Gene Symbol: b
Description: black
Alias: ADC, BG:DS00941.5, CG7811, DGad2, DmGad2, Dmel\CG7811, GAD[[2]], Gad2, anon-34Db, cDNA 1, black, Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, CG7811-PA, CG7811-PB, CG7811-PC, Oregon-R glutamate decarboxylase, aspartate 1-decarboxylase, b-PA, b-PB, b-PC, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Roberts P. Screening for x-ray-induced crossover suppressors in Drosophila melanogaster: prevalence and effectiveness of translocations. Genetics. 1970;65:429-48 pubmed
  2. Baier A, Wittek B, Brembs B. Drosophila as a new model organism for the neurobiology of aggression?. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1233-40 pubmed
    ..Serotonin had no effect. We conclude that Drosophila, with its advanced set of molecular tools and its behavioural richness, has the potential to develop into a new model organism for the study of the neurobiology of aggression. ..
  3. Borycz J, Borycz J, Edwards T, Boulianne G, Meinertzhagen I. The metabolism of histamine in the Drosophila optic lobe involves an ommatidial pathway: ?-alanine recycles through the retina. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:1399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutants of black, which lack aspartate decarboxylase, cannot synthesize ?-alanine from l-aspartate but can still synthesize it ..
  4. Phillips A, Smart R, Strauss R, Brembs B, Kelly L. The Drosophila black enigma: the molecular and behavioural characterization of the black1 mutant allele. Gene. 2005;351:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..production, by aspartate decarboxylation, was reported to be normal in assays of black mutants, and although black/Dgad2 is expressed in the lamina, the first optic ganglion, no electroretinogram (ERG) or other visual defect has been ..
  5. Morris D, Dubnau J, Park J, Rawls J. Divergent functions through alternative splicing: the Drosophila CRMP gene in pyrimidine metabolism, brain, and behavior. Genetics. 2012;191:1227-38 pubmed publisher
  6. Simmons A, Rawls J, Piskur J, Davidson J. A mutation that uncouples allosteric regulation of carbamyl phosphate synthetase in Drosophila. J Mol Biol. 1999;287:277-85 pubmed
    ..Suppressor of black (Su(b) or rSu(b)) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster have elevated pyrimidine pools, and this mutation has been ..
  7. Li J, Li W, Gelbart W. A genetic screen for maternal-effect suppressors of decapentaplegic identifies the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A in Drosophila. Genetics. 2005;171:1629-41 pubmed
    ..This result provides an intriguing link between a component of the translation machinery and Dpp signaling. ..
  8. Reuter G, Szidonya J. Cytogenetic analysis of variegation suppressors and a dominant temperature-sensitive lethal in region 23-26 of chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1983;88:277-85 pubmed
    ..A third Minute gene (M(2)S1) is localized in 25C3-8-25C9-D1. The usefulness of the isolated chromosomal rearrangements for further genetic studies of region 23-26 is discussed. ..
  9. Borycz J, Borycz J, Loubani M, Meinertzhagen I. tan and ebony genes regulate a novel pathway for transmitter metabolism at fly photoreceptor terminals. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10549-57 pubmed
    ..beta-alanine biosynthesis is regulated by black. ebony and tan also exert unexplained reciprocal defects in the electroretinogram, at ON and OFF transients ..

More Information


  1. Omel ianchuk L. [A method of obtaining complementary "deletion-duplication" pairs on the posterior arm of Drosophila autosomes]. Genetika. 1991;27:1359-65 pubmed
    ..Unequal exchanges induced in such gametes give deletions and tandem duplications corresponding to the arm. This approach makes it possible to induce deletion without having a marker in the region under study. ..
  2. Stein J, Broihier H, Moore L, Lehmann R. Slow as molasses is required for polarized membrane growth and germ cell migration in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3925-34 pubmed
  3. Nongthomba U, Ramachandra N. A direct screen identifies new flight muscle mutants on the Drosophila second chromosome. Genetics. 1999;153:261-74 pubmed
    ..This mutant screen identifies genes affecting the flight muscles, which are distinct from those identified when screening for flightlessness. ..
  4. Ziegler A, Brüsselbach F, Hovemann B. Activity and coexpression of Drosophila black with ebony in fly optic lobes reveals putative cooperative tasks in vision that evade electroretinographic detection. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:1207-24 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila mutants black and ebony show pigmentation defects in the adult cuticle, which disclose their cooperative activity in ?-alanyl-dopamine formation...
