Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: AttB
Alias: Att, Att B, AttB1, AttB2, AttBn, Attb, CG18372, Dmel\CG18372, att, att B1, attB, Attacin-B, AttB-PA, AttB-PB, Attacin-B precursor, AttacinB, CG18372-PA, CG18372-PB, attacin, attacin B, attacin B1, attackin
Species: fruit fly
- Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila. ..
- Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
- Kleino A, Myllymäki H, Kallio J, Vanha aho L, Oksanen K, Ulvila J, et al. Pirk is a negative regulator of the Drosophila Imd pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:5413-22 pubmed..Furthermore, pirk-overexpressing flies were more susceptible to Gram-negative bacterial infection than wild-type flies. We conclude that Pirk is a negative regulator of the Imd pathway. ..
- Gordon M, Ayres J, Schneider D, Nusse R. Pathogenesis of listeria-infected Drosophila wntD mutants is associated with elevated levels of the novel immunity gene edin. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000111 pubmed publisher..These results are consistent with a model in which the regulation of host factors, including edin, must be tightly controlled to avoid the detrimental consequences of having too much or too little activity...
- Lindberg B, Oldenvi S, Steiner H. Medium from ?-irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria stimulates a unique immune response in Drosophila cells. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;46:392-400 pubmed publisher..A shift towards a stress response was instead observed with a striking induction of several heat shock proteins. Our findings suggest that ?-irradiated bacteria release elicitors that stimulate a novel response in Drosophila. ..
- Ooi J, Yagi Y, Hu X, Ip Y. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:82-7 pubmed
- Jin L, Choi J, Cho H, Shim J, Kim Y. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profiles of SL2 cells stimulated by LPS/PGN and curdlan. Mol Cells. 2008;25:553-8 pubmed
- An S, Dong S, Wang Q, Li S, Gilbert L, Stanley D, et al. Insect neuropeptide bursicon homodimers induce innate immune and stress genes during molting by activating the NF-?B transcription factor Relish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34510 pubmed publisher..From these data we infer that CNS-generated bursicon homodimers mediate innate prophylactic immunity to both stress and infection during the vulnerable molting cycle. ..
- Marshall K, Sinclair B. Repeated stress exposure results in a survival-reproduction trade-off in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:963-9 pubmed publisher..Given that many environments are not static, this trade-off indicates that investigating the effects of repeated stress exposure is important for understanding and predicting physiological responses in the wild. ..
- Thimgan M, Gottschalk L, Toedebusch C, McLeland J, Rechtschaffen A, Gilliland Roberts M, et al. Cross-translational studies in human and Drosophila identify markers of sleep loss. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61016 pubmed publisher..These cross-translational data indicate that fly and human discovery experiments are mutually reinforcing and can be used interchangeably to identify candidate biomarkers of sleep loss. ..
- Bandarra D, Biddlestone J, Mudie S, MÃ¼ller H, Rocha S. HIF-1Î± restricts NF-ÎºB-dependent gene expression to control innate immunity signals. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:169-81 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that HIF-1Î± is required to restrain the NF-ÎºB response, and thus prevents excessive and damaging pro-inflammatory responses. ..
- Innan H. The coalescent and infinite-site model of a small multigene family. Genetics. 2003;163:803-10 pubmed..Using the coalescent simulation of duplicated genes, the applicability of statistical tests of neutrality to multigene families is considered. ..
- Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that 20E and JH play major roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to immune challenge. ..
- Sampson C, Valanne S, Fauvarque M, Hultmark D, Ramet M, Williams M. The RhoGEF Zizimin-related acts in the Drosophila cellular immune response via the Rho GTPases Rac2 and Cdc42. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;38:160-8 pubmed publisher..Finally, Zir is dispensable for the humoral immune response against bacteria. We propose that Zir is necessary to activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac2 and Cdc42 during the Drosophila cellular immune response. ..
