoid (Bcd) is a Drosophila morphogenetic protein responsible for patterning the anterior structures in embryos...
  69. Garcia H, Tikhonov M, Lin A, Gregor T. Quantitative imaging of transcription in living Drosophila embryos links polymerase activity to patterning. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, developmental patterns are not just the consequence of reproducible transcriptional dynamics in individual nuclei, but are the result of averaging expression over space and time. ..
  70. Costas J, Casares F, Vieira J. Turnover of binding sites for transcription factors involved in early Drosophila development. Gene. 2003;310:215-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we detected a significant decrease in mean PWM scores for the D. virilis binding sites in the case of Hunchback. Possible explanations for this fact are discussed. ..
  71. Bergmann S, Sandler O, Sberro H, Shnider S, Schejter E, Shilo B, et al. Pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e46 pubmed
    ..Here we consider the implications of pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient for patterning of the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo...
  72. Hecht I, Rappel W, Levine H. Determining the scale of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1710-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Bicoid is a morphogen that sets up the anterior-posterior axis in early Drosophila embryos...
  73. Snee M, Macdonald P. Bicaudal C and trailer hitch have similar roles in gurken mRNA localization and cytoskeletal organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:434-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The cages sequester Gurken protein, blocking its secretion and thus interfering with signaling of the follicle cells to specify dorsal fate. ..
  74. Drocco J, Wieschaus E, Tank D. The synthesis-diffusion-degradation model explains Bicoid gradient formation in unfertilized eggs. Phys Biol. 2012;9:055004 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthesis-diffusion-degradation (SDD) model is a relatively simple model explaining the formation of the Bicoid gradient in Drosophila melanogaster, in which the steady-state characteristic length of the gradient is determined ..
  75. McDermott S, Meignin C, Rappsilber J, Davis I. Drosophila Syncrip binds the gurken mRNA localisation signal and regulates localised transcripts during axis specification. Biol Open. 2012;1:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Drosophila Syncrip binds specifically to gurken and oskar, but not bicoid transcripts...
  76. Janssens H, Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Surkova S, Lim C, et al. Lack of tailless leads to an increase in expression variability in Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2013;377:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis provides evidence that loss of canalisation in mutants could be more widespread than previously thought. ..
  77. Kim A, Martinez C, Ionides J, Ramos A, Ludwig M, Ogawa N, et al. Rearrangements of 2.5 kilobases of noncoding DNA from the Drosophila even-skipped locus define predictive rules of genomic cis-regulatory logic. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003243 pubmed publisher
  78. Zhu W, Hanes S. Identification of drosophila bicoid-interacting proteins using a custom two-hybrid selection. Gene. 2000;245:329-39 pubmed
    b>Bicoid directs pattern formation in the developing Drosophila embryo, and does so by performing two seemingly unrelated tasks; it activates transcription and represses translation...
  79. Martin S, St Johnston D. A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior-posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity. Nature. 2003;421:379-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, Drosophila and human LKB1 may be functional homologues, suggesting that loss of cell polarity may contribute to tumour formation in individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome...
  80. Liu J, Ma J. Uncovering a dynamic feature of the transcriptional regulatory network for anterior-posterior patterning in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62641 pubmed publisher
    Anterior-posterior (AP) patterning in the Drosophila embryo is dependent on the Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient...
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