Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Axn
Alias: 0442/30, APC, CG7926, D-Axin, DAxin, Daxin, Dmel\CG7926, GSK3beta, axin, axn, d-axin, dAXIN, dAxin, din, l(3)S044230, axin, Axn-PA, Axn-PB, Axn-PC, Axn-PD, Axn-PE, Axn-PF, Axn-PG, CG7926-PA, CG7926-PB, CG7926-PC, CG7926-PD, CG7926-PE, CG7926-PF, CG7926-PG, D-axin, Dm axin, axn, dAxin
Species: fruit fly
- Cliffe A, Hamada F, Bienz M. A role of Dishevelled in relocating Axin to the plasma membrane during wingless signaling. Curr Biol. 2003;13:960-6 pubmed..In the absence of Wnt ligand, beta-catenin is phosphorylated by the Axin complex, which earmarks it for rapid degradation by the ubiquitin system...
- Baonza A, Freeman M. Control of Drosophila eye specification by Wingless signalling. Development. 2002;129:5313-22 pubmed..Contrary to previous reports, we find that under conditions of excess Wingless signalling, eye tissue is transformed not only into head cuticle but also into a variety of inappropriate structures. ..
- Lee J, Treisman J. The role of Wingless signaling in establishing the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the eye disc. Development. 2001;128:1519-29 pubmed..We show here that mutations in axin prevent photoreceptor differentiation and lead to tissue overgrowth and that both these effects are due to ectopic ..
- Rulifson E, Wu C, Nusse R. Pathway specificity by the bifunctional receptor frizzled is determined by affinity for wingless. Mol Cell. 2000;6:117-26 pubmed..This suggests that Fz has an intrinsic capacity for polarity signaling and that high-affinity interaction with Wg couples it to the Wnt pathway. ..
- Kato K, Chihara T, Hayashi S. Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic instruct polarized growth of cell extensions in the Drosophila trachea. Development. 2004;131:5253-61 pubmed..Orthogonal expression of Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic in the epidermis instructs monopolar extension of the terminal branch along the posterior compartment, thereby matching the pattern of airway growth with that of the epidermis. ..
- Bienz M. The subcellular destinations of APC proteins. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:328-38 pubmedAdenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an important tumour suppressor in the human colon, and is conserved in various organisms...
- Peterson Nedry W, Erdeniz N, Kremer S, Yu J, Baig Lewis S, Wehrli M. Unexpectedly robust assembly of the Axin destruction complex regulates Wnt/Wg signaling in Drosophila as revealed by analysis in vivo. Dev Biol. 2008;320:226-41 pubmed publisher..In the absence of Wnt, a protein complex assembled around the scaffold protein Axin targets beta-catenin for destruction, thereby preventing it from transducing inappropriate signals...
- Belenkaya T, Han C, Standley H, Lin X, Houston D, Heasman J, et al. pygopus Encodes a nuclear protein essential for wingless/Wnt signaling. Development. 2002;129:4089-101 pubmed..Together, these findings demonstrate that Pygo is an essential component in the Wg/Wnt signal transduction pathway and is likely to act as a transcription co-activator required for the nuclear function of Arm/beta-catenin. ..
- Bienz M, Clevers H. Armadillo/beta-catenin signals in the nucleus--proof beyond a reasonable doubt?. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:179-82 pubmed..Plausible explanations allow these observations to be reconciled with the large body of evidence supporting a nuclear function of Arm/beta-catenin. ..
- Parker D, Jemison J, Cadigan K. Pygopus, a nuclear PHD-finger protein required for Wingless signaling in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:2565-76 pubmed..Our data argue strongly that Pygopus is a new core component of the Wg signaling pathway that acts downstream or at the level of TCF. ..
- Roberts D, Pronobis M, Poulton J, Waldmann J, Stephenson E, Hanna S, et al. Deconstructing the ßcatenin destruction complex: mechanistic roles for the tumor suppressor APC in regulating Wnt signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1845-63 pubmed publisher..APC mutations occur in most colon cancers. Acting in the "destruction complex" with Axin, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and casein kinase, APC targets ßcatenin (ßcat) for phosphorylation and recognition ..
- Chang J, Chang M, Barolo S, Cadigan K. Regulation of the feedback antagonist naked cuticle by Wingless signaling. Dev Biol. 2008;321:446-54 pubmed publisher..The existence of several WREs in the nkd locus may have been necessary to allow the Wg signaling-Nkd feedback circuit to remain intact as Wg expression diversified during animal evolution. ..
