bab1

Summary

Gene Symbol: bab1
Description: bric a brac 1
Alias: BAB, BAB-1, BAB1, Bab1, CG13910, CG9097, Dmel\CG9097, anon-WO0118547.639, bab, bab-I, bric-a-brac, bric a brac 1, Bric-a-brac, CG9097-PB, CG9097-PC, CG9097-PD, CG9097-PE, bab1-PB, bab1-PC, bab1-PD, bab1-PE, bric a brac, bric a brac I, bric a brac1, bric-a-brac 1, bric-a-brac1
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cummins M, Pueyo J, Greig S, Couso J. Comparative analysis of leg and antenna development in wild-type and homeotic Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:319-27 pubmed
    ..The partial conservation of pattern-forming genes in both appendages ensures a predictable re-specification of positional clues, producing the observed positional specificity of homeotic transformations. ..
  2. Weber U, Siegel V, Mlodzik M. pipsqueak encodes a novel nuclear protein required downstream of seven-up for the development of photoreceptors R3 and R4. EMBO J. 1995;14:6247-57 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, all viable alleles with a maternal posterior group phenotype cluster around one specific 5' exon, while all semilethal alleles have lesions which map to a different alternative 5' exon. ..
  3. Pointud J, Larsson J, Dastugue B, Couderc J. The BTB/POZ domain of the regulatory proteins Bric à brac 1 (BAB1) and Bric à brac 2 (BAB2) interacts with the novel Drosophila TAF(II) factor BIP2/dTAF(II)155. Dev Biol. 2001;237:368-80 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila BTB/POZ proteins Bric à brac 1 (BAB1) and Bric à brac 2 (BAB2) are developmentally regulated transcription factors which are involved in pattern ..
  4. Lours C, Bardot O, Godt D, Laski F, Couderc J. The Drosophila melanogaster BTB proteins bric à brac bind DNA through a composite DNA binding domain containing a pipsqueak and an AT-Hook motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:5389-98 pubmed
    The bric à brac (bab) locus is composed of two paralogous genes, bab1 and bab2, in Drosophila melanogaster...
  5. Godt D, Laski F. Mechanisms of cell rearrangement and cell recruitment in Drosophila ovary morphogenesis and the requirement of bric à brac. Development. 1995;121:173-87 pubmed
    ..Disruption of terminal filament formation, together with defects of basal and interfollicular stalk development, leads to disruption of ovariole formation and female sterility in bric à brac mutants. ..
  6. Bickel R, Kopp A, Nuzhdin S. Composite effects of polymorphisms near multiple regulatory elements create a major-effect QTL. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001275 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important design and conceptual implications for basic and medical genomics. ..
  7. Cabrera G, Godt D, Fang P, Couderc J, Laski F. Expression pattern of Gal4 enhancer trap insertions into the bric à brac locus generated by P element replacement. Genesis. 2002;34:62-5 pubmed
  8. Jeong S, Rokas A, Carroll S. Regulation of body pigmentation by the Abdominal-B Hox protein and its gain and loss in Drosophila evolution. Cell. 2006;125:1387-99 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate how Hox regulation of traits and target genes is gained and lost at the species level and have general implications for the evolution of body form at higher taxonomic levels. ..
  9. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
    ..the activities of well-known signaling molecules (FGF, Wnt and TGF beta proteins) and transcription factors (BAB and DAC) to direct various sex-specific aspects of growth and differentiation...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Godt D, Couderc J, Cramton S, Laski F. Pattern formation in the limbs of Drosophila: bric à brac is expressed in both a gradient and a wave-like pattern and is required for specification and proper segmentation of the tarsus. Development. 1993;119:799-812 pubmed
    ..The graded requirement for bric à brac correlates with its graded expression pattern, suggesting that the concentration of BRIC A BRAC protein specifies segment identity in the tarsus.
  2. Chen J, Godt D, Gunsalus K, Kiss I, Goldberg M, Laski F. Cofilin/ADF is required for cell motility during Drosophila ovary development and oogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:204-9 pubmed
    ..It is also required for the migration of border cells during oogenesis. These results show that cofilin/ADF is an important regulator of actin-based cell motility during Drosophila development. ..