  5. Honti V, Cinege G, Csordás G, Kurucz E, Zsámboki J, Evans C, et al. Variation of NimC1 expression in Drosophila stocks and transgenic strains. Fly (Austin). 2013;7:263-6 pubmed publisher
    ..By means of these procedures or using the recombined stock, NimC1 can be used as a marker for phagocytic cells in the majority of the possible genetic backgrounds. ..
  6. Boyd J, Snyder R, Harris P, Presley J, Boyd S, Smith P. Identification of a second locus in Drosophila melanogaster required for excision repair. Genetics. 1982;100:239-57 pubmed
    ..Mutant cells possess a normal capacity for postreplication repair and the repair of single-strand breaks induced by X-rays. ..
  7. Okada R, Awasaki T, Ito K. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neural connections in the Drosophila antennal lobe. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:74-91 pubmed publisher
    ..cells scattered across the brain express ionotropic GABA(A) receptor subunits (Lcch3 and Rdl) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptor subtypes (GABA-B-R1, -2, and -3)...
  8. Matsumoto A, Motoshige T, Murata T, Tomioka K, Tanimura T, Chiba Y. Chronobiological analysis of a new clock mutant, Toki, in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1994;9:141-55 pubmed
    ..Toki interacts with other clock mutations, pers, perL and And, in such a way that tau s associated with these three X-linked mutations are lengthened and phi values become smaller. ..
  9. Lagisz M, Wen S, Routtu J, Klappert K, Mazzi D, Morales Hojas R, et al. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice. ..
  10. M ller R, Jenny A, Stanley P. The EGF repeat-specific O-GlcNAc-transferase Eogt interacts with notch signaling and pyrimidine metabolism pathways in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62835 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that eogt knock-down in the wing leads to metabolic and signaling perturbations that increase cytosolic uracil levels, thereby causing wing blister formation...
  11. Gubb D, Ashburner M, Roote J, Davis T. A novel transvection phenomenon affecting the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:167-76 pubmed
    ..This effect of rearrangements has been used as the basis for a screen, gamma-ray induced aberrations with at least one breakpoint opposite the TE site were recovered by their suppression of the zeste phenotype. ..
  12. Miglani G, Preet K. Gradual decline of formaldehyde-induced male recombination in successive generations of Drosophila melanogaster. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32:103-5 pubmed
    ..melanogaster for three generations. Among recombinants, al dp was the most and b pr the next most frequent phenotype in the progenies of F1, TC1, TC2 and TC3 males of genotype + /al dp br...
  13. Dernburg A, Daily D, Yook K, Corbin J, Sedat J, Sullivan W. Selective loss of sperm bearing a compound chromosome in the Drosophila female. Genetics. 1996;143:1629-42 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a model of meiotic drive in which aberrations occurring early in meiosis lead ultimately to sperm dysfunction. ..
  14. Hodgetts R. Biochemical characterization of mutants affecting the metabolism of -alanine in Drosophila. J Insect Physiol. 1972;18:937-47 pubmed
  15. Watanabe Y, Takahashi A, Itoh M, Takano Shimizu T. Molecular spectrum of spontaneous de novo mutations in male and female germline cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;181:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The high occurrence of NAHR that we observed has important consequences for genome evolution through the production of segmental duplications. ..
  16. Lakhotia S, Chowdhuri D, Burma P. Mutations affecting beta-alanine metabolism influence inducibility of the 93D puff by heat shock in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1990;99:296-305 pubmed
    Effect of mutations at the ebony or black locus on induction of heat shock puffs in polytene nuclei of salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster larvae were examined by [3H]uridine autoradiography...
  17. Bonfini L, Karlovich C, Dasgupta C, Banerjee U. The Son of sevenless gene product: a putative activator of Ras. Science. 1992;255:603-6 pubmed
    ..These results imply a role for the ras pathway in Drosophila neuronal development. ..