- Willert K, Logan C, Arora A, Fish M, Nusse R. A Drosophila Axin homolog, Daxin, inhibits Wnt signaling. Development. 1999;126:4165-73 pubmed..We have identified a homolog of Axin in Drosophila, Daxin. Using double-stranded RNA interference, we generated loss-of-function phenotypes that are similar to ..
- Chihara T, Hayashi S. Control of tracheal tubulogenesis by Wingless signaling. Development. 2000;127:4433-42 pubmed..These activities of Wingless signaling together specify the shape of the dorsal trunk and other fusion branches. ..
- Bienz M. APC: the plot thickens. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:595-603 pubmed..It is conserved between human and flies, and promotes, together with Axin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), the degradation of the Wnt-signalling effector beta-catenin...
- Tolwinski N, Wehrli M, Rives A, Erdeniz N, Dinardo S, Wieschaus E. Wg/Wnt signal can be transmitted through arrow/LRP5,6 and Axin independently of Zw3/Gsk3beta activity. Dev Cell. 2003;4:407-18 pubmed..The intracellular pathway bypasses Gsk3beta/Zw3, the kinase normally required for controlling beta-catenin/Armadillo levels, suggesting that modulated ..
- Piddini E, Vincent J. Interpretation of the wingless gradient requires signaling-induced self-inhibition. Cell. 2009;136:296-307 pubmed publisher..Without lateral inhibition, some cells acquire ectopic fates. Lateral inhibition may be a general mechanism behind the interpretation of morphogen gradients. ..
- Caviglia S, Luschnig S. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity. Development. 2013;140:1240-9 pubmed publisher..The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network. ..
- Vincent J, Kolahgar G, Gagliardi M, Piddini E. Steep differences in wingless signaling trigger Myc-independent competitive cell interactions. Dev Cell. 2011;21:366-74 pubmed publisher..Moreover, local autonomous overactivation of Wg signaling (as a result of a mutation in APC or axin) leads to the elimination of surrounding normal cells...
- Ahmed Y, Nouri A, Wieschaus E. Drosophila Apc1 and Apc2 regulate Wingless transduction throughout development. Development. 2002;129:1751-62 pubmedInactivation of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor triggers the development of most colorectal carcinomas...
- Hamada F, Tomoyasu Y, Takatsu Y, Nakamura M, Nagai S, Suzuki A, et al. Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. Science. 1999;283:1739-42 pubmed..Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC...
- Peifer M, Polakis P. Wnt signaling in oncogenesis and embryogenesis--a look outside the nucleus. Science. 2000;287:1606-9 pubmed
- Chen Y, Jiang J. Decoding the phosphorylation code in Hedgehog signal transduction. Cell Res. 2013;23:186-200 pubmed publisher..In this review, we focus on the multifaceted roles that phosphorylation plays in Hh signal transduction, and discuss the conservation and difference between Drosophila and mammalian Hh signaling mechanisms. ..
- Yu X, Waltzer L, Bienz M. A new Drosophila APC homologue associated with adhesive zones of epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:144-51 pubmed..We propose that the Armadillo-destabilizing protein complex, consisting of E-APC, Shaggy, and a third protein, Axin, is anchored in adhesive zones, and that Wingless signalling may inhibit the activity of this complex by causing ..
- Takacs C, Baird J, Hughes E, Kent S, Benchabane H, Paik R, et al. Dual positive and negative regulation of wingless signaling by adenomatous polyposis coli. Science. 2008;319:333-6 pubmed publisher..Apc likely promotes Wingless transduction through down-regulation of Axin, a negative regulator of Wingless signaling...
- Komori H, Xiao Q, McCartney B, Lee C. Brain tumor specifies intermediate progenitor cell identity by attenuating ?-catenin/Armadillo activity. Development. 2014;141:51-62 pubmed publisher..Thus, the Brat-dependent mechanism extinguishes the function of the self-renewal factor Klu in the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell by attenuating Arm activity, balancing stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell specification. ..
- Karim M, Moore A. Convergent local identity and topographic projection of sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17017-27 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that convergent sensory neuron specification, local differentiation, and topographic wiring are mediated by Mirror, and they suggest an integrated paradigm for position-sensitive neural development. ..
- Zimmerman S, Thorpe L, Medrano V, Mallozzi C, McCartney B. Apical constriction and invagination downstream of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway require Rho1 and Myosin II. Dev Biol. 2010;340:54-66 pubmed publisherThe tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling and functions in cytoskeletal organization...
