Gene Symbol: AstA
Description: Allatostatin A
Alias: ALLS, ASA, AST, AST-1, AST-3, AST-4, AST-A, Ast, Ast-A, AstA-1, AstA-2, AstA-3, AstA-4, BcDNA:RE16553, CG13633, DAP, DAP-A, DST-1A, DST-2A, DST-3A, DST-4A, Dmel\CG13633, Drm-AST-1, Drm-AST-2, Drm-AST-3, Drm-AST-4, Drm-AST-A, ast, allatostatin A, AstA-PA, AstA-PB, CG13633-PA, CG13633-PB, Drostatin-A1, Drostatin-A3, Drostatin-A4, FGLa-type allatostatin, allatostatin, allatostatin A-1, allatostatin Diploptera-type, allatostatin-A-like, allatostatin-A4, drostatin-A2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Yoon J, Stay B. Immunocytochemical localization of Diploptera punctata allatostatin-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1995;363:475-88 pubmed
    ..This report provides evidence for the presence of allatostatin-like peptides in Drosophila melanogaster by demonstration of allatostatic activity of extracts of central ..
  2. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  3. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  4. Carlsson M, Diesner M, Schachtner J, Nassel D. Multiple neuropeptides in the Drosophila antennal lobe suggest complex modulatory circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3359-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These were short neuropeptide F, tachykinin related peptide, allatostatin A, myoinhibitory peptide, SIFamide, IPNamide, and myosuppressin...
  5. Lenz C, Williamson M, Hansen G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:1117-22 pubmed
    ..GPCR, or DGR) that was previously shown to be the receptor for an intrinsic Drosophila A-type (cockroach-type) allatostatin. Here, we have permanently expressed DAR-2 in CHO cells and found that it is the cognate receptor for four ..
  6. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..This clearly demonstrates that the two-dimensional capillary LC approach enhances the coverage of the peptidomic analysis. ..
  7. Lenz C, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and genomic organization of an allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;273:1126-31 pubmed
    ..Using PCR with oligonucleotide primers directed against the presumed exons of this Drosophila allatostatin gene and subsequent 3'- and 5'-RACE, we were able to clone its cDNA...
  8. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this article is the first report on the molecular identification of an invertebrate FMRFamide receptor. ..
  9. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..

More Information


  1. Larsen M, Burton K, Zantello M, Smith V, Lowery D, Kubiak T. Type A allatostatins from Drosophila melanogaster and Diplotera puncata activate two Drosophila allatostatin receptors, DAR-1 and DAR-2, expressed in CHO cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:895-901 pubmed
    The type-A allatostatins A (AST-A) are a group of insect peptides with a common C-terminal motif Y/FXFGL-NH(2)...
  2. Wang C, Chin Sang I, Bendena W. The FGLamide-allatostatins influence foraging behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36059 pubmed publisher
    ..Dar-1 and FGLa/AST RNAi lines showed a significant reduction in larval foraging in the presence of food...
  3. Wang C, Zhang J, Tobe S, Bendena W. Defining the contribution of select neuropeptides and their receptors in regulating sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis by Drosophila melanogaster ring gland/corpus allatum through RNAi analysis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;176:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..D. melanogaster strains containing an inducible UAS-RNAi construct made to either PheGlyLeu-NH(2)-allatostatin (FGLa/AST) and its cognate receptors Dar-1 and Dar-2 or PISCF-allatostatin (PISCF/AST) or its cognate receptors ..
  4. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..The two Drosophila pyrokinin receptors are, to our knowledge, the first invertebrate pyrokinin receptors to be identified. ..
  5. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..
  6. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function. ..
  7. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  8. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40368-74 pubmed
    ..This neuropeptide expression profiling study also opens perspectives for other eukaryotic model systems, for which genome projects are completed or in progress. ..
  9. Salisbury J, Boggio K, Hsu Y, Quijada J, Sivachenko A, Gloeckner G, et al. A rapid MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry workflow for Drosophila melanogaster differential neuropeptidomics. Mol Brain. 2013;6:60 pubmed publisher
    ..While the data analysis methods should be compatible with other sample preparations, the presented sample preparation method was sufficient to identify previously unconfirmed D. melanogaster neuropeptides. ..
  10. Pool J. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..
  11. Martínez Pérez F, Bendena W, Chang B, Tobe S. FGLamide Allatostatin genes in Arthropoda: introns early or late?. Peptides. 2009;30:1241-8 pubmed
    ..The FGLamide allatostatin (AST) gene structure in Dictyoptera is intronless within the ORF, whereas in 9 species of Diptera, the FGLamide ..
  12. Pool A, Scott K. Feeding regulation in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014;29:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. ..
  13. Bowser P, Tobe S. Comparative genomic analysis of allatostatin-encoding (Ast) genes in Drosophila species and prediction of regulatory elements by phylogenetic footprinting. Peptides. 2007;28:83-93 pubmed
    The role of the YXFGLa family of allatostatin (AST) peptides in dipterans is not well-established...
  14. Ohlstein B, Spradling A. The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2006;439:470-4 pubmed
    ..The identification of Drosophila intestinal stem cells with striking similarities to their vertebrate counterparts will facilitate the genetic analysis of normal and abnormal intestinal function. ..
  15. Cazzamali G, Saxild N, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila corazonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:31-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a receptor that is structurally very similar to the Drosophila corazonin receptor can be found in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ..
