Gene Symbol: asp
Description: abnormal spindle
Alias: ASP, Asp, CG6875, Dm Asp, Dmel\CG6875, anon-96Aa, anon-WO0118547.279, abnormal spindle, CG6875-PA, abnormal spindle protein, abnormal spindles, asp-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Schnorrer F, Luschnig S, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Gamma-tubulin37C and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 are essential for bicoid RNA localization during drosophila oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:685-96 pubmed
    ..At stage 10b, we find gammaTub37C and Dgrip75 anteriorly concentrated and propose the formation of a microtubule-organizing center at the anterior pole of the oocyte...
  2. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..Two candidate dynein-dependent spindle pole organizers also were investigated. RNAi depletion of the abnormal spindle protein, Asp, which localizes to focused poles of control spindles, produced a severe loss of spindle pole focus, ..
  3. Donaldson M, Tavares A, Ohkura H, Deak P, Glover D. Metaphase arrest with centromere separation in polo mutants of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:663-76 pubmed
    ..spindles are anastral and have assembled upon centrosomes that are associated with Centrosomin and the abnormal spindle protein (Asp), but neither with gamma-tubulin nor CP190...
  4. Colombié N, Verollet C, Sampaio P, Moisand A, Sunkel C, Bourbon H, et al. The Drosophila gamma-tubulin small complex subunit Dgrip84 is required for structural and functional integrity of the spindle apparatus. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:272-82 pubmed
    ..The nature of a minimal gamma-tubulin complex necessary for proper microtubule organization in the metazoans is discussed. ..
  5. Carmena M, Gonzalez C, Casal J, Ripoll P. Dosage dependence of maternal contribution to somatic cell division in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1991;113:1357-64 pubmed
    ..loss of a marked Y chromosome due to chromosome nondisjunction in individuals homozygous for the mutation abnormal spindle who are progeny of heterozygous mothers...
  6. Wakefield J, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. The drosophila protein asp is involved in microtubule organization during spindle formation and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:637-48 pubmed
    b>Abnormal spindle (Asp) is a 220-kD microtubule-associated protein from Drosophila that has been suggested to be involved in microtubule nucleation from the centrosome...
  7. do Carmo Avides M, Tavares A, Glover D. Polo kinase and Asp are needed to promote the mitotic organizing activity of centrosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:421-4 pubmed
    ..The abnormal spindles of asp mutants are bipolar but have disorganized broad poles at which gamma-tubulin has an abnormal ..
  8. Basto R, Gomes R, Karess R. Rough deal and Zw10 are required for the metaphase checkpoint in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:939-43 pubmed
    ..These are the first checkpoint components to be identified that do not have obvious homologues in budding yeast. ..
  9. Gonzalez C, Saunders R, Casal J, Molina I, Carmena M, Ripoll P, et al. Mutations at the asp locus of Drosophila lead to multiple free centrosomes in syncytial embryos, but restrict centrosome duplication in larval neuroblasts. J Cell Sci. 1990;96 ( Pt 4):605-16 pubmed
    Mutations at abnormal spindle result in abnormally long and wavy microtubules in the meiotic spindles of males. Some of these spindles have a single pole and take the form of unopposed hemi-spindles...

More Information


  1. Gonzalez C, Molina I, Casal J, Ripoll P. Gross genetic dissection and interaction of the chromosomal region 95E;96F of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;123:371-7 pubmed
    ..We localized cytologically the loci abnormal spindle (asp: 3-85.2: 96A20-25;96B1-10) and M(3)96C2 (96C1;96C5)...
  2. Glover D, Hagan I, Tavares A. Polo-like kinases: a team that plays throughout mitosis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3777-87 pubmed
  3. Saunders R, Avides M, Howard T, Gonzalez C, Glover D. The Drosophila gene abnormal spindle encodes a novel microtubule-associated protein that associates with the polar regions of the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:881-90 pubmed
    b>abnormal spindle, a gene required for normal spindle structure and function in Drosophila melanogaster, lies immediately adjacent the gene tolloid at 96A/B. It encodes a 220-kD polypeptide with a predicted pI of 10.8...
  4. Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Avides M. A requirement for the Abnormal Spindle protein to organise microtubules of the central spindle for cytokinesis in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:913-22 pubmed
    Drosophila abnormal spindle (asp) mutants exhibit a mitotic metaphase checkpoint arrest with abnormal spindle poles, which reflects a requirement for Asp for the integrity of microtubule organising centres (MTOCs)...