- Hartmann B, Castelo R, Blanchette M, Boue S, Rio D, Valcarcel J. Global analysis of alternative splicing regulation by insulin and wingless signaling in Drosophila cells. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R11 pubmed publisher..They also reveal that alternative splicing can provide a novel molecular mechanism for crosstalk between different signaling pathways. ..
- Croy H, Fuller C, Giannotti J, Robinson P, Foley A, Yamulla R, et al. The Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Enzyme Tankyrase Antagonizes Activity of the ?-Catenin Destruction Complex through ADP-ribosylation of Axin and APC2. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12747-60 pubmed publisher..enzyme Tankyrase (TNKS) antagonizes destruction complex activity by promoting degradation of the scaffold protein Axin, and recent work suggests that TNKS inhibition is a promising cancer therapy...
- Jones W, Chao A, Zavortink M, Saint R, Bejsovec A. Cytokinesis proteins Tum and Pav have a nuclear role in Wnt regulation. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2179-89 pubmed publisher..Thus, we have identified two modulators of the Wnt pathway that have shared functions in cell division, which hints at a possible link between cytokinesis and Wnt activity during tumorigenesis. ..
- Yamazaki H, Nusse R. Identification of DCAP, a drosophila homolog of a glucose transport regulatory complex. Mech Dev. 2002;119:115-9 pubmedIn a yeast two-hybrid screen using the Drosophila Axin protein as a bait, we have identified a Drosophila homolog of CAP, a component of the glucose transport regulatory complex...
- Bates K, Sung C, Hilson L, Robinow S. unfulfilled interacting genes display branch-specific roles in the development of mushroom body axons in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:693-706 pubmed publisher..Medial MB lobes were thin, missing, or misguided dorsally in five double heterozygote combinations (;unf/+;axin/+, unf/+;Fps85D/+, ;unf/+;Tsc1/+, ;unf/+;Rheb/+, ;unf/+;msn/+)...
- Hamada F, Murata Y, Nishida A, Fujita F, Tomoyasu Y, Nakamura M, et al. Identification and characterization of E-APC, a novel Drosophila homologue of the tumour suppressor APC. Genes Cells. 1999;4:465-74 pubmed..The product of the APC gene forms a complex with beta-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and Axin/conductin, and induces the degradation of beta-catenin...
- Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K. Parafibromin/Hyrax activates Wnt/Wg target gene transcription by direct association with beta-catenin/Armadillo. Cell. 2006;125:327-41 pubmed
- Farge E. Mechanical induction of Twist in the Drosophila foregut/stomodeal primordium. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1365-77 pubmed..I propose that anterior-gut formation is mechanically induced by the movement of germ-band extension through the induction of Twist expression in stomodeal cells. ..
- Peradziryi H, Kaplan N, Podleschny M, Liu X, Wehner P, Borchers A, et al. PTK7/Otk interacts with Wnts and inhibits canonical Wnt signalling. EMBO J. 2011;30:3729-40 pubmed publisher..In Drosophila, Otk interacts with Wnt4 and opposes canonical Wnt signalling in embryonic patterning. We propose a model where PTK7/Otk functions in non-canonical Wnt signalling by turning off the canonical signalling branch. ..
- Cavodeassi F, Rodriguez I, Modolell J. Dpp signalling is a key effector of the wing-body wall subdivision of the Drosophila mesothorax. Development. 2002;129:3815-23 pubmed..Later, Dpp becomes expressed in the most proximal part of the notum and turns off Iro-C in this region. This downregulation is associated with the subdivision of the notum into medial and lateral regions. ..
- Jones W, Bejsovec A. RacGap50C negatively regulates wingless pathway activity during Drosophila embryonic development. Genetics. 2005;169:2075-86 pubmed..In addition, RacGap50C mutations interact genetically with naked cuticle and Axin, known negative regulators of the Wg pathway...
- Behrens J. Cross-regulation of the Wnt signalling pathway: a role of MAP kinases. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 6):911-9 pubmed..Since TAK1 is activated by TGF-(beta) and various cytokines, it might provide an entry point for regulation of the Wnt system by other pathways. In addition, alterations in TAK1-NLK might play a role in cancer. ..
- Wang Z, Tacchelly Benites O, Yang E, Thorne C, Nojima H, Lee E, et al. Wnt/Wingless Pathway Activation Is Promoted by a Critical Threshold of Axin Maintained by the Tumor Suppressor APC and the ADP-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase. Genetics. 2016;203:269-81 pubmed publisher..In the absence of Wnt stimulation, a multiprotein "destruction complex," assembled by the scaffold protein Axin, targets the key transcriptional activator Î²-catenin for proteolysis...