  16. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Williamson M, Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect proctolin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:437-42 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila receptor reported here is the first invertebrate proctolin receptor to be identified. ..
  17. Peixoto A, Costa R, Hall J. Molecular and behavioral analysis of sex-linked courtship song variation in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2000;14:245-56 pubmed
    ..We found significant differences among the lines in IPI and PA, and for the latter a significant association with one of the polymorphic sites of cac. ..
  18. Bowser P, Tobe S. Bioinformatic analysis of neuropeptide and receptor expression profiles during midgut metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Peptides. 2006;27:583-9 pubmed
  19. Johnson E, Bohn L, Taghert P. Drosophila CG8422 encodes a functional diuretic hormone receptor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:743-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of a Drosophila receptor for the DH neuropeptide provides a basis for genetic analysis of this critical factor's roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. ..
  20. Reiher W, Shirras C, Kahnt J, Baumeister S, Isaac R, Wegener C. Peptidomics and peptide hormone processing in the Drosophila midgut. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..we found 24 peptides from 9 different preprohormones in midgut extracts, including MIP-4 and 2 forms of AST-C. DH(31), CCHamide1 and CCHamide2 are biochemically characterized for the first time...
  21. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9808-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the molecular identification of specific insect myosuppressin receptors. ..
  22. Hentze J, Carlsson M, Kondo S, Nässel D, Rewitz K. The Neuropeptide Allatostatin A Regulates Metabolism and Feeding Decisions in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11680 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila neuropeptide Allatostatin A (AstA) regulates AKH and DILP signaling...
  23. Bendena W, Campbell J, Zara L, Tobe S, Chin Sang I. Select Neuropeptides and their G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:93 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and C. elegans and the behaviors that have been uncovered through genetic manipulation. ..
  24. Nässel D, Williams M. Cholecystokinin-Like Peptide (DSK) in Drosophila, Not Only for Satiety Signaling. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:219 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in the DSK-producing neurons is regulated by octopamine. We discuss mechanisms behind CCK function in satiety, aggression, and locomotion in some detail and highlight similarities to mammalian CCK signaling. ..
  25. Amcheslavsky A, Song W, Li Q, Nie Y, Bragatto I, Ferrandon D, et al. Enteroendocrine cells support intestinal stem-cell-mediated homeostasis in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish that enteroendocrine cells serve as an important link between diet and visceral muscle expression of an insulin-like growth factor to stimulate intestinal stem cell proliferation and tissue growth. ..
  26. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  27. Bowser P, Tobe S. Immunocytochemical analysis of putative allatostatin receptor (DAR-2) distribution in the CNS of larval Drosophila melanogaster. Peptides. 2005;26:81-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, double labeling immunocytochemistry revealed a substantial superposition between distribution of AST-like immunoreactivity and the putative DAR-2 protein in at least five cell bodies in the region of the ring gland ..
  28. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
    ..and eight different neuropeptides; Drosophila tachykinin, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, allatostatin A, proctolin, SIFamide, neuropeptide F, and FMRFamide...
  29. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  30. Kondo S, Ueda R. Highly improved gene targeting by germline-specific Cas9 expression in Drosophila. Genetics. 2013;195:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3-23%. Our method is readily scalable to high-throughput gene targeting, thereby accelerating comprehensive functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. ..
  31. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..
  32. Min S, Chae H, Jang Y, Choi S, Lee S, Jeong Y, et al. Identification of a Peptidergic Pathway Critical to Satiety Responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2016;26:814-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal a novel anorexigenic pathway that controls satiety in Drosophila and provide a new avenue to study how the brain actively maintains a constant BW. ..
  33. Vanderveken M, O Donnell M. Effects of diuretic hormone 31, drosokinin, and allatostatin A on transepithelial K? transport and contraction frequency in the midgut and hindgut of larval Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2014;85:76-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We have measured the effects of diuretic hormone 31 (DH31), drosokinin and allatostatin A (AST-A) on both K(+) transport and muscle contraction frequency in the isolated gut of larval D. melanogaster...
  34. Farhan A, Gulati J, Groβe Wilde E, Vogel H, Hansson B, Knaden M. The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2765 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications. ..
  35. Burtenshaw S, Su P, Zhang J, Tobe S, Dayton L, Bendena W. A putative farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) orthologue in Drosophila melanogaster (CG10527): relationship to juvenile hormone biosynthesis?. Peptides. 2008;29:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of MF, JHIII and JHB3 release in wild type and mutant stocks in the presence and absence of Drome AST (PISCF-type) suggest that Drosophila FAMeT has little if any effect on sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis...
  36. Hergarden A, Tayler T, Anderson D. Allatostatin-A neurons inhibit feeding behavior in adult Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of neuronal activity, we show that activation of neurons (or neuroendocrine cells) expressing the neuropeptide allatostatin A (AstA) inhibits or limits several starvation-induced changes in feeding behavior in adult Drosophila, ..
  37. Zitnan D, Sehnal F, Bryant P. Neurons producing specific neuropeptides in the central nervous system of normal and pupariation-delayed Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1993;156:117-35 pubmed
    Antibodies generated against bombyxin and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) of Bombyx mori and allatotropin, allatostatin, and diuretic hormone (DH) of Manduca sexta react with distinct sets of cells in the central nervous system of ..