Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Atg1
Description: Autophagy-related 1
Alias: ATG1, CG10967, DK-4, DmATG1, Dmel\CG10967, ULK1, UNC 51-like, Unc-51, Unc51, anon-WO0118547.287, atg1, dATG1, dAtg1, l(3)00305, unc-51, unc51, Autophagy-related 1, Atg1-PA, Atg1-PB, Autophagy-specific gene 1, CG10967-PA, CG10967-PB, autophagy-related gene 1, autophagy-specific gene1, pegarn, uncoordinated movement-51
Species: fruit fly
- Mochizuki H, Toda H, Ando M, Kurusu M, Tomoda T, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Unc-51/ATG1 controls axonal and dendritic development via kinesin-mediated vesicle transport in the Drosophila brain. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19632 pubmed publisher..Unc-51-mediated membrane vesicle transport is important in targeted localization of guidance molecules and organelles that regulate elongation and compartmentalization of developing neurons. ..
- Liu S, Lu B. Reduction of protein translation and activation of autophagy protect against PINK1 pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001237 pubmed publisher..Induction of autophagy by Atg1 overexpression also rescued PINK1 mutant phenotypes, even in the presence of activated S6K...
- Ravikumar B, Berger Z, Vacher C, O Kane C, Rubinsztein D. Rapamycin pre-treatment protects against apoptosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1209-16 pubmed
- Velentzas P, Velentzas A, Mpakou V, Antonelou M, Margaritis L, Papassideri I, et al. Detrimental effects of proteasome inhibition activity in Drosophila melanogaster: implication of ER stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2013;29:13-37 pubmed publisher..Our data reveal the in vivo significance of proteasome functional integrity as a major defensive system against cellular toxicity likely occurring during critical biological processes and morphogenetic courses. ..
- Chang T, Shravage B, Hayes S, Powers C, Simin R, Wade Harper J, et al. Uba1 functions in Atg7- and Atg3-independent autophagy. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1067-78 pubmed publisher..Our data reveal that distinct autophagy programs are used by different cells within an animal, and disclose an unappreciated role for ubiquitin activation in autophagy. ..
- Pimenta de Castro I, Costa A, Lam D, Tufi R, Fedele V, Moisoi N, et al. Genetic analysis of mitochondrial protein misfolding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1308-16 pubmed publisher..We show that in flies, a pathway involving pink1, parkin and ref(2)P has a role in the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting organellar quality control. ..
- Tang H, Wang Y, Wang S, Wu M, Lin S, Chen G. Atg1-mediated myosin II activation regulates autophagosome formation during starvation-induced autophagy. EMBO J. 2011;30:636-51 pubmed publisher..The serine/threonine kinase Atg1 has a key role in the induction of autophagy...
- Berger Z, Ravikumar B, Menzies F, Oroz L, Underwood B, Pangalos M, et al. Rapamycin alleviates toxicity of different aggregate-prone proteins. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:433-42 pubmed..Thus, our studies suggest that the scope for rapamycin as a potential therapeutic in aggregate diseases may be much broader than HD or even polyglutamine diseases. ..
- Berry D, Baehrecke E. Growth arrest and autophagy are required for salivary gland cell degradation in Drosophila. Cell. 2007;131:1137-48 pubmed
- Wu H, Wang M, Bohmann D. JNK protects Drosophila from oxidative stress by trancriptionally activating autophagy. Mech Dev. 2009;126:624-37 pubmed publisher..Autophagy thus emerges as a multifunctional process that organisms employ in a variety of different situations using separate regulatory mechanisms. ..
- Demontis F, Perrimon N. FOXO/4E-BP signaling in Drosophila muscles regulates organism-wide proteostasis during aging. Cell. 2010;143:813-25 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal an organism-wide regulation of proteostasis in response to muscle aging and a key role of FOXO/4E-BP signaling in the coordination of organismal and tissue aging. ..
- Velichkova M, Juan J, Kadandale P, Jean S, Ribeiro I, Raman V, et al. Drosophila Mtm and class II PI3K coregulate a PI(3)P pool with cortical and endolysosomal functions. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:407-25 pubmed publisher..The broad interactions between mtm and class II Pi3K68D suggest a novel strategy for rebalancing PI(3)P-mediated cell functions in MTM-related human disease. ..
- Nezis I, Simonsen A, Sagona A, Finley K, Gaumer S, Contamine D, et al. Ref(2)P, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of mammalian p62, is required for the formation of protein aggregates in adult brain. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:1065-71 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal a major role for Ref(2)P in the formation of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates both under physiological conditions and when normal protein turnover is inhibited. ..