  5. White Cooper H, Carmena M, Gonzalez C, Glover D. Mutations in new cell cycle genes that fail to complement a multiply mutant third chromosome of Drosophila. Genetics. 1996;144:1097-111 pubmed to complement five cell cycle mutations of Drosphila carried on a single third chromosome (gnu, polo, mgr, asp, stg)...
  6. Casal J, Gonzalez C, Wandosell F, Avila J, Ripoll P. Abnormal meiotic spindles cause a cascade of defects during spermatogenesis in asp males of Drosophila. Development. 1990;108:251-60 pubmed
    ..The asp locus of Drosophila melanogaster codes for a non-tubulin component implicated in proper spindle structure and/or ..
  7. Shimell M, Ferguson E, Childs S, O Connor M. The Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning gene tolloid is related to human bone morphogenetic protein 1. Cell. 1991;67:469-81 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that these genes are members of a signal generating pathway that has been conserved between insects and mammals. ..
  8. Barbosa V, Gatt M, Rebollo E, Gonzalez C, Glover D. Drosophila dd4 mutants reveal that gammaTuRC is required to maintain juxtaposed half spindles in spermatocytes. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:929-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that spermatocytes do not need astral microtubules nucleated by opposite poles to intersect in order to form a central spindle and a cleavage furrow. ..
  9. do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed
    The product of the abnormal spindle (asp) gene was found to be an asymmetrically localized component of the centrosome during mitosis, required to focus the poles of the mitotic spindle in vivo...
  10. Raynaud Messina B, Mazzolini L, Moisand A, Cirinesi A, Wright M. Elongation of centriolar microtubule triplets contributes to the formation of the mitotic spindle in gamma-tubulin-depleted cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5497-507 pubmed
    ..This mitotic accumulation coincided with the activation of the mitotic checkpoint. Immunostaining with an anti-Asp antibody revealed that the spindle poles, which were always devoid of gamma-tubulin, were unfocused and organized ..
  11. Saunders R, Glover D, Ashburner M, Siden Kiamos I, Louis C, Monastirioti M, et al. PCR amplification of DNA microdissected from a single polytene chromosome band: a comparison with conventional microcloning. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:9027-37 pubmed
    ..Thus microamplification is significantly more effective than microcloning in providing probes for establishing chromosomal walks. ..
  12. Buffin E, Emre D, Karess R. Flies without a spindle checkpoint. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:565-72 pubmed
  13. Ripoll P, Pimpinelli S, Valdivia M, Avila J. A cell division mutant of Drosophila with a functionally abnormal spindle. Cell. 1985;41:907-12 pubmed
    ..Homozygosity for a semi-lethal mutation of Drosophila melanogaster (abnormal spindle) altering this structure has the following effects: the mitotic cycle is arrested in metaphase, leading to a ..
  14. Barbosa V, Yamamoto R, Henderson D, Glover D. Mutation of a Drosophila gamma tubulin ring complex subunit encoded by discs degenerate-4 differentially disrupts centrosomal protein localization. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3126-39 pubmed
    ..CNN) remains in broad discrete bodies but only at the focused poles of such spindles, whereas Asp (abnormal spindle protein) is always present at the presumptive minus ends of microtubules, whether or not they are focused...
  15. Scholey J, Rogers G, Sharp D. Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:261-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanical events of mitosis depend on the action of microtubules and mitotic motors, but whether these spindle components act alone or in concert with a spindle matrix is an important question. ..
  16. Ahmad S, Tansey T, Busser B, Nolte M, Jeffries N, Gisselbrecht S, et al. Two forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;23:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway demonstrates how transcription factors integrate diverse developmental processes during organogenesis. ..
  17. Zhang D, Rogers G, Buster D, Sharp D. Three microtubule severing enzymes contribute to the "Pacman-flux" machinery that moves chromosomes. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:231-42 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings reveal novel and significant roles for microtubule severing within the spindle and broaden our understanding of the molecular machinery used to move chromosomes. ..
  18. Meghini F, Martins T, Tait X, Fujimitsu K, Yamano H, Glover D, et al. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12607 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Spd2 is also a novel APC/C(Fzr) substrate. Our study is the first to demonstrate the critical importance of distinct subcellular pools of APC/C activators in the spatiotemporal control of APC/C activity. ..