  18. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  19. Bridges C, Skoog E, Li J. Genetical and Cytological Studies of a Deficiency (Notopleural) in the Second Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1936;21:788-95 pubmed
  20. Chang C, Nashchekin D, Wheatley L, Irion U, Dahlgaard K, Montague T, et al. Anterior-posterior axis specification in Drosophila oocytes: identification of novel bicoid and oskar mRNA localization factors. Genetics. 2011;188:883-96 pubmed publisher
  21. Kaminker J, Singh R, Lebestky T, Yan H, Banerjee U. Redundant function of Runt Domain binding partners, Big brother and Brother, during Drosophila development. Development. 2001;128:2639-48 pubmed
    ..These studies highlight a mechanism for transcriptional control by a Runt Domain protein and a redundant pair of partners in the specification of cell fate during development. ..
  22. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. II. Lethal mutations in the region. Genetics. 1979;92:133-49 pubmed
  23. Parker G, Roberts D. AGI, a previously unreported D. melanogaster alpha-glucosidase: partial purification, characterization, and cytogenetic mapping. Biochem Genet. 1996;34:117-31 pubmed
    ..We propose that this enzyme is involved in either starch digestion or glycogen metabolism. ..
  24. O DONNELL J, Mandel H, Krauss M, Sofer W. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;86:553-66 pubmed
    ..If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco) a total of 16 complemetation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. ..
  25. Woodruff R, Ashburner M. The genetics of a small autosomal region of Drosophila melanogaster containing the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of deficiencies and mapping of ADH and visible mutations. Genetics. 1979;92:117-32 pubmed
    ..These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. ..
  26. Jacobs M. Beta-alanine and adaptation in Drosophila. J Insect Physiol. 1974;20:859-66 pubmed
  27. Walter M, Zeineh L, Black B, McIvor W, Wright T, Biessmann H. Catecholamine metabolism and in vitro induction of premature cuticle melanization in wild type and pigmentation mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;31:219-33 pubmed
  28. Chen W, Shih H, Liu K, Liu K, Shih Z, Chen L, et al. Intellectual disability-associated dBRWD3 regulates gene expression through inhibition of HIRA/YEM-mediated chromatin deposition of histone H3.3. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:528-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus establishes a previously unknown negative regulation of H3.3 and advances our understanding of BRWD3-dependent intellectual disability. ..
  29. Nekrasova A, Shakhbazov V. [Characteristics of recombination of heterosis hybrids of Drosophila melanogaster in high temperature conditions]. Genetika. 1990;26:879-85 pubmed
    Spontaneous and high temperature-induced crossing over in regions b-cn and cn-vg of chromosome 2 was studied in Drosophila stocks and hybrids differing in fertility level and heat resistance...
  30. Chanut F, Woo K, Pereira S, Donohoe T, Chang S, Laverty T, et al. Rough eye is a gain-of-function allele of amos that disrupts regulation of the proneural gene atonal during Drosophila retinal differentiation. Genetics. 2002;160:623-35 pubmed
    ..We show that Roi can rescue the retinal developmental defect of ato1 mutants and speculate that amos substitutes for some of ato's function in the eye or activates a residual function of the ato1 allele. ..
  31. O Brien S, MacIntyre R. The -glycerophosphate in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Genetic aspects. Genetics. 1972;71:127-38 pubmed
    ..The levels of mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase, measured in flies genetically deficient in the cytoplasmic enzyme, were normal. ..
  32. Novitski E, Grace D, Strommen C. The entire compound autosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1981;98:257-73 pubmed
    ..These large chromosomes are recovered in progeny with frequencies lower than expectation partly because of zygote mortality associated with these chromosomes, and partly because of a failure of spermiogenesis. ..
  33. Sherald A. Intergenic suppression of the black mutation of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:102-6 pubmed
    ..X-linked, recessive alleles were isolated which suppressed both the pupal and adult coloration phenotypes of the black mutation...
  34. Lindsley D, Sandler L, Baker B, Carpenter A, Denell R, Hall J, et al. Segmental aneuploidy and the genetic gross structure of the Drosophila genome. Genetics. 1972;71:157-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, except for the single triplo-lethal locus, the effects of hyperploidy are much less pronounced than those of the corresponding hypoploidy. ..
  35. Gethmann R. The genetic analysis of a chromosome-specific meiotic mutant that permits a premature separation of sister chromatids in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1984;107:65-77 pubmed
    ..This may indicate either a weak mutant with only the second chromosome being sensitive enough to misbehave or it may indicate that chromosome-specific regions responsible for sister-chromatid cohesion exist. ..