- Simonsen A, Cumming R, Brech A, Isakson P, SCHUBERT D, Finley K. Promoting basal levels of autophagy in the nervous system enhances longevity and oxidant resistance in adult Drosophila. Autophagy. 2008;4:176-84 pubmed
- Chang Y, Neufeld T. An Atg1/Atg13 complex with multiple roles in TOR-mediated autophagy regulation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2004-14 pubmed publisher..Here we describe a complex containing the protein kinase Atg1 and the phosphoprotein Atg13 that functions as a critical component of this regulation in Drosophila...
- Bass B, Tanner E, Mateos San Martín D, Blute T, Kinser R, Dolph P, et al. Cell-autonomous requirement for DNaseII in nonapoptotic cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1362-71 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we provide evidence that developmental nurse cell PCD in late oogenesis shows hallmarks of necrosis. These findings indicate that DNaseII can act cell autonomously to degrade DNA during nonapoptotic cell death. ..
- ZIRIN J, Perrimon N. Drosophila as a model system to study autophagy. Semin Immunopathol. 2010;32:363-72 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, the complex biology and physiology of Drosophila presents an opportunity to model human diseases in a tissue specific and analogous context. ..
- Cormier O, Mohseni N, Voytyuk I, Reed B. Autophagy can promote but is not required for epithelial cell extrusion in the amnioserosa of the Drosophila embryo. Autophagy. 2012;8:252-64 pubmed publisher..This includes using the GAL4/UAS system to drive expression of p35, reaper, dINR (ACT) and Atg1 in the AS; we also analyze embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic expression of Atg1...
- Tanner E, Blute T, Brachmann C, McCall K. Bcl-2 proteins and autophagy regulate mitochondrial dynamics during programmed cell death in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 2011;138:327-38 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, Bcl-2 family mutants show a striking defect in cell death in the ovary. These data indicate that a mitochondrial pathway is a major mechanism for activation of cell death in Drosophila oogenesis. ..
- Shravage B, Hill J, Powers C, Wu L, Baehrecke E. Atg6 is required for multiple vesicle trafficking pathways and hematopoiesis in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:1321-9 pubmed publisher..By contrast, the core autophagy gene Atg1 is required for autophagy and protein secretion, but it is not required for endocytosis...
- Juhasz G, Hill J, Yan Y, Sass M, Baehrecke E, Backer J, et al. The class III PI(3)K Vps34 promotes autophagy and endocytosis but not TOR signaling in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:655-66 pubmed publisher..Instead, we show that TOR/Atg1 signaling regulates the starvation-induced recruitment of PI(3)P to nascent autophagosomes...
- Shelly S, Lukinova N, Bambina S, Berman A, Cherry S. Autophagy is an essential component of Drosophila immunity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Immunity. 2009;30:588-98 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these data uncover an intrinsic antiviral program that links viral recognition to the evolutionarily conserved nutrient-signaling and autophagy pathways. ..
- Denton D, Chang T, Nicolson S, Shravage B, Simin R, Baehrecke E, et al. Relationship between growth arrest and autophagy in midgut programmed cell death in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1299-307 pubmed publisher..Despite the roles of autophagy in both survival and death, our findings suggest that autophagy induction occurs in response to similar signals in both scenarios. ..
- Politi Y, Gal L, Kalifa Y, Ravid L, Elazar Z, Arama E. Paternal mitochondrial destruction after fertilization is mediated by a common endocytic and autophagic pathway in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2014;29:305-20 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that the ubiquitin ligase Parkin is not involved in PMD, implying a divergence from the autophagic pathway of damaged mitochondria. ..
- Dutta S, Baehrecke E. Warts is required for PI3K-regulated growth arrest, autophagy, and autophagic cell death in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1466-75 pubmed publisher..Expression of Atg1, a regulator of autophagy, in salivary glands is sufficient to rescue wts mutant salivary gland destruction...
- Toda H, Mochizuki H, Flores R, Josowitz R, Krasieva T, Lamorte V, et al. UNC-51/ATG1 kinase regulates axonal transport by mediating motor-cargo assembly. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3292-307 pubmed publisher..Here we show that UNC-51/ATG1 kinase regulates the interaction between synaptic vesicles and motor complexes during transport in Drosophila...
- McPhee C, Logan M, Freeman M, Baehrecke E. Activation of autophagy during cell death requires the engulfment receptor Draper. Nature. 2010;465:1093-6 pubmed publisher..Knockdown of drpr prevents the induction of autophagy in dying salivary glands, and expression of the Atg1 autophagy regulator in drpr mutants suppresses the failure in degradation of salivary glands...
