AttC

Summary

Gene Symbol: AttC
Description: Attacin-C
Alias: Att, Attacin C, CG4740, DIM 16, DIM-16, Dmel\CG4740, MPAC, att, att C, attC, Attacin-C, AttC-PB, Attacin-C precursor, AttacinC, CG4740-PB, attacin, attacin C, attackin, drosophila immune induced molecule 16
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Uttenweiler Joseph S, Moniatte M, Lagueux M, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Bulet P. Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11342-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge. ..
  2. Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed
    ..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
  3. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
  4. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  5. Gordon M, Ayres J, Schneider D, Nusse R. Pathogenesis of listeria-infected Drosophila wntD mutants is associated with elevated levels of the novel immunity gene edin. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000111 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with a model in which the regulation of host factors, including edin, must be tightly controlled to avoid the detrimental consequences of having too much or too little activity...
  6. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed
    ..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila. ..
  7. Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed
    ..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
  8. Pletcher S, Macdonald S, Marguerie R, Certa U, Stearns S, Goldstein D, et al. Genome-wide transcript profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:712-23 pubmed
    ..Caloric restriction extends life span by slowing down the rate of normal aging. Transcription levels of genes from a wide variety of biological functions and processes are impacted by age and dietary conditions. ..
  9. Moule M, Monack D, Schneider D. Reciprocal analysis of Francisella novicida infections of a Drosophila melanogaster model reveal host-pathogen conflicts mediated by reactive oxygen and imd-regulated innate immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001065 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that there may be more to learn about the fly immune system, as not all of the phenotypes we observe can be readily explained by its interactions with known immune responses. ..