  36. Rizki T, Rizki R, Bellotti R. Genetics of a Drosophila phenoloxidase. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;201:7-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of proenzyme in the paracrystalline inclusions was demonstrated by in situ activation with natural activator or propanol followed by incubation in buffered dopa. ..
  37. Davkova L, Aleksandrova M, Aleksandrov I. [Radiation biology of structurally different drosophila genes. Report IV. The black gene: sequencing of the "point" mutations and recombination mechanisms of their processing]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2013;53:355-66 pubmed
    ..in our large-scale experiments with Drosophila specific five-loci test [1], the radio- mutability of the black gene is unusual at lest in two respects: 1) fission neutrons are strangely more efficient than γ-rays in the ..
  38. Go M, Artavanis Tsakonas S. A genetic screen for novel components of the notch signaling pathway during Drosophila bristle development. Genetics. 1998;150:211-20 pubmed
  39. Liu P, Torrens Spence M, Ding H, Christensen B, Li J. Mechanism of cysteine-dependent inactivation of aspartate/glutamate/cysteine sulfinic acid ?-decarboxylases. Amino Acids. 2013;44:391-404 pubmed publisher
    Animal aspartate decarboxylase (ADC), glutamate decarboxylase (GDC) and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSADC) catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate, glutamate and cysteine sulfinic acid to ?-alanine, ?-aminobutyric acid and ..
  40. Hilliker A, Holm D. Genetic analysis of the proximal region of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Detachment products of compound autosomes. Genetics. 1975;81:705-21 pubmed
    ..The data further demonstrate that rolled, and probably light, are located within the proximal heterochromatin. Thus, functional genetic loci are found in heterochromatin, albeit at low density. ..
  41. Romanova N, Aslanian M, Kim A. [Analysis of spontaneous and ethylmethanesulfonate-induced visible mutations in the genetically unstable MS, w strain of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1996;32:759-66 pubmed
    ..The frequency of induced mutations was estimated in the X chromosome, in five loci of chromosome 2 (b, j, pr, cn, and vg), and in eight loci of chromosome 3 (ru, h, th, st, cu, sr, es, and ca)...
  42. Robin C, Daborn P, Hoffmann A. Fighting fly genes. Trends Genet. 2007;23:51-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the study of aggressive behaviour in flies and explore the possibility that cytochrome P450 is involved in aggression. ..
  43. Chaturvedi R, Reddig K, Li H. Long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling mediated by glial network facilitates visual function in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2812-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Gibert J, Mouchel Vielh E, De Castro S, Peronnet F. Phenotypic Plasticity through Transcriptional Regulation of the Evolutionary Hotspot Gene tan in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006218 pubmed publisher
    ..Sensitivity of t expression to environmental conditions might therefore give more substrate for selection, explaining why this gene has frequently been involved in evolution of pigmentation. ..
  45. Pasyukova E, Roshina N, Mackay T. Shuttle craft: a candidate quantitative trait gene for Drosophila lifespan. Aging Cell. 2004;3:297-307 pubmed
    ..Quantitative genetic analysis of naturally occurring variants with subtle effects on lifespan can identify novel candidate genes and pathways important in the regulation of longevity. ..
  46. Hotta Y, Benzer S. Abnormal electroretinograms in visual mutants of Drosophila. Nature. 1969;222:354-6 pubmed
  47. Iyengar B, Roote J, Campos A. The tamas gene, identified as a mutation that disrupts larval behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, codes for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (DNApol-gamma125). Genetics. 1999;153:1809-24 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of mutant alleles demonstrated that tamas codes for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (DNApol-gamma125). ..
  48. Soanes K, Bell J. Rediscovery and further characterization of the aeroplane (ae) wing posture mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1999;42:403-11 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, a molecular examination revealed that the physical lesion identified in the ae-l mutant is exceptionally close to the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and, indeed, may represent an unusual allele of teashirt. ..
  49. Miglani G, Kaur N. Modification by chloramphenicol of diethyl sulphate-induced male recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster. Indian J Exp Biol. 1995;33:401-7 pubmed
    ..on diethyl sulphate (DES, a potent mutagen) induced male recombination frequency, the F1 (+/aristaless dumpy black cinnabar, al dp b cn) larvae of D...
  50. Szabad J, Erdelyi M, Hoffmann G, Szidonya J, Wright T. Isolation and characterization of dominant female sterile mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Mutations on the second chromosome. Genetics. 1989;122:823-35 pubmed
    ..That most of the Fs(2) may be gain-of-function mutations is indicated by the unusual behavior of the Fs+ germ-line clones and also by the fact that 90% of the could be induced to revert. ..