- Mohseni N, McMillan S, Chaudhary R, Mok J, Reed B. Autophagy promotes caspase-dependent cell death during Drosophila development. Autophagy. 2009;5:329-38 pubmed..Conversely, upregulation of autophagy results in caspase-dependent premature AS dissociation. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that autophagy is a prerequisite for caspase-dependent cell death in the AS. ..
- Nagy P, KÃ¡rpÃ¡ti M, Varga A, Pircs K, Venkei Z, TakÃ¡ts S, et al. Atg17/FIP200 localizes to perilysosomal Ref(2)P aggregates and promotes autophagy by activation of Atg1 in Drosophila. Autophagy. 2014;10:453-67 pubmed publisher..Drosophila Atg17 is a member of the Atg1 kinase complex as in mammals, and we showed that it binds to the other subunits including Atg1, Atg13, and Atg101 (..
- Kadandale P, Stender J, Glass C, Kiger A. Conserved role for autophagy in Rho1-mediated cortical remodeling and blood cell recruitment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10502-7 pubmed publisher..These results illuminate a specific and conserved role for autophagy as a regulatory mechanism for cortical remodeling, with implications for immune cell function. ..
- Nezis I, Shravage B, Sagona A, Lamark T, Bjørkøy G, Johansen T, et al. Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:523-31 pubmed publisher..Inhibition of autophagy by genetically removing the function of the autophagy genes atg1, atg13, and vps34 resulted in late stage egg chambers that contained persisting nurse cell nuclei without ..
- Chen S, Kang M, Chen Y, Tang H, Huang C, Li W, et al. Autophagy-related gene 7 is downstream of heat shock protein 27 in the regulation of eye morphology, polyglutamine toxicity, and lifespan in Drosophila. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:52 pubmed publisher..We propose that Atg7 acts downstream of Hsp27 in the regulation of eye morphology, polyglutamine toxicity, and lifespan in Drosophila. ..
- Barth J, Szabad J, Hafen E, Kohler K. Autophagy in Drosophila ovaries is induced by starvation and is required for oogenesis. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:915-24 pubmed publisher..Our data establish an important function for autophagy during oogenesis and contributes to the understanding of the role of autophagy in animal development...
- Nezis I, Lamark T, Velentzas A, Rusten T, Bjørkøy G, Johansen T, et al. Cell death during Drosophila melanogaster early oogenesis is mediated through autophagy. Autophagy. 2009;5:298-302 pubmed..Genetic inhibition of autophagy, by removing atg1 or atg7 function, results in significant reduction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that autophagy acts genetically ..
- Ling D, Salvaterra P. Brain aging and A????? neurotoxicity converge via deterioration in autophagy-lysosomal system: a conditional Drosophila model linking Alzheimer's neurodegeneration with aging. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;121:183-91 pubmed publisher..A chronic deterioration of the neuronal autophagy-lysosomal system is likely to be a key event in transitioning from normal brain aging to pathological aging leading to Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. ..
- Kourtis N, Tavernarakis N. Autophagy and cell death in model organisms. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:21-30 pubmed publisher..In this review, we survey current research in simple organisms, linking autophagy to cell death and discuss the complex interplay between autophagy, cell survival and cell death. ..
- Scott R, Juhasz G, Neufeld T. Direct induction of autophagy by Atg1 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1-11 pubmed..difficulty by directly manipulating autophagy rates in Drosophila through the autophagy-specific protein kinase Atg1. We find that overexpression of Atg1 is sufficient to induce high levels of autophagy, the first such demonstration ..
- Scott R, Schuldiner O, Neufeld T. Role and regulation of starvation-induced autophagy in the Drosophila fat body. Dev Cell. 2004;7:167-78 pubmed..the catabolic potential of autophagy, disruption of conserved components of the autophagic machinery, including ATG1 and ATG5, does not restore growth to TOR mutant cells...
- Wang T, Lao U, Edgar B. TOR-mediated autophagy regulates cell death in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:703-11 pubmed publisher..Thus, our data indicate that TOR induces cell death by suppressing autophagy and provide direct genetic evidence that autophagy alleviates cell death in several common types of neurodegenerative disease. ..
- Wen Y, Zhai R, Kim M. The role of autophagy in Nmnat-mediated protection against hypoxia-induced dendrite degeneration. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;52:140-51 pubmed publisher..We further show that inducing autophagy by overexpression of the autophagy-specific kinase Atg1 is sufficient to cause dendrite degeneration of class IV neurons under hypoxia and that overexpression of Nmnat ..