- Huh J, Foe I, Muro I, Chen C, Seol J, Yoo S, et al. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis i. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2056-68 pubmed..Therefore, diap2 may identify a point of convergence between apoptosis and immune signaling pathways. ..
- Vanha aho L, Kleino A, Kaustio M, Ulvila J, Wilke B, Hultmark D, et al. Functional characterization of the infection-inducible peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37153 pubmed publisher..faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response. ..
- Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
- Radyuk S, Michalak K, Klichko V, Benes J, Orr W. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1153-63 pubmed publisher..Epistatic analysis of double mutants, using attacin D and Puckered as read outs of activation of the Imd and JNK pathways, implicated dPrx5 function in the control ..
- Moule M, Monack D, Schneider D. Reciprocal analysis of Francisella novicida infections of a Drosophila melanogaster model reveal host-pathogen conflicts mediated by reactive oxygen and imd-regulated innate immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001065 pubmed publisher..Our work suggests that there may be more to learn about the fly immune system, as not all of the phenotypes we observe can be readily explained by its interactions with known immune responses. ..
- Sackton T, Clark A. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to infection in two species of Drosophila by short-read cDNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:259 pubmed publisher..virilis hemolymph and validate our transcriptional data. These results suggest that the acquisition of novel components of the immune system, and particularly novel effector proteins, may be a common evolutionary phenomenon. ..
- Winterhalter W, Fedorka K. Sex-specific variation in the emphasis, inducibility and timing of the post-mating immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1109-17 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that variation in the effectiveness of the immune response between the sexes may be driven by differences in emphasis rather than overall investment. ..
- Pletcher S, Macdonald S, Marguerie R, Certa U, Stearns S, Goldstein D, et al. Genome-wide transcript profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:712-23 pubmed..Caloric restriction extends life span by slowing down the rate of normal aging. Transcription levels of genes from a wide variety of biological functions and processes are impacted by age and dietary conditions. ..
- Bergeret E, Perrin J, Williams M, Grunwald D, Engel E, Thevenon D, et al. TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3325-34 pubmed publisher..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes. ..
- Avet Rochex A, Bergeret E, Attree I, Meister M, Fauvarque M. Suppression of Drosophila cellular immunity by directed expression of the ExoS toxin GAP domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed..Our results highlight the major contribution of cellular immunity during the first hours after Drosophila infection by P. aeruginosa, an opportunist pathogen affecting patients with pathologies associated to a reduced leukocyte number. ..
- Furihata S, Matsumoto H, Kimura M, Hayakawa Y. Venom components of Asobara japonica impair cellular immune responses of host Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2013;83:86-100 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that A. japonica venom toxicity allows exploitation of a broader range of host insects because it is essential to overcome cellular immune responses of the host for successful parasitism. ..
- Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Steiner H. A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7059-64 pubmed..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins. ..
- Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed..Therefore, PGRP-LE acts as a pattern-recognition receptor to the diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan and activates both the proteolytic cascade and intracellular signaling in Drosophila immunity. ..
- Douglas A, Bouvaine S, Russell R. How the insect immune system interacts with an obligate symbiotic bacterium. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:333-8 pubmed publisher..They support the proposed contribution of the Buchnera symbiosis to the evolution of the apparently reduced immune function in the aphid host. ..
- Zhao H, Zhou D, Nizet V, Haddad G. Experimental selection for Drosophila survival in extremely high O2 environments. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11701 pubmed publisher..Tropomyosin 1, Glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, CG33129, and UGP as well as up-regulation of Diptericin and Attacin conferred tolerance to severe hyperoxia...
- Oh C, Moon C, Jeong M, Kwon S, Jang J. Drosophila melanogaster model for Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:788-95 pubmed publisher..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that mycobacteria induce the production of antimicrobial peptides in D. melanogaster. ..
- Dissel S, Angadi V, Kirszenblat L, Suzuki Y, Donlea J, Klose M, et al. Sleep restores behavioral plasticity to Drosophila mutants. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1270-81 pubmed publisher..Together, these data demonstrate that sleep plays a more fundamental role in modulating behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated and suggest that increasing sleep may benefit patients with certain neurological disorders. ..