  51. Hodgetts R, Choi A. Beta alanine and cuticle maturation in Drosophila. Nature. 1974;252:710-1 pubmed
  52. Reuter G, Werner W, Hoffmann H. Mutants affecting position-effect heterochromatinization in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1982;85:539-51 pubmed
    ..It seems also reasonable to assume that in all the rearrangements tested identical heterochromatisation processes lead to inactivation of the genes whose phenotype is variegated. ..
  53. Armstrong N, Ramamoorthy M, Lyon D, Jones K, Duttaroy A. Mechanism of silver nanoparticles action on insect pigmentation reveals intervention of copper homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53186 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we claim that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles. ..
  54. Piskur J, Gojkovic Z, Bahn E. A synthetic combination of mutations, including fs(1)pyrSu(b), rSu(b) and b, causes female sterility and reduces embryonic viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:553-7 pubmed
    A Drosophila melanogaster mutant, fs(1)pyrSu(b), carrying a mutation that maps to the tip of the X chromosome, has been isolated. The mutation, when present alone, does not confer a detectable phenotype...
  55. Liu P, Ding H, Christensen B, Li J. Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase activity of Aedes aegypti aspartate 1-decarboxylase: the structural basis of its substrate selectivity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:396-403 pubmed
    Insect aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of aspartate to β-alanine...
  56. Alexandrov I, Alexandrova M, Afanasyeva K. Interchromosomal gene conversion as a regular mechanism of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in early zygote of Drosophila melanogaster. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2015;460:59-61 pubmed publisher
  57. Umebachi Y, Fukada K, Nishio Y, Tagi Y, Aoki M, Mizuno C, et al. Some chemical properties of the HCl-methanol extract from the puparial cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;101:475-9 pubmed
    1. The HCl-methanol (HCl-MeOH) soluble fraction from the puparial cuticle of yellow, black and ebony of D. melanogaster was hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid and examined for beta-alanine, ketocatechol, and acetic acid. 2...
  58. Whitlock M, Bourguet D. Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components. Evolution. 2000;54:1654-60 pubmed
  59. Pflumm M, Botchan M. Orc mutants arrest in metaphase with abnormally condensed chromosomes. Development. 2001;128:1697-707 pubmed
    ..Thus, cells have a mitotic checkpoint that senses chromosome integrity. These studies also suggest that the density of functional replication origins and completion of S phase are requirements for proper chromosomal condensation. ..
  60. Miyagi R, Akiyama N, Osada N, Takahashi A. Complex patterns of cis-regulatory polymorphisms in ebony underlie standing pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2015;24:5829-41 pubmed publisher
  61. Beckstead R, Lam G, Thummel C. Specific transcriptional responses to juvenile hormone and ecdysone in Drosophila. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:570-8 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that larval organ culture can be used to identify Drosophila genes that are regulated by hormones other than 20E, and provide a basis for studying crosstalk between multiple hormone signaling pathways. ..
  62. Weber J, Bolin R, Hixon M, Sherald A. Beta-alanine transaminase activity in black and suppressor of black mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1115:181-6 pubmed
    ..The black mutation shows elevated levels of activity compared to wild type, while suppressor of black strains show decreased ..
  63. Laurencon A, Gay F, Ducau J, Bregliano J. Evidence for an inducible repair-recombination system in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Correlation between reactivity levels, crossover frequency and repair efficiency. Genetics. 1997;146:1333-44 pubmed
    ..The implications of this biological system in connecting genomic variability and environment may shed new lights on adaptative mechanisms. We propose to call it VAMOS for variability modulation system. ..
  64. Oxenkrug G, Navrotskaya V, Voroboyva L, Summergrad P. Extension of life span of Drosophila melanogaster by the inhibitors of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Fly (Austin). 2011;5:307-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of TDO and ABC transporter activity might offer the new target for anti-aging and anti-AAMPD interventions. ..
  65. Phillips A, Salkoff L, Kelly L. A neural gene from Drosophila melanogaster with homology to vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate decarboxylases. J Neurochem. 1993;61:1291-301 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the protein encoded by this gene is novel, not only in sequence and spatial expression, but also in substrate specificity. ..