  19. Shao W, Wu J, Chen J, Lee D, Tishkina A, Harris T. A modifier screen for Bazooka/PAR-3 interacting genes in the Drosophila embryo epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9938 pubmed publisher
    ..For 13 of the 17 genes, this is the first report of a link to baz or the regulation of epithelial structure. ..
  20. Gatti M, Goldberg M. Mutations affecting cell division in Drosophila. Methods Cell Biol. 1991;35:543-86 pubmed
  21. Zhang G, Breuer M, Förster A, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. Mars, a Drosophila protein related to vertebrate HURP, is required for the attachment of centrosomes to the mitotic spindle during syncytial nuclear divisions. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Mars is an important linker between the spindle and the centrosomes that is required for proper spindle organization during the rapid mitotic cycles in early embryogenesis. ..
  22. Wainman A, Creque J, Williams B, Williams E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M, et al. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the absence of NudE, the 'shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. ..
  23. Blagden S, Glover D. Polar expeditions--provisioning the centrosome for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:505-11 pubmed
    ..Centrosomes enlarge dramatically after mitotic entry, when both Aurora A and Polo-like kinases cooperate to recruit additional gamma-tubulin ring complexes and microtubule-associated proteins to assist spindle formation. ..
  24. Cobb M. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster olfactory mutation Indifferent. Genetics. 1996;144:1577-87 pubmed
    ..The overall responses of IndfA, IndfB and the deficiencies indicate that Indf is involved in processing organic odors of between eight and 10 carbons in length. ..
  25. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. Assembly of yolk spindles in the early Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 2003;120:441-54 pubmed
    ..The presence of normal and abnormal centrosomes in the same cytoplasm provides an useful model for investigating the common regulators of the nucleus and centrosome cycle which ensure precise spindle pole duplication. ..
  26. Riparbelli M, Callaini G. The meiotic spindle of the Drosophila oocyte: the role of centrosomin and the central aster. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2827-36 pubmed
    ..This region has the ability to bind the Pavarotti kinesin-like (PAV-KLP) and Abnormal spindle (Asp) proteins, indicating a correct organization of the central spindle microtubules...
  27. Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Hales K, Hays T, Lee L. Asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2709-21 pubmed publisher
  28. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dgt6 may also promote elongation of kinetochore-driven k-fibers through its interaction with gamma-tubulin and Msps. ..
  29. Smyth J, Schoborg T, Bergman Z, Riggs B, Rusan N. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules. Open Biol. 2015;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. ..
  30. Ragkousi K, Gibson M. Cell division and the maintenance of epithelial order. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal how symmetrically dividing cells both exploit and conform to tissue organization to orient their mitotic spindles during division and establish new adhesive junctions during cytokinesis. ..
  31. Riparbelli M, Gottardo M, Glover D, Callaini G. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:2064-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these defects spermatid differentiation proceeds, leading to axoneme formation. ..
  32. Musarò M, Ciapponi L, Fasulo B, Gatti M, Cenci G. Unprotected Drosophila melanogaster telomeres activate the spindle assembly checkpoint. Nat Genet. 2008;40:362-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results collectively suggest that recruitment of BubR1 by dysfunctional telomeres inhibits Cdc20-APC function, preventing the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. ..
  33. Dekanty A, Barrio L, Muzzopappa M, Auer H, Milan M. Aneuploidy-induced delaminating cells drive tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20549-54 pubmed publisher
  34. Rahmani Z, Gagou M, Lefebvre C, Emre D, Karess R. Separating the spindle, checkpoint, and timer functions of BubR1. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..bubR1-KD individuals have a robust SAC but abnormal spindles with thin kinetochore fibers, suggesting that the kinase activity modulates microtubule capture and/or ..
  35. Glover D. Abbreviated and regulated cell cycles in Drosophila. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1990;2:258-61 pubmed
  36. Kline Smith S, Walczak C. Microtubules in orbit. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:5-6 pubmed
  37. Inoue Y, Savoian M, Suzuki T, Mathe E, Yamamoto M, Glover D. Mutations in orbit/mast reveal that the central spindle is comprised of two microtubule populations, those that initiate cleavage and those that propagate furrow ingression. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:49-60 pubmed
    ..Our work identifies a new function for Orbit/Mast/CLASP and identifies a novel MT population involved in cleavage furrow initiation. ..