- Huang Z, Ren S, Jiang Y, Wang T. PINK1 and Parkin cooperatively protect neurons against constitutively active TRP channel-induced retinal degeneration in Drosophila. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2179 pubmed publisher..In addition, the results demonstrated that maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control can potentially alleviate cell death in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
- Lin Y, Tang C, He H, Duan R. Activation of mTOR ameliorates fragile X premutation rCGG repeat-mediated neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62572 pubmed publisher..Moreover, these results suggest mTOR and its downstream molecules as new therapeutic targets for FXTAS by showing significant protection against neurodegeneration. ..
- Devorkin L, Gorski S. Genetic manipulation of autophagy in the Drosophila ovary. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2014;2014:973-9 pubmed publisher..Atg7 or Atg8a are homozygous viable and develop to adulthood, whereas mutations in other autophagy genes, including Atg1, are homozygous lethal...
- Ma M, Zhao H, Zhao H, Binari R, Perrimon N, Li Z. Wildtype adult stem cells, unlike tumor cells, are resistant to cellular damages in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2016;411:207-216 pubmed publisher..Together, these data demonstrate that wildtype adult stem cells and tumor cells show dramatic differences in sensitivity to cellular damages, thus providing potential therapeutic implications targeting tumorigenesis. ..
- Omata Y, Lim Y, Akao Y, Tsuda L. Age-induced reduction of autophagy-related gene expression is associated with onset of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Neurodegener Dis. 2014;3:134-42 pubmed..In this study, we found that expression of the autophagy-related genes atg1, atg8a, and atg18 in Drosophila melanogaster was regulated with aging as well as their own activities...
- Rui Y, Xu Z, Patel B, Chen Z, Chen D, Tito A, et al. Huntingtin functions as a scaffold for selective macroautophagy. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:262-75 pubmed publisher..Maximal activation of selective autophagy during stress is attained by the ability of Huntingtin to bind ULK1, a kinase that initiates autophagy, which releases ULK1 from negative regulation by mTOR...
- Haberman A, Williamson W, Epstein D, Wang D, Rina S, Meinertzhagen I, et al. The synaptic vesicle SNARE neuronal Synaptobrevin promotes endolysosomal degradation and prevents neurodegeneration. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:261-76 pubmed publisher..Our findings further shed light on which intraneuronal compartments exhibit increased or decreased neurotoxicity. ..
- Ahantarig A, Chadwell L, Terrazas I, Garcia C, Nazarian J, Lee H, et al. Molecular characterization of Pegarn: a Drosophila homolog of UNC-51 kinase. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1311-21 pubmed publisher..the gene encoding a Drosophila melanogaster homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-51 (uncoordinated movement-51): Pegarn. Developmental Northern blot shows the Pegarn gene is expressed at all stages of development...
- PÃ©rez E, Das G, Bergmann A, Baehrecke E. Autophagy regulates tissue overgrowth in a context-dependent manner. Oncogene. 2015;34:3369-76 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that autophagy has different influences on tissue growth in distinct contexts, and highlight the importance of understanding the influence of autophagy on growth to augment a rationale therapeutic strategy. ..
- Batlevi Y, Martin D, Pandey U, Simon C, Powers C, Taylor J, et al. Dynein light chain 1 is required for autophagy, protein clearance, and cell death in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:742-7 pubmed publisher..Ectopic expression of Atg1 is sufficient to induce autophagy, clear protein inclusions, and rescue degradation of ddlc1 mutant salivary glands...
- Nagy P, Varga Ã, KovÃ¡cs A, TakÃ¡ts S, JuhÃ¡sz G. How and why to study autophagy in Drosophila: it's more than just a garbage chute. Methods. 2015;75:151-61 pubmed publisher..We show examples for results obtained in different assays, explain how to interpret these with regard to autophagic activity, and how to find out which step of autophagy a given gene product is involved in. ..
- Sopko R, Foos M, Vinayagam A, Zhai B, Binari R, Hu Y, et al. Combining genetic perturbations and proteomics to examine kinase-phosphatase networks in Drosophila embryos. Dev Cell. 2014;31:114-27 pubmed publisher..Further, we show how correlative phosphorylation at the site level can indicate function, as exemplified by Sterile20-like kinase-dependent regulation of Stat92E. ..
- Sen A, Kalvakuri S, Bodmer R, Cox R. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:577-89 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. ..
- Kuhn H, Sopko R, Coughlin M, Perrimon N, Mitchison T. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos. Development. 2015;142:3869-78 pubmed publisher..shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was ..
- Braden C, Neufeld T. Atg1-independent induction of autophagy by the Drosophila Ulk3 homolog, ADUK. FEBS J. 2016;283:3889-3897 pubmed publisherAlthough canonical autophagy regulation requires a multi-protein complex centered on the Ser/Thr-kinase Atg1 (mammalian Ulk1/2), alternative signals can induce autophagy independent of Atg1 through unknown mechanisms...