Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: AttA
Alias: ATT, Att, Att A, Att-A, BcDNA:LP05763, CG10146, Dmel\CG10146, anon-WO0140519.5, att, att A, attA, Attacin-A, AttA-PA, Attacin-A precursor, AttacinA, CG10146-PA, attacin, attacin A, attackin
Species: fruit fly
- Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed..Our results indicate that IAP gene family members may have acquired other functions, such as the regulation of the tumour necrosis factor-like IMD pathway during innate immune responses. ..
- Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
- Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed..synergistic activation of representative target genes of the two pathways, including Drosomycin, Diptericin, and AttacinA. Constitutive activation of Toll and PGRP-LC/IMD could mimic the synergistic stimulation...
- Gordon M, Ayres J, Schneider D, Nusse R. Pathogenesis of listeria-infected Drosophila wntD mutants is associated with elevated levels of the novel immunity gene edin. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000111 pubmed publisher..These results are consistent with a model in which the regulation of host factors, including edin, must be tightly controlled to avoid the detrimental consequences of having too much or too little activity...
- Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed..These studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role of ubiquitination in IKK activation, and provide new insights into the hierarchy of signaling components in the Drosophila antibacterial immunity pathway. ..
- Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
- Thevenon D, Engel E, Avet Rochex A, Gottar M, Bergeret E, Tricoire H, et al. The Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease dUSP36/Scny targets IMD to prevent constitutive immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:309-20 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify dUSP36 as a repressor whose IMD deubiquitination activity prevents nonspecific activation of innate immune signaling. ..
- Horng T, Medzhitov R. Drosophila MyD88 is an adapter in the Toll signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12654-8 pubmed
- Brennan C, Delaney J, Schneider D, Anderson K. Psidin is required in Drosophila blood cells for both phagocytic degradation and immune activation of the fat body. Curr Biol. 2007;17:67-72 pubmed..These data establish a role for the phagocytic blood cells of Drosophila in detection of infection and activation of the humoral immune response. ..
- Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
- Silverman N, Zhou R, Stoven S, Pandey N, Hultmark D, Maniatis T. A Drosophila IkappaB kinase complex required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2461-71 pubmed..Thus, a yet to be identified IkappaB kinase complex must be required for Rel protein activation via the Toll signaling pathway. ..
- Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
- Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
- Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
- Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
- Lee J, Edery I. Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infections. Curr Biol. 2008;18:195-9 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections. ..
- Kleino A, Myllymäki H, Kallio J, Vanha aho L, Oksanen K, Ulvila J, et al. Pirk is a negative regulator of the Drosophila Imd pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:5413-22 pubmed..Furthermore, pirk-overexpressing flies were more susceptible to Gram-negative bacterial infection than wild-type flies. We conclude that Pirk is a negative regulator of the Imd pathway. ..
- Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
- Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
- Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
- Libert S, Chao Y, Zwiener J, Pletcher S. Realized immune response is enhanced in long-lived puc and chico mutants but is unaffected by dietary restriction. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:810-7 pubmed..Such upregulation is not observed during DR, suggesting the presence of a mechanism that suppresses immune activity in diet-restricted animals. ..
- Avet Rochex A, Bergeret E, Attree I, Meister M, Fauvarque M. Suppression of Drosophila cellular immunity by directed expression of the ExoS toxin GAP domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed..Our results highlight the major contribution of cellular immunity during the first hours after Drosophila infection by P. aeruginosa, an opportunist pathogen affecting patients with pathologies associated to a reduced leukocyte number. ..
- Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher..peptidoglycan receptor protein genes PGRP-SB1 and PGRP-SD and the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes Diptericin-A, Attacin-A, Attacin-B, Cecropin-A1, and Drosocin...
- Tsuda M, Langmann C, Harden N, Aigaki T. The RING-finger scaffold protein Plenty of SH3s targets TAK1 to control immunity signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1082-7 pubmed..We show that POSH binds to and degrades TAK1, a crucial activator of both the JNK and the Relish signalling pathways. These results establish a novel role for POSH in the Drosophila immune system. ..
- Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed..Our genetic demonstration of dTAK1's role in the regulation of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide gene expression suggests an evolutionary conserved role for TAK1 in the activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-mediated host defense reactions. ..
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila. ..
- Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
- Landis G, Abdueva D, Skvortsov D, Yang J, Rabin B, Carrick J, et al. Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7663-8 pubmed..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging. ..
- Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
- Hedengren M, Asling B, Dushay M, Ando I, Ekengren S, Wihlborg M, et al. Relish, a central factor in the control of humoral but not cellular immunity in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1999;4:827-37 pubmed..Our results illustrate the importance of the humoral response in Drosophila immunity and demonstrate that Relish plays a key role in this response. ..
- Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
- Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
- Naitza S, Rosse C, Kappler C, Georgel P, Belvin M, Gubb D, et al. The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD. Immunity. 2002;17:575-81 pubmed..By genetic analysis we show that dFADD acts downstream of IMD in the pathway that controls inducibility of the antibacterial peptide genes. ..
- Takehana A, Katsuyama T, Yano T, Oshima Y, Takada H, Aigaki T, et al. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13705-10 pubmed..Therefore, PGRP-LE acts as a pattern-recognition receptor to the diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan and activates both the proteolytic cascade and intracellular signaling in Drosophila immunity. ..
- Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway. ..
- Erturk Hasdemir D, Broemer M, Leulier F, Lane W, Paquette N, Hwang D, et al. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9779-84 pubmed publisher..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish. ..
- Charroux B, Royet J. Elimination of plasmatocytes by targeted apoptosis reveals their role in multiple aspects of the Drosophila immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9797-802 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that plasmatocytes are involved in immune surveillance during pupal development, because they prevent bacterial infection that causes pupal lethality...
- Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed..expression is best induced by the Relish/Dif and the Relish/Dorsal heterodimers, respectively, whereas the attacin activity can be efficiently up-regulated by the Relish homodimer and heterodimers...
- Jin L, Choi J, Cho H, Shim J, Kim Y. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profiles of SL2 cells stimulated by LPS/PGN and curdlan. Mol Cells. 2008;25:553-8 pubmed
- Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed..We discuss in this light the possibility that NF-KB1/p50 might be required more specifically in the innate immune response against gram-positive bacteria in mammals. ..
- Huang H, Chen Z, Kunes S, Chang G, Maniatis T. Endocytic pathway is required for Drosophila Toll innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8322-7 pubmed publisher..Mop and Hrs, which are critical components of the ESCRT-0 endocytosis complex, colocalize with the Toll receptor in endosomes. We conclude that endocytosis is required for the activation of the Toll signaling pathway. ..
- Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
- Delaney J, Stoven S, Uvell H, Anderson K, Engstrom Y, Mlodzik M. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. EMBO J. 2006;25:3068-77 pubmed..Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. ..
- Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
- Hedengren Olcott M, Olcott M, Mooney D, Ekengren S, Geller B, Taylor B. Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21121-7 pubmed..Induction of Attacin A by Geotrichum candidum required Relish, whereas activation by Beauvaria bassiana required Dif, suggesting that ..
- Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Ip Y. Functional analysis of Toll-related genes in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:771-83 pubmed publisher..Overall our results suggest that some of the Toll-related proteins, such as 18W, Toll-7 and Toll-8, may have redundant functions in regulating developmental processes. ..
- Evans C, Aguilera R. DNase II: genes, enzymes and function. Gene. 2003;322:1-15 pubmed..In this review, we have compiled information from studies on DNase II from various organisms to provide a consensus model for the role of DNase II enzymes in DNA degradation. ..
- Pletcher S, Macdonald S, Marguerie R, Certa U, Stearns S, Goldstein D, et al. Genome-wide transcript profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2002;12:712-23 pubmed..Caloric restriction extends life span by slowing down the rate of normal aging. Transcription levels of genes from a wide variety of biological functions and processes are impacted by age and dietary conditions. ..
- Elrod Erickson M, Mishra S, Schneider D. Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:781-4 pubmed
- Orme M, Liccardi G, Moderau N, Feltham R, Wicky John S, Tenev T, et al. The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10972 pubmed publisher..Together, our results expose a conserved role for unconventional myosins in transducing caspase-dependent regulation of kinases, allowing them to take part in specific signalling events. ..
- Luce Fedrow A, Von Ohlen T, Chapes S. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infections in Drosophila melanogaster. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4815-26 pubmed publisher..chaffeensis suggests that D. melanogaster is a suitable host for E. chaffeensis. In the future, it will be a useful tool to unlock some of the in vivo mysteries of this arthropod-borne bacterium...
- Fedorka K, Linder J, Winterhalter W, Promislow D. Post-mating disparity between potential and realized immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1211-7 pubmed..Thus, estimates of immunity based on gene expression do not appear to reflect an actual ability to defend against pathogens in the hours following copulation. We discuss the possible mechanisms that may account for this pattern. ..
- Ayres J, Schneider D. The role of anorexia in resistance and tolerance to infections in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000150 pubmed publisher..This suggests that attempts to extend lifespan through diet restriction or the manipulation of pathways mimicking this process will have complicated effects on a host's ability to fight infections. ..