  38. Inoue Y, Glover D. Involvement of the rolled/MAP kinase gene in Drosophila mitosis: interaction between genes for the MAP kinase cascade and abnormal spindle. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:334-41 pubmed
    ..However, partial loss-of-function mutations in rolled enhance the abnormal spindle (asp) phenotype, whereas gain-of function mutations in rolled or in the gene encoding its activating kinase ..
  39. Castellanos E, Dominguez P, Gonzalez C. Centrosome dysfunction in Drosophila neural stem cells causes tumors that are not due to genome instability. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that such tumors might be caused by impaired asymmetric division of neural stem cells [4]. These results show that centrosome loss, far from being innocuous, is a potentially dangerous condition in flies...
  40. Nguyen T, Jamal J, Shimell M, Arora K, O Connor M. Characterization of tolloid-related-1: a BMP-1-like product that is required during larval and pupal stages of Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 1994;166:569-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that tld and tlr-1 arose by gene duplication and that each has evolved independently to acquire distinct tissue specific roles in Drosophila development. ..
  41. Araki M, Yu H, Asano M. A novel motif governs APC-dependent degradation of Drosophila ORC1 in vivo. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2458-65 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that O-box motifs in two other proteins, Drosophila Abnormal Spindle and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cut2, contribute to Cdh1-dependent polyubiquitylation in vitro, suggesting that ..
  42. Rebollo E, Llamazares S, Reina J, Gonzalez C. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E8 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a model in which centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules contribute to the assembly and are required for the robustness of the cell division spindle in cells that contain centrosomes. ..
  43. Horn C, Offen N, Nystedt S, Hacker U, Wimmer E. piggyBac-based insertional mutagenesis and enhancer detection as a tool for functional insect genomics. Genetics. 2003;163:647-61 pubmed
    ..This indicates that piggyBac will greatly facilitate the intended saturation mutagenesis in Drosophila. ..
  44. Gonzalez C, Sunkel C, Glover D. Interactions between mgr, asp, and polo: asp function modulated by polo and needed to maintain the poles of monopolar and bipolar spindles. Chromosoma. 1998;107:452-60 pubmed
    We describe genetic interactions between mutations in mgr, asp, and polo, genes required for the correct behaviour of the spindle poles in Drosophila...
  45. Gatt M, Savoian M, Riparbelli M, Massarelli C, Callaini G, Glover D. Klp67A destabilises pre-anaphase microtubules but subsequently is required to stabilise the central spindle. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2671-82 pubmed
    ..The minus ends of these were poorly aligned as revealed by Asp protein localisation...
  46. Trammell M, Mahoney N, Agard D, Vale R. Mob4 plays a role in spindle focusing in Drosophila S2 cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mob4 RNAi phenotype most closely resembles that observed after depletion of the protein encoded by abnormal spindle (Asp), although Asp localization is not substantially affected by Mob4 RNAi...
  47. Wehr K, Swan A, Schupbach T. Deadlock, a novel protein of Drosophila, is required for germline maintenance, fusome morphogenesis and axial patterning in oogenesis and associates with centrosomes in the early embryo. Dev Biol. 2006;294:406-17 pubmed
    ..Our genetic and immunohistological experiments point to a role for Deadlock in microtubule function during oogenesis. ..
  48. Glover D. Mitosis in the Drosophila embryo--in and out of control. Trends Genet. 1991;7:125-32 pubmed
    ..Such regulation is introduced together with a G2 phase in cycle 14, and the network of universal mitotic regulators comes under the overall control of string, a cdc25 homologue, whose transcription is activated within mitotic domains. ..
  49. Verollet C, Colombié N, Daubon T, Bourbon H, Wright M, Raynaud Messina B. Drosophila melanogaster gamma-TuRC is dispensable for targeting gamma-tubulin to the centrosome and microtubule nucleation. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:517-28 pubmed
    ..Individual depletion of gamma-TuRC components, in cultured cells and in vivo, induces mitotic delay and abnormal spindles. Surprisingly, gamma-TuSCs are recruited to the centrosomes...
  50. Gonzalez C, Tavosanis G, Mollinari C. Centrosomes and microtubule organisation during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 18):2697-706 pubmed
    ..In this review we present some of the many examples which illustrate how centrosomes and microtubule organisation changes through development in Drosophila and discuss some of its implications. ..