  3. Chu J, Dong P, Panganiban G. Limb type-specific regulation of bric a brac contributes to morphological diversity. Development. 2002;129:695-704 pubmed
    ..We propose that this is due in part to the variations in the regulation of bric a brac. bric a brac is required for joint formation, and loss of bric a brac function leads to fusion of distal ..
  4. Couderc J, Godt D, Zollman S, Chen J, Li M, Tiong S, et al. The bric à brac locus consists of two paralogous genes encoding BTB/POZ domain proteins and acts as a homeotic and morphogenetic regulator of imaginal development in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:2419-33 pubmed
    ..It consists of two structurally and functionally related genes, bab1 and bab2, each of which encodes a single nuclear protein...
  5. Bickel R, Schackwitz W, Pennacchio L, Nuzhdin S, Kopp A. Contrasting patterns of sequence evolution at the functionally redundant bric à brac paralogs in Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..This locus is composed of two anciently duplicated paralogs, bab1 and bab2, which are involved in patterning the adult abdomen, legs, and ovaries...
  6. Bolivar J, Pearson J, López Onieva L, González Reyes A. Genetic dissection of a stem cell niche: the case of the Drosophila ovary. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2969-79 pubmed
    ..We have generated a bric-a-brac 1 (bab1)-Gal4 line that drives UAS expression in many somatic ovary cell types from early larval stages...
  7. Gibert J, Peronnet F, Schlotterer C. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila pigmentation caused by temperature sensitivity of a chromatin regulator network. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e30 pubmed
    ..by modulating a chromatin regulator network, interacting genetically with the transcription factor bric-à-brac (bab), a target of Abd-B and Hsp83, encoding the chaperone Hsp90...
  8. Kopp A, Graze R, Xu S, Carroll S, Nuzhdin S. Quantitative trait loci responsible for variation in sexually dimorphic traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;163:771-87 pubmed
    ..melanogaster. Using quantitative complementation tests, we demonstrate that this QTL is allelic to the bric a brac gene, whose expression has previously been shown to correlate with interspecific differences in pigmentation...
  9. Sahut Barnola I, Godt D, Laski F, Couderc J. Drosophila ovary morphogenesis: analysis of terminal filament formation and identification of a gene required for this process. Dev Biol. 1995;170:127-35 pubmed
  10. Gibert J, Karch F, Schlotterer C. Segregating variation in the polycomb group gene cramped alters the effect of temperature on multiple traits. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001280 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, traits modulated by crm natural variants can differ markedly between Drosophila species, suggesting that temperature adaptation facilitates their evolution. ..
  11. Bonchuk A, Denisov S, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O. Drosophila BTB/POZ domains of "ttk group" can form multimers and selectively interact with each other. J Mol Biol. 2011;412:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, experiments in the Drosophila model system have not supported the role of GAF in organization of long-distance interaction between the yeast GAL4 activator and the white promoter. ..
  12. Rojas Ríos P, Guerrero I, González Reyes A. Cytoneme-mediated delivery of hedgehog regulates the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins to maintain germline stem cells in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001298 pubmed publisher
  13. Williams T, Selegue J, Werner T, Gompel N, Kopp A, Carroll S. The regulation and evolution of a genetic switch controlling sexually dimorphic traits in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;134:610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..male-specific abdominal pigmentation of Drosophila melanogaster, which is repressed in females by the Bric-à-brac (Bab) proteins...
  14. Guo Z, Wang Z. The glypican Dally is required in the niche for the maintenance of germline stem cells and short-range BMP signaling in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2009;136:3627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Dally ensures high-level BMP signaling in the ovarian niche and thus female GSC determination. ..
  15. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  16. Duncan D, Burgess E, Duncan I. Control of distal antennal identity and tarsal development in Drosophila by spineless-aristapedia, a homolog of the mammalian dioxin receptor. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1290-303 pubmed
    ..In the tarsus, ss is expressed only early, and is required for later expression of the tarsal gene bric à brac (bab)...
  17. Galindo M, Couso J. Intercalation of cell fates during tarsal development in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2000;22:777-80 pubmed
  18. St Pierre S, Galindo M, Couso J, Thor S. Control of Drosophila imaginal disc development by rotund and roughened eye: differentially expressed transcripts of the same gene encoding functionally distinct zinc finger proteins. Development. 2002;129:1273-81 pubmed
    ..rotund and roughened eye act downstream of early patterning genes such as dachshund and appear to be involved in Notch signaling by regulating Delta, scabrous and SERRATE: ..