More Information

Publications54

  1. Kim J, Kim Ha J. Ovarian tumors in Rbp9 mutants of Drosophila induce an immune response. Mol Cells. 2006;22:228-32 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the antimicrobial peptide, Attacin, is upregulated in Rbp9 mutants, especially in ovaries where tumors form...
  2. Sackton T, Clark A. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to infection in two species of Drosophila by short-read cDNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:259 pubmed publisher
    ..virilis hemolymph and validate our transcriptional data. These results suggest that the acquisition of novel components of the immune system, and particularly novel effector proteins, may be a common evolutionary phenomenon. ..
  3. Huh J, Foe I, Muro I, Chen C, Seol J, Yoo S, et al. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis i. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2056-68 pubmed
    ..Therefore, diap2 may identify a point of convergence between apoptosis and immune signaling pathways. ..
  4. Rabel D, Charlet M, Ehret Sabatier L, Cavicchioli L, Cudic M, Otvos L, et al. Primary structure and in vitro antibacterial properties of the Drosophila melanogaster attacin C Pro-domain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14853-9 pubmed
    ..The second molecule represents a truncated form of the pro-domain of the Drosophila attacin C carrying two post-translational modifications and has significant structural similarities to proline-rich ..
  5. Naitza S, Rosse C, Kappler C, Georgel P, Belvin M, Gubb D, et al. The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD. Immunity. 2002;17:575-81 pubmed
    ..By genetic analysis we show that dFADD acts downstream of IMD in the pathway that controls inducibility of the antibacterial peptide genes. ..
  6. Vanha aho L, Kleino A, Kaustio M, Ulvila J, Wilke B, Hultmark D, et al. Functional characterization of the infection-inducible peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37153 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response. ..
  7. Vonkavaara M, Pavel S, Hölzl K, Nordfelth R, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Francisella is sensitive to insect antimicrobial peptides. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Francisella is sensitive to specific fly AMPs, i.e. Attacin, Cecropin, Drosocin and Drosomycin...
  8. Bergeret E, Perrin J, Williams M, Grunwald D, Engel E, Thevenon D, et al. TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes. ..
  9. Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PGRP-LE acts as a pattern-recognition receptor to the diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan and activates both the proteolytic cascade and intracellular signaling in Drosophila immunity. ..
  10. Avet Rochex A, Bergeret E, Attree I, Meister M, Fauvarque M. Suppression of Drosophila cellular immunity by directed expression of the ExoS toxin GAP domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the major contribution of cellular immunity during the first hours after Drosophila infection by P. aeruginosa, an opportunist pathogen affecting patients with pathologies associated to a reduced leukocyte number. ..
  11. Sudmeier L, Samudrala S, Howard S, Ganetzky B. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:2299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. ..
  12. Radyuk S, Michalak K, Klichko V, Benes J, Orr W. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Epistatic analysis of double mutants, using attacin D and Puckered as read outs of activation of the Imd and JNK pathways, implicated dPrx5 function in the control ..
  13. Winterhalter W, Fedorka K. Sex-specific variation in the emphasis, inducibility and timing of the post-mating immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that variation in the effectiveness of the immune response between the sexes may be driven by differences in emphasis rather than overall investment. ..
  14. Huang Z, Kingsolver M, Avadhanula V, Hardy R. An antiviral role for antimicrobial peptides during the arthropod response to alphavirus replication. J Virol. 2013;87:4272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two antimicrobial peptide genes, attC and dptB, which are SINrep sensitive and regulated by STAT and Rel, respectively...
  15. Doroszuk A, Jonker M, Pul N, Breit T, Zwaan B. Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extension. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:167 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that natural genetic variation for SR and lifespan can operate through similar transcriptional mechanisms as those of dietary restriction and life-extending mutations. ..
  16. Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Steiner H. A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7059-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins. ..
  17. Dantoft W, Davis M, Lindvall J, Tang X, Uvell H, Junell A, et al. The Oct1 homolog Nubbin is a repressor of NF-?B-dependent immune gene expression that increases the tolerance to gut microbiota. BMC Biol. 2013;11:99 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Nub protein plays an ancient role, shared with mammalian Oct/POU transcription factors, to moderate responses to immune challenge, thereby increasing the tolerance to biotic stress. ..
  18. Lindberg B, Oldenvi S, Steiner H. Medium from ?-irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria stimulates a unique immune response in Drosophila cells. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;46:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..A shift towards a stress response was instead observed with a striking induction of several heat shock proteins. Our findings suggest that ?-irradiated bacteria release elicitors that stimulate a novel response in Drosophila. ..
  19. Seto Y, Tamura K. Extensive differences in antifungal immune response in two Drosophila species revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis. Int J Genomics. 2013;2013:542139 pubmed publisher
    ..Our transcriptome analysis also showed newly predicted immune-related genes in D. virilis. These results suggest that the innate immune system has been extensively differentiated during the evolution of these Drosophila species. ..
  20. Ooi J, Yagi Y, Hu X, Ip Y. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:82-7 pubmed
  21. Jin L, Choi J, Cho H, Shim J, Kim Y. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profiles of SL2 cells stimulated by LPS/PGN and curdlan. Mol Cells. 2008;25:553-8 pubmed
  22. Petersen A, Katzenberger R, Wassarman D. The innate immune response transcription factor relish is necessary for neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of ataxia-telangiectasia. Genetics. 2013;194:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings suggest that neurodegeneration in human A-T is caused by activation of a specific NF-?B protein in glial cells. ..