- Olson E, Pancratov R, Chatterjee S, Changkakoty B, Pervaiz Z, DasGupta R. Yan, an ETS-domain transcription factor, negatively modulates the Wingless pathway in the Drosophila eye. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1047-54 pubmed publisher..We conclude that yan represents a new and unsuspected molecular link between the Wingless and DER pathways. ..
- Matsuda R, Hosono C, Saigo K, Samakovlis C. The intersection of the extrinsic hedgehog and WNT/wingless signals with the intrinsic Hox code underpins branching pattern and tube shape diversity in the drosophila airways. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004929 pubmed publisher..Thus, our results highlight how tube intrinsic differential competence can diversify tube morphology without changing availabilities of extrinsic factors. ..
- Poulton J, Mu F, Roberts D, Peifer M. APC2 and Axin promote mitotic fidelity by facilitating centrosome separation and cytoskeletal regulation. Development. 2013;140:4226-36 pubmed publisher..of action of APC2, revealing that APC2 functions at the embryonic cortex with several protein partners, including Axin, to promote mitotic fidelity...
- Moon R, Bowerman B, Boutros M, Perrimon N. The promise and perils of Wnt signaling through beta-catenin. Science. 2002;296:1644-6 pubmed..The STKE Connections Maps for these pathways provide an important tool in accessing this large body of complex information. ..
- Yang E, Tacchelly Benites O, Wang Z, Randall M, Tian A, Benchabane H, et al. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11430 pubmed publisher..Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome...
- DasGupta R, Nybakken K, Booker M, Mathey Prevot B, Gonsalves F, Changkakoty B, et al. A case study of the reproducibility of transcriptional reporter cell-based RNAi screens in Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R203 pubmed..Furthermore, we investigate other factors that may influence the outcome of such screens, including cell-type specificity, robustness of reporters, and assay normalization, which determine the efficacy of RNAi-knockdown of target genes. ..
- Zhang T, Liao Y, Hsu F, Zhang R, Searle J, Pei X, et al. Hyperactivated Wnt signaling induces synthetic lethal interaction with Rb inactivation by elevating TORC1 activities. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004357 pubmed publisher..We show that a weak allele of axin, which deregulates Wg signaling and increases cell proliferation without obvious effects on cell fate specification,..
- Baeg G, Selva E, Goodman R, DasGupta R, Perrimon N. The Wingless morphogen gradient is established by the cooperative action of Frizzled and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan receptors. Dev Biol. 2004;276:89-100 pubmed..Taken together, our analysis illustrates how the coordinated activities of HSPGs and Fz/DFz2 shape the Wg morphogen gradient. ..
- Peifer M. Signal transduction. Neither straight nor narrow. Nature. 1999;400:213-5 pubmed
- Bates K, Molnar J, Robinow S. The unfulfilled gene and nervous system development in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:217-23 pubmed publisher..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. ..
- Zhang S, Chen C, Wu C, Yang Y, Li W, Xue L. The canonical Wg signaling modulates Bsk-mediated cell death in Drosophila. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1713 pubmed publisher..These findings not only reveal a previously undiscovered role of Wg signaling in Bsk-mediated cell death, but also provide a novel mechanism for the interplay between the two important signaling pathways in development. ..
- Nusse R. Developmental biology. Making head or tail of Dickkopf. Nature. 2001;411:255-6 pubmed
- Price M. CKI, there's more than one: casein kinase I family members in Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. Genes Dev. 2006;20:399-410 pubmed..Here I review these roles, including recent results on casein kinase I (CKI) phosphorylation and activation of LRP6, and CKI phosphorylation of Ci and mediation of Ci-Slimb/beta-TrCP binding. ..
- Egger Adam D, Katanaev V. The trimeric G protein Go inflicts a double impact on axin in the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:168-83 pubmed publisher..However, the mode of action of Go and its interplay with other transducers of the pathway such as Dishevelled and Axin remained unclear...
- Tolwinski N. New advances in signaling and pattern formation. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:116-7 pubmed
- Mitchell N, Cranna N, Richardson H, Quinn L. The Ecdysone-inducible zinc-finger transcription factor Crol regulates Wg transcription and cell cycle progression in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2707-16 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our studies have revealed a novel mechanism for cell cycle regulation, whereby Crol links steroid hormone signals to Wg signalling and the regulation of crucial cell cycle targets. ..