  19. Faucheux M, Roignant J, Netter S, Charollais J, Antoniewski C, Theodore L. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1181-95 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. ..
  20. Couso J, Bishop S. Proximo-distal development in the legs of Drosophila. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:345-52 pubmed
    ..The data suggest a process of regionalization and progressive subdivision of an anlage similar to both insect embryonic segmentation and vertebrate somitogenesis. ..
  21. Bardot O, Godt D, Laski F, Couderc J. Expressing UAS-bab1 and UAS-bab2: a comparative study of gain-of-function effects and the potential to rescue the bric à brac mutant phenotype. Genesis. 2002;34:66-70 pubmed
  22. Randsholt N, Santamaria P. How Drosophila change their combs: the Hox gene Sex combs reduced and sex comb variation among Sophophora species. Evol Dev. 2008;10:121-33 pubmed publisher
  23. Zollman S, Godt D, Prive G, Couderc J, Laski F. The BTB domain, found primarily in zinc finger proteins, defines an evolutionarily conserved family that includes several developmentally regulated genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10717-21 pubmed
    ..The BTB domain defines a gene family with an estimated 40 members in Drosophila. This domain is found primarily at the N terminus of zinc finger proteins and is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  24. Kopp A, Duncan I, Godt D, Carroll S. Genetic control and evolution of sexually dimorphic characters in Drosophila. Nature. 2000;408:553-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that these traits are controlled by the bric à brac [corrected] (bab) gene, which integrates regulatory inputs from the homeotic and sex-determination pathways...
  25. Galindo M, Bishop S, Greig S, Couso J. Leg patterning driven by proximal-distal interactions and EGFR signaling. Science. 2002;297:256-9 pubmed
    ..Our results uncover a mechanism for appendage patterning directed by genes expressed in proximal-distal domains and possibly conserved in other arthropods and vertebrates. ..
  26. Santamaria P. Genesis versus epigenesis: the odd jobs of the Polycomb group of genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:463-9 pubmed
    ..I argue that spatial modulation of the multimeric complexes formed by PcG products has played a role or escorted the genesis of species. ..
  27. Galindo M, Bishop S, Couso J. Dynamic EGFR-Ras signalling in Drosophila leg development. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1496-508 pubmed
    ..This second wave relies on a ligand activated by Rhomboid. ..
  28. Ebacher D, Todi S, Eberl D, Boekhoff Falk G. Cut mutant Drosophila auditory organs differentiate abnormally and degenerate. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:86-94 pubmed
    ..We speculate that Cut functions in conjunction with these factors to regulate transcription of as yet unidentified targets...
  29. True J, Kopp A, Carroll S. Prophenoloxidase as a reporter of gene expression in Drosophila. Biotechniques. 2001;30:1004-6, 1008-9 pubmed
  30. Salomone J, Rogers W, Rebeiz M, Williams T. The evolution of Bab paralog expression and abdominal pigmentation among Sophophora fruit fly species. Evol Dev. 2013;15:442-57 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster, dimorphic pigmentation is controlled by the dimorphic expression of the paralogous Bab1 and Bab2 transcription factors that repress pigmentation...
  31. Zarkower D. Establishing sexual dimorphism: conservation amidst diversity?. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:175-85 pubmed
    ..Studies of sex-determining mechanisms are beginning to reveal how sexual dimorphism arises and evolves. ..
  32. Li Q, Barish S, Okuwa S, Maciejewski A, Brandt A, Reinhold D, et al. A Functionally Conserved Gene Regulatory Network Module Governing Olfactory Neuron Diversity. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005780 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Rn, along with BarH1/H2 (Bar), Bric-à-brac (Bab), Apterous (Ap) and Dachshund (Dac), constitutes a transcription factor (TF) network that patterns the developing ..
  33. Cavarec L, Jensen S, Casella J, Cristescu S, Heidmann T. Molecular cloning and characterization of a transcription factor for the copia retrotransposon with homology to the BTB-containing lola neurogenic factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:482-94 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, with a repressor effect in the central nervous systems of the embryos...
  34. Bopp D. Merging sex and position. Bioessays. 2001;23:304-6 pubmed
    ..Such intersections may also play an important part in evolution, providing a basis for phenotypic diversity among related species. BioEssays 23:304-306, 2001. ..
