Gene Symbol: ash2
Description: absent, small, or homeotic discs 2
Alias: 1124/11, 291.8, 703, ASH2, Ash2, CG6677, Dmel\CG6677, ash-2, l(3)112411, l(3)S112411, l(3)SG65, mad, absent, small, or homeotic discs 2, CG6677-PB, CG6677-PC, CG6677-PE, absent small or homeotic discs 2, absent, small or homeotic discs 2, ash2-PB, ash2-PC, ash2-PE, many abnormal discs
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ash2

Top Publications

  1. Angulo M, Corominas M, Serras F. Activation and repression activities of ash2 in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Development. 2004;131:4943-53 pubmed
    ..patterning of veins and interveins in the wing as a model with which to understand the function of the trxG gene ash2 (absent, small or homeotic discs 2)...
  2. Collins R, Treisman J. Osa-containing Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes are required for the repression of wingless target genes. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3140-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that altering the conformation of chromatin is an important mechanism by which Wingless signaling activates gene expression. ..
  3. Bantignies F, Goodman R, Smolik S. Functional interaction between the coactivator Drosophila CREB-binding protein and ASH1, a member of the trithorax group of chromatin modifiers. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:9317-30 pubmed
    ..Our results thus implicate a second class of chromatin-associated proteins in mediating dCBP function and imply that dCBP might be involved in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure. ..
  4. Mohan M, Herz H, Smith E, Zhang Y, Jackson J, Washburn M, et al. The COMPASS family of H3K4 methylases in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study provides a springboard for the functional dissection of the COMPASS family members and their role in the regulation of histone H3K4 methylation throughout development in Drosophila. ..
  5. Shearn A. The ash-1, ash-2 and trithorax genes of Drosophila melanogaster are functionally related. Genetics. 1989;121:517-25 pubmed
    ..The fact that mutations in each of the three genes gave rise to similar results in all three tests represents substantial evidence that ash-1, ash-2 and trithorax are members of a functionally related set of genes. ..
  6. Cheng M, Shearn A. The direct interaction between ASH2, a Drosophila trithorax group protein, and SKTL, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, implies a role for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in maintaining transcriptionally active chromatin. Genetics. 2004;167:1213-23 pubmed
    ..Several trxG proteins have been shown to act in multimeric protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. ASH2, the product of the Drosophila trxG gene absent, small, or homeotic discs 2 (ash2) is a component of a 500-kD ..
  7. Beltran S, Angulo M, Pignatelli M, Serras F, Corominas M. Functional dissection of the ash2 and ash1 transcriptomes provides insights into the transcriptional basis of wing phenotypes and reveals conserved protein interactions. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R67 pubmed
    The trithorax group (trxG) genes absent, small or homeotic discs 1 (ash1) and 2 (ash2) were isolated in a screen for mutants with abnormal imaginal discs...
  8. Amorós M, Corominas M, Deak P, Serras F. The ash2 gene is involved in Drosophila wing development. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:321-4 pubmed
    The absent small and homeotic (ash2) gene is a member of the trithorax group of positive transcriptional regulators of the homeotic genes...
  9. Pérez Lluch S, Blanco E, Carbonell A, Raha D, Snyder M, Serras F, et al. Genome-wide chromatin occupancy analysis reveals a role for ASH2 in transcriptional pausing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..H3K4me3), which requires histone methyltranferase complexes (HMT) containing the trithorax-group (trxG) protein ASH2. Mutations in ash2 cause a variety of pattern formation defects in the Drosophila wing...