  23. Seong K, Kim C, Lee B, Nam S, Yang K, Kim J, et al. Low-dose radiation induces Drosophila innate immunity through Toll pathway activation. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:242-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that innate immunity is activated after low-dose irradiation through Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  24. Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed
    ..AttD is more divergent and located on a different chromosome. Intriguingly, AttD may encode an intracellular attacin. DptB is linked in tandem to the closely related Diptericin...
  25. Lazzaro B, Clark A. Evidence for recurrent paralogous gene conversion and exceptional allelic divergence in the Attacin genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;159:659-71 pubmed
    ..b>Attacin C, more divergent and located 1...
  26. Chen H, Zheng X, Zheng Y. Age-associated loss of lamin-B leads to systemic inflammation and gut hyperplasia. Cell. 2014;159:829-43 pubmed publisher
    ..paperflick: ..
  27. Marshall K, Sinclair B. Repeated stress exposure results in a survival-reproduction trade-off in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that many environments are not static, this trade-off indicates that investigating the effects of repeated stress exposure is important for understanding and predicting physiological responses in the wild. ..
  28. Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed
    ..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  29. Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
  30. Okado K, Shinzawa N, Aonuma H, Nelson B, Fukumoto S, Fujisaki K, et al. Rapid recruitment of innate immunity regulates variation of intracellular pathogen resistance in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together we provide the first experimental evidence to suggest that differences in innate immune activity at early time points during infection likely mediates infection susceptibility in Drosophila. ..
  31. Overend G, Cabrero P, Guo A, Sebastian S, Cundall M, Armstrong H, et al. The receptor guanylate cyclase Gyc76C and a peptide ligand, NPLP1-VQQ, modulate the innate immune IMD pathway in response to salt stress. Peptides. 2012;34:209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the principal-cell localized NPLP1-VQQ/Gyc76C cGMP pathway acts to signal environmental (salt) stress to the whole organism. ..
  32. Liu F, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Verleyen P, Schoofs L, Wets G. In silico identification of new secretory peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:510-22 pubmed
    ..This bioinformatic study opens perspectives for the genome-wide analysis of peptide genes in other eukaryotic model organisms. ..
  33. Feng Z, Liu H, Lang J, Li Y, Shu M, Chen Z. SK66-his, a novel glycine-rich peptide derived from Drosophila with antibacterial activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:769-71 pubmed
    ..063 mg/l). It showed significant activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We determined a MIC value of 9 microg ml(-1) with Bacillus thuringiensis. ..
  34. Petersen A, Rimkus S, Wassarman D. ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E656-64 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhan L, Xie Q, Tibbetts R. Opposing roles of p38 and JNK in a Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathy reveal oxidative stress and innate immunity as pathogenic components of neurodegeneration. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:757-72 pubmed publisher
  36. Lazzaro B, Sackton T, Clark A. Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster resistance to infection: a comparison across bacteria. Genetics. 2006;174:1539-54 pubmed
    ..lactis and E. faecalis, respectively, most of the molecular polymorphisms tested explain <10% of the total variance in bacterial load sustained after infection...
  37. Domanitskaya E, Liu H, Chen S, Kubli E. The hydroxyproline motif of male sex peptide elicits the innate immune response in Drosophila females. FEBS J. 2007;274:5659-68 pubmed
    ..We suggest that SP acts by chemical mimicry of sugar components of the bacterial cell wall. Thus, SP may induce the immune system via pattern recognition receptors. ..
  38. Persson C, Oldenvi S, Steiner H. Peptidoglycan recognition protein LF: a negative regulator of Drosophila immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:1309-16 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, following immune stimulation of S2 cells overexpressing PGRP-LF, we noticed a reduced up-regulation of expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, in consonance with an immune suppressive role for PGRP-LF. ..
  39. Bhattacharya A, Steward R. The Drosophila homolog of NTF-2, the nuclear transport factor-2, is essential for immune response. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:378-83 pubmed
    ..to the nucleus after infection, and, consequently, the expression of the anti-microbial peptide genes drosomycin, attacin and drosocin is severely impaired...
  40. Aderem A, Ulevitch R. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature. 2000;406:782-7 pubmed
    ..This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence. ..
  41. Cao Y, Chtarbanova S, Petersen A, Ganetzky B. Dnr1 mutations cause neurodegeneration in Drosophila by activating the innate immune response in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a mechanistic link between innate immune responses and neurodegeneration and may have important implications for the role of neuroinflammation in human neurodegenerative diseases as well...
  42. Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
  43. Zhao H, Zhou D, Nizet V, Haddad G. Experimental selection for Drosophila survival in extremely high O2 environments. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11701 pubmed publisher
    ..Tropomyosin 1, Glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, CG33129, and UGP as well as up-regulation of Diptericin and Attacin conferred tolerance to severe hyperoxia...
  44. Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role of ubiquitination in IKK activation, and provide new insights into the hierarchy of signaling components in the Drosophila antibacterial immunity pathway. ..
  45. Kiss M, Kiss A, Radics M, Popovics N, Hermesz E, Csiszár K, et al. Drosophila type IV collagen mutation associates with immune system activation and intestinal dysfunction. Matrix Biol. 2016;49:120-131 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Attacin::GFP midgut expression pattern further supported these changes...