  35. Hatini V, Green R, Lengyel J, Bray S, Dinardo S. The Drumstick/Lines/Bowl regulatory pathway links antagonistic Hedgehog and Wingless signaling inputs to epidermal cell differentiation. Genes Dev. 2005;19:709-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, in all these developmental contexts, including the embryonic epidermis, the novel molecular regulatory pathway defined here is deployed in order to elaborate pattern across a field of cells. ..
  36. ROBINETT C, Vaughan A, Knapp J, Baker B. Sex and the single cell. II. There is a time and place for sex. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000365 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus tissue-specific aspects of sexual development are jointly specified by post-transcriptional control by Sxl and by the transcriptional controls of dsx and fru expression. ..
  37. Rogers W, Salomone J, Tacy D, Camino E, Davis K, Rebeiz M, et al. Recurrent modification of a conserved cis-regulatory element underlies fruit fly pigmentation diversity. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003740 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors control the development of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits on the posterior abdomen...
  38. Kim J, Cunningham R, James B, Wyder S, Gibson J, Niehuis O, et al. Functional characterization of transcription factor motifs using cross-species comparison across large evolutionary distances. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000652 pubmed publisher
    ..We also apply the framework to find motifs associated with socially regulated gene sets in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, using comparisons with Nasonia, a solitary species, to identify honeybee-specific associations. ..
  39. Baanannou A, Mojica Vázquez L, Darras G, Couderc J, Cribbs D, Boube M, et al. Drosophila distal-less and Rotund bind a single enhancer ensuring reliable and robust bric-a-brac2 expression in distinct limb morphogenetic fields. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003581 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that accuracy, reliability and robustness of developmental gene expression do not necessarily require cis-regulatory information redundancy. ..
  40. Aplin A, Kaufman T. Homeotic transformation of legs to mouthparts by proboscipedia expression in Drosophila imaginal discs. Mech Dev. 1997;62:51-60 pubmed
  41. Stern D. Evolutionary biology. The problem of variation. Nature. 2000;408:529, 531 pubmed
  42. Shim K, Blake K, Jack J, Krasnow M. The Drosophila ribbon gene encodes a nuclear BTB domain protein that promotes epithelial migration and morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:4923-33 pubmed
    ..We propose that Rib is a key regulator of epithelial morphogenesis that promotes migration and morphogenesis of the tracheal cell bodies and apical surface and other morphogenetic movements. ..
  43. Xia L, Zheng X, Zheng W, Zhang G, Wang H, Tao Y, et al. The niche-dependent feedback loop generates a BMP activity gradient to determine the germline stem cell fate. Curr Biol. 2012;22:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our mathematic modeling reveals a bistable behavior of the feedback-loop system in controlling the bam transcriptional on/off switch and determining GSC fate. ..
  44. Endler L, Betancourt A, Nolte V, Schlötterer C. Reconciling Differences in Pool-GWAS Between Populations: A Case Study of Female Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2016;202:843-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that, in both the European and the South African flies, variants near the tan and bric-à-brac 1 (bab1) genes are most strongly associated with pigmentation...
  45. O Kane C, Gehring W. Detection in situ of genomic regulatory elements in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:9123-7 pubmed
    ..The P-lacZ fusion gene is, therefore, an efficient tool for the recovery of elements that may regulate gene expression in Drosophila and for the generation of a wide variety of cell-type-specific markers. ..
  46. Buratovich M, Bryant P. Enhancement of overgrowth by gene interactions in lethal(2)giant discs imaginal discs from Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1997;147:657-70 pubmed
    ..These results show that tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation, and that tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. ..
  47. Pueyo J, Couso J. Tarsal-less peptides control Notch signalling through the Shavenbaby transcription factor. Dev Biol. 2011;355:183-93 pubmed publisher
  48. Burnette J, Miyamoto Sato E, Schaub M, Conklin J, Lopez A. Subdivision of large introns in Drosophila by recursive splicing at nonexonic elements. Genetics. 2005;170:661-74 pubmed
    ..We discuss currently known and potential roles for recursive splicing. ..
  49. Yamamoto D, Ito H, Fujitani K. Genetic dissection of sexual orientation: behavioral, cellular, and molecular approaches in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurosci Res. 1996;26:95-107 pubmed
    ..Some implications of the results of our study on sexual orientation in other organisms will be discussed based on the Drosophila research. ..