  51. Milan M, Clemente Ruiz M, Dekanty A, Muzzopappa M. Aneuploidy and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;28:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis in light of the contribution of Drosophila epithelial cancer models and propose a stress-induced tumor-promoting role of aneuploidy. ..
  52. Ito A, Goshima G. Microcephaly protein Asp focuses the minus ends of spindle microtubules at the pole and within the spindle. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    Depletion of Drosophila melanogaster Asp, an orthologue of microcephaly protein ASPM, causes spindle pole unfocusing during mitosis...
  53. Vernì F, Somma M, Gunsalus K, Bonaccorsi S, Belloni G, Goldberg M, et al. Feo, the Drosophila homolog of PRC1, is required for central-spindle formation and cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1569-75 pubmed
    ..These thin central spindles exhibited diffuse localizations of both the Pav and Asp proteins, suggesting that these spindles comprise improperly oriented MTs...
  54. Damasco C, Lembo A, Somma M, Gatti M, Di Cunto F, Provero P. A signature inferred from Drosophila mitotic genes predicts survival of breast cancer patients. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14737 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding highlights cytokinesis as an important marker in breast cancer prognosis and as a possible target for antimitotic therapies. ..
  55. Mottier Pavie V, Cenci G, Vernì F, Gatti M, Bonaccorsi S. Phenotypic analysis of misato function reveals roles of noncentrosomal microtubules in Drosophila spindle formation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that kinetochore-driven MT formation is an essential process for proper spindle assembly in Drosophila somatic cells. ..
  56. Rath U, Rogers G, Tan D, Gomez Ferreria M, Buster D, Sosa H, et al. The Drosophila kinesin-13, KLP59D, impacts Pacman- and Flux-based chromosome movement. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4696-705 pubmed publisher
  57. Williams B, Leung G, Maiato H, Wong A, Li Z, Williams E, et al. Mitch a rapidly evolving component of the Ndc80 kinetochore complex required for correct chromosome segregation in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3522-33 pubmed
    ..Despite the crucial role of Mitch in cell division, the mitch gene has evolved very rapidly among species in the genus Drosophila. ..
  58. Brunk K, Vernay B, Griffith E, Reynolds N, Strutt D, Ingham P, et al. Microcephalin coordinates mitosis in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3578-88 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic similarities with abnormal spindle (asp) and centrosomin (cnn) mutants (whose human orthologues are also mutated in primary microcephaly), ..
  59. Franke J, Boury A, Gerald N, Kiehart D. Native nonmuscle myosin II stability and light chain binding in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:604-22 pubmed
    ..four myosins (myosin II, myosin V, myosin VI and myosin VIIA) and a microtubule-associated protein (asp/Abnormal spindle) as binding partners for the essential light chain (but not the regulatory light chain) through mass ..
  60. Riparbelli M, Massarelli C, Robbins L, Callaini G. The abnormal spindle protein is required for germ cell mitosis and oocyte differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:96-106 pubmed
    In this study, we present evidence that the asp function is required in oogenesis for germline cell divisions as well as for cyst polarity and oocyte differentiation...
  61. Kwon M, Godinho S, Chandhok N, Ganem N, Azioune A, Thery M, et al. Mechanisms to suppress multipolar divisions in cancer cells with extra centrosomes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2189-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, morphological features of cancer cells can be linked to unique genetic requirements for survival. ..
  62. Schoborg T, Zajac A, Fagerstrom C, Guillen R, Rusan N. An Asp-CaM complex is required for centrosome-pole cohesion and centrosome inheritance in neural stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..that Drosophila melanogaster calmodulin (CaM) regulates the ability of the microcephaly-associated protein, abnormal spindle (Asp), to cross-link spindle microtubules...
  63. Giet R, McLean D, Descamps S, Lee M, Raff J, Prigent C, et al. Drosophila Aurora A kinase is required to localize D-TACC to centrosomes and to regulate astral microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:437-51 pubmed
  64. Gai M, Bianchi F, Vagnoni C, Vernì F, Bonaccorsi S, Pasquero S, et al. ASPM and CITK regulate spindle orientation by affecting the dynamics of astral microtubules. EMBO Rep. 2016;17:1396-1409 pubmed
    ..b>Abnormal spindle orientation is associated with reduction of the neuronal progenitor symmetric divisions, premature cell cycle ..