- Bhattacharya A, Steward R. The Drosophila homolog of NTF-2, the nuclear transport factor-2, is essential for immune response. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:378-83 pubmed..to the nucleus after infection, and, consequently, the expression of the anti-microbial peptide genes drosomycin, attacin and drosocin is severely impaired...
- Persson C, Oldenvi S, Steiner H. Peptidoglycan recognition protein LF: a negative regulator of Drosophila immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:1309-16 pubmed..Furthermore, following immune stimulation of S2 cells overexpressing PGRP-LF, we noticed a reduced up-regulation of expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, in consonance with an immune suppressive role for PGRP-LF. ..
- Lazzaro B, Sackton T, Clark A. Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster resistance to infection: a comparison across bacteria. Genetics. 2006;174:1539-54 pubmed..lactis and E. faecalis, respectively, most of the molecular polymorphisms tested explain <10% of the total variance in bacterial load sustained after infection...
- Aparicio R, Neyen C, Lemaitre B, Busturia A. dRYBP contributes to the negative regulation of the Drosophila Imd pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62052 pubmed publisher..Beyond the identification of dRYBP as a novel component of Imd pathway regulation, our results also suggest that the evolutionarily conserved RYBP protein may be involved in the human innate immune response. ..
- Aderem A, Ulevitch R. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature. 2000;406:782-7 pubmed..This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence. ..
- Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
- Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
- Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Chen H, Zheng X, Zheng Y. Age-associated loss of lamin-B leads to systemic inflammation and gut hyperplasia. Cell. 2014;159:829-43 pubmed publisher..paperflick: ..
- Liu F, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Verleyen P, Schoofs L, Wets G. In silico identification of new secretory peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:510-22 pubmed..This bioinformatic study opens perspectives for the genome-wide analysis of peptide genes in other eukaryotic model organisms. ..
- Okado K, Shinzawa N, Aonuma H, Nelson B, Fukumoto S, Fujisaki K, et al. Rapid recruitment of innate immunity regulates variation of intracellular pathogen resistance in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:6-10 pubmed publisher..Taken together we provide the first experimental evidence to suggest that differences in innate immune activity at early time points during infection likely mediates infection susceptibility in Drosophila. ..
- Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
- Wiklund M, Steinert S, Junell A, Hultmark D, Stoven S. The N-terminal half of the Drosophila Rel/NF-kappaB factor Relish, REL-68, constitutively activates transcription of specific Relish target genes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:690-6 pubmed publisher..strong constitutive transcription of the Diptericin gene, but little constitutive or inducible transcription of Attacin and Cecropin, two other Relish target genes...
- Lazzaro B, Clark A. Evidence for recurrent paralogous gene conversion and exceptional allelic divergence in the Attacin genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2001;159:659-71 pubmed..We have surveyed naturally occurring genetic variation in the promoter and coding regions of three Attacin antibacterial peptide genes from 12 lines of Drosophila melanogaster...
- Donlea J, Ramanan N, Silverman N, Shaw P. Genetic rescue of functional senescence in synaptic and behavioral plasticity. Sleep. 2014;37:1427-37 pubmed publisher..These studies demonstrate that Drosophila provides a promising model for the study of age-related loss of neural plasticity and begin to identify genes that might be manipulated to delay the onset of functional senescence. ..
- Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed..AttD is more divergent and located on a different chromosome. Intriguingly, AttD may encode an intracellular attacin. DptB is linked in tandem to the closely related Diptericin...
- Feng Z, Liu H, Lang J, Li Y, Shu M, Chen Z. SK66-his, a novel glycine-rich peptide derived from Drosophila with antibacterial activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:769-71 pubmed..063 mg/l). It showed significant activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We determined a MIC value of 9 microg ml(-1) with Bacillus thuringiensis. ..