  50. Dembeck L, Huang W, Magwire M, Lawrence F, Lyman R, Mackay T. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005163 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. ..
  51. Panganiban G, Rubenstein J. Developmental functions of the Distal-less/Dlx homeobox genes. Development. 2002;129:4371-86 pubmed
    ..We review what is known about the invertebrate and vertebrate Dll/Dlx genes and their varied roles during development. We propose revising the vertebrate nomenclature to reflect phylogenetic relationships among the Dlx genes. ..
  52. Azpiazu N, Morata G. Distinct functions of homothorax in leg development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;119:55-67 pubmed
    ..We propose that hth/exd function contributes to the normal identity of proximal cells both by limiting the influence of the Dpp and Wg pathways and by activating proximal genes like teashirt (tsh) and aristaless (al). ..
  53. McNeil C, Bain C, Macdonald S. Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Influence the Shape of a Male-Specific Genital Structure in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2011;1:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are good candidates to harbor naturally segregating polymorphisms contributing to posterior lobe shape. ..
  54. Dey B, Zhao X, Popo Ola E, Campos A. Mutual regulation of the Drosophila disconnected (disco) and Distal-less (Dll) genes contributes to proximal-distal patterning of antenna and leg. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:227-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate that disco plays a fundamental role in the Dll-dependent patterning of antenna and leg, perhaps as a regulator of Dll gene expression. ..
  55. Bosch M, Bishop S, Baguña J, Couso J. Leg regeneration in Drosophila abridges the normal developmental program. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Such differences can result from similar developmental gene interactions acting under different starting conditions. ..
  56. Burtis K. Development. Doublesex in the middle. Science. 2002;297:1135-6 pubmed
  57. Corsetti E, Azpiazu N. Functional dissection of the splice variants of the Drosophila gene homothorax (hth). Dev Biol. 2013;384:72-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of the different isoforms probably rely on their distinct protein domains and conformations and, at the end, on interactions with particular partners...
  58. Devi T, Amruthavalli C, Shyamala B. Evolution of sex comb from the primitive bristle pattern in Drosophila is associated with modification in the developmental regulatory protein Dachshund. Genesis. 2013;51:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex combs reduced (Scr), dachshund (dac), and bric-a-brac (bab) gene expression were studied...
  59. Belles X, Santos C. The MEKRE93 (Methoprene tolerant-Krüppel homolog 1-E93) pathway in the regulation of insect metamorphosis, and the homology of the pupal stage. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;52:60-8 pubmed publisher
  60. Mukherjee A, Shan X, Mutsuddi M, Ma Y, Nambu J. The Drosophila sox gene, fish-hook, is required for postembryonic development. Dev Biol. 2000;217:91-106 pubmed
    ..While Sox proteins have been shown to be important for eye and limb formation in vertebrates, these data provide the first evidence for Sox protein functions in appendage development in invertebrates. ..
  61. Bartoletti M, Rubin T, Chalvet F, Netter S, Dos Santos N, Poisot E, et al. Genetic basis for developmental homeostasis of germline stem cell niche number: a network of Tramtrack-Group nuclear BTB factors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49958 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab) locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ..
  62. Hasson P, Egoz N, Winkler C, Volohonsky G, Jia S, Dinur T, et al. EGFR signaling attenuates Groucho-dependent repression to antagonize Notch transcriptional output. Nat Genet. 2005;37:101-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gro is a new junction between signaling pathways, enabling EGFR signaling to antagonize transcriptional output by Notch and potentially other Gro-dependent pathways. ..
  63. Llopart A, Elwyn S, Coyne J. Pigmentation and mate choice in Drosophila. Nature. 2002;419:360; discussion 360 pubmed
    ..Kopp et al. report a correlation in two Drosophila clades between the expression of the bric-à-brac (bab) gene, which represses male-specific pigmentation in D...
  64. Ito H, Fujitani K, Usui K, Shimizu Nishikawa K, Tanaka S, Yamamoto D. Sexual orientation in Drosophila is altered by the satori mutation in the sex-determination gene fruitless that encodes a zinc finger protein with a BTB domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9687-92 pubmed
    ..We suggest that fru functions downstream of tra in the sex-determination cascade in some neural cells and that inappropriate sexual development of these cells in the fru mutants results in altered sexual orientation of the fly. ..