- Schwarz Romond T, Asbrand C, Bakkers J, Kuhl M, Schaeffer H, Huelsken J, et al. The ankyrin repeat protein Diversin recruits Casein kinase Iepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex and acts in both canonical Wnt and Wnt/JNK signaling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2073-84 pubmed..Diversin recruits CKIepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex that consists of Axin/Conductin and GSK3beta and allows efficient phosphorylation of beta-catenin, thereby inhibiting beta-catenin/Tcf signals...
- Feng Y, Li X, Ray L, Song H, Qu J, Lin S, et al. The Drosophila tankyrase regulates Wg signaling depending on the concentration of Daxin. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1717-24 pubmed publisher..DTNKS) mutant and provided compelling evidence that DTNKS is involved in the degradation of Drosophila Axin (Daxin)...
- Tolwinski N, Wieschaus E. A nuclear function for armadillo/beta-catenin. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E95 pubmed..Further, this activity is dependent on the presence of the C-terminus-specific negative regulator Chibby. Our data clearly show that nuclear localization of beta-catenin is in fact necessary for Wnt pathway activation. ..
- Kubota K, Goto S, Hayashi S. The role of Wg signaling in the patterning of embryonic leg primordium in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;257:117-26 pubmed..We propose that those embryo-specific functions of Wingless signaling reflect its multiple roles in restricting competence of ectodermal cells to adopt the fate of thoracic appendages. ..
- Yanagawa S, Lee J, Matsuda Y, Ishimoto A. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila axin protein. FEBS Lett. 2000;474:189-94 pubmed..Using Drosophila cell culture systems, we demonstrated that a Drosophila homolog of Axin (Daxin) inhibits Wingless-induced Armadillo accumulation and Drosophila T-cell factor-dependent transcription induced by ..
- Tomoyasu Y, Ueno N, Nakamura M. The decapentaplegic morphogen gradient regulates the notal wingless expression through induction of pannier and u-shaped in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2000;96:37-49 pubmed
- Lee W, Beebe K, Sudmeier L, Micchelli C. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation. Development. 2009;136:2255-64 pubmed publisher..Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), a tumor suppressor gene conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, is known to play a role in multiple ..
- Kremer S, Erdeniz N, Peterson Nedry W, Swanson E, Wehrli M. In vivo analysis in Drosophila reveals differential requirements of contact residues in Axin for interactions with GSK3beta or beta-catenin. Dev Biol. 2010;337:110-23 pubmed publisherProper regulation of the Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway is essential for normal development. The scaffolding protein Axin plays a key role in this process through interactions with Drosophila Shaggy and Armadillo...
- Cliffe A, Mieszczanek J, Bienz M. Intracellular shuttling of a Drosophila APC tumour suppressor homolog. BMC Cell Biol. 2004;5:37 pubmedThe Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor is found in multiple discrete subcellular locations, which may reflect sites of distinct functions...
- Baig Lewis S, Peterson Nedry W, Wehrli M. Wingless/Wnt signal transduction requires distinct initiation and amplification steps that both depend on Arrow/LRP. Dev Biol. 2007;306:94-111 pubmed..The amplification function of Arrow/LRP appears to be particularly important for long-range signaling, and may reflect a general mechanism for potentiating signals in the shallow part of a morphogen gradient. ..
- Chan C, Zhang S, Cagatay T, Wharton K. Cell-autonomous, myristyl-independent activity of the Drosophila Wnt/Wingless antagonist Naked cuticle (Nkd). Dev Biol. 2007;311:538-53 pubmed..In conjunction with our recent observation that Nkd requires nuclear localization for function, our data suggest that Nkd acts at more than one subcellular location within signal-receiving cells to attenuate Wg signaling. ..
- Sato T, Ueda S, Niki Y. Wingless signaling initiates mitosis of primordial germ cells during development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2008;125:498-507 pubmed publisher..Decapentaplegic affected the growth of PGCs from the end of the embryonic stage. The results indicate that these growth factors regulate the division of embryonic PGCs in a stage-specific manner. ..
- Dupont P, Besson M, Devaux J, Liévens J. Reducing canonical Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway confers protection against mutant Huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;47:237-47 pubmed publisher..Similarly, overexpression of one Armadillo/?-Catenin destruction complex component (Axin, APC2 or Shaggy/GSK-3?) increases the lifespan of HD flies...