More Information


  1. Chauhan C, Zraly C, Parilla M, Diaz M, Dingwall A. Histone recognition and nuclear receptor co-activator functions of Drosophila cara mitad, a homolog of the N-terminal portion of mammalian MLL2 and MLL3. Development. 2012;139:1997-2008 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary split of MLL2 into two distinct genes in Drosophila provides important insight into distinct epigenetic functions of conserved readers and writers of the histone code. ..
  2. Adamson A, Shearn A. Molecular genetic analysis of Drosophila ash2, a member of the trithorax group required for imaginal disc pattern formation. Genetics. 1996;144:621-33 pubmed
    The ash2 gene is a member of the trithorax group of genes whose products function to maintain active transcription of homeotic selector genes...
  3. Shearn A, Rice T, Garen A, Gehring W. Imaginal disc abnormalities in lethal mutants of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971;68:2594-8 pubmed
    ..The late lethals are therefore a major source of mutants for studying the genetic control of disc formation. ..
  4. Lajeunesse D, Shearn A. Trans-regulation of thoracic homeotic selector genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes by the trithorax group genes: absent, small, and homeotic discs 1 and 2. Mech Dev. 1995;53:123-39 pubmed
    ..According to genetic criteria, the Drosophila melanogaster genes absent, small, or homeotic discs 1 and 2 (ash1 and ash2) are members of the trithorax group...
  5. Ghezzi A, Pohl J, Wang Y, Atkinson N. BK channels play a counter-adaptive role in drug tolerance and dependence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16360-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Tiebe M, Lutz M, De La Garza A, Buechling T, Boutros M, Teleman A. REPTOR and REPTOR-BP Regulate Organismal Metabolism and Transcription Downstream of TORC1. Dev Cell. 2015;33:272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo functional analysis using knockout flies reveals that REPTOR and REPTOR-BP play critical roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and promoting animal survival upon nutrient restriction. ..
  7. Smulders Srinivasan T, Szakmary A, Lin H. A Drosophila chromatin factor interacts with the Piwi-interacting RNA mechanism in niche cells to regulate germline stem cell self-renewal. Genetics. 2010;186:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel epigenetic mechanism involving Corto and Piwi that defines the fate and signaling function of niche cells in maintaining GSCs. ..
  8. Komori H, Xiao Q, Janssens D, Dou Y, Lee C. Trithorax maintains the functional heterogeneity of neural stem cells through the transcription factor buttonhead. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Trx instructs a type II neuroblast functional identity by epigenetically promoting Btd expression, thereby maintaining neuroblast functional heterogeneity. ..
  9. Piunti A, Shilatifard A. Epigenetic balance of gene expression by Polycomb and COMPASS families. Science. 2016;352:aad9780 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss the latest findings regarding the properties of the PcG and COMPASS families and the insight they provide into the epigenetic control of transcription under physiological and pathological settings. ..
  10. Fernández M, Chu J, Villella A, Atkinson N, Kay S, Ceriani M. Impaired clock output by altered connectivity in the circadian network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5650-5 pubmed
    ..Our observations demonstrate that subtle structural changes within the circadian network are responsible for behavioral arrhythmicity. ..
  11. O Connell S, Wang L, Robert S, Jones C, Saint R, Jones R. Polycomblike PHD fingers mediate conserved interaction with enhancer of zeste protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43065-73 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of PCL association with ESC.E(Z) complexes and the possibility that PCL may either be a subunit of a subset of ESC.E(Z) complexes or a subunit of a separate complex that interacts with ESC.E(Z) complexes. ..
  12. Shearn A. Complementation analysis of late lethal mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1974;77:115-25 pubmed
    ..No significant qualitative differences were detected between any non-complementing pairs or their respective hybrids. ..
  13. Collins R, Furukawa T, Tanese N, Treisman J. Osa associates with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex and promotes the activation of some target genes. EMBO J. 1999;18:7029-40 pubmed
    ..We show evidence that some Brahma-containing complexes do not contain Osa and that Osa is not required to localize Brahma to chromatin. These data suggest that Osa modulates the function of the Brahma complex. ..
  14. Kennison J. Transcriptional activation of Drosophila homeotic genes from distant regulatory elements. Trends Genet. 1993;9:75-9 pubmed
    ..Some of the trans-acting proteins may facilitate interactions between cis-regulatory elements and the promoter by bringing together distant chromosomal elements. ..
  15. Kallsen K, Zehethofer N, Abdelsadik A, Lindner B, Kabesch M, Heine H, et al. ORMDL deregulation increases stress responses and modulates repair pathways in Drosophila airways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1105-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that corto maintains the anterior border of Ubx expression in third-instar larvae. We suggest that this regulation is accomplished through an interaction with the products of the Pc-G and trx-G genes. ..
  17. Mills A. Throwing the cancer switch: reciprocal roles of polycomb and trithorax proteins. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10:669-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work highlights the dynamic interplay between these opposing classes of proteins, providing new avenues for understanding how these epigenetic regulators function in tumorigenesis. ..
  18. Wang Y, Krishnan H, Ghezzi A, Yin J, Atkinson N. Drug-induced epigenetic changes produce drug tolerance. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e265 pubmed
    ..These findings provide unique evidence that links molecular epigenetic histone modifications and transcriptional induction of an ion channel gene with a single behavioral event...
  19. Li L, Anderson S, Secombe J, Eisenman R. The Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease Puffyeye regulates dMyc-mediated growth. Development. 2013;140:4776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to its effects on dMyc, Puf regulates both Ago and its cell cycle substrate Cyclin E. Therefore, Puf influences cell growth by controlling the stability of key regulatory proteins. ..
  20. Carbonell A, Mazo A, Serras F, Corominas M. Ash2 acts as an ecdysone receptor coactivator by stabilizing the histone methyltransferase Trr. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:361-72 pubmed publisher
    ..H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me), which is associated with transcriptional activation, requires several cofactors, including Ash2. We find that ash2 mutants have severe defects in pupariation and metamorphosis due to a lack of activation of ..
  21. Herz H, Mohan M, Garruss A, Liang K, Takahashi Y, Mickey K, et al. Enhancer-associated H3K4 monomethylation by Trithorax-related, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Mll3/Mll4. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2604-20 pubmed publisher
  22. Lloret Llinares M, Pérez Lluch S, Rossell D, Morán T, Ponsa Cobas J, Auer H, et al. dKDM5/LID regulates H3K4me3 dynamics at the transcription-start site (TSS) of actively transcribed developmental genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9493-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also show that ASH2, an evolutionarily conserved factor that locates at TSS and is required for H3K4me3, binds and positively regulates ..
  23. Ponting C, Schultz J, Bork P. SPRY domains in ryanodine receptors (Ca(2+)-release channels). Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:193-4 pubmed
  24. Hallson G, Hollebakken R, Li T, Syrzycka M, Kim I, Cotsworth S, et al. dSet1 is the main H3K4 di- and tri-methyltransferase throughout Drosophila development. Genetics. 2012;190:91-100 pubmed publisher
  25. Decoville M, Giacomello E, Leng M, Locker D. DSP1, an HMG-like protein, is involved in the regulation of homeotic genes. Genetics. 2001;157:237-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that DSP1 protein is a chromatin remodeling factor, acting as a trx-G or a Pc-G protein depending on the considered function. ..
  26. Gutierrez L, Zurita M, Kennison J, Vázquez M. The Drosophila trithorax group gene tonalli (tna) interacts genetically with the Brahma remodeling complex and encodes an SP-RING finger protein. Development. 2003;130:343-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tna is involved in postranslational modification of transcription complexes. ..
  27. Gonzalez C, Molina I, Casal J, Ripoll P. Gross genetic dissection and interaction of the chromosomal region 95E;96F of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989;123:371-7 pubmed
    ..There is another region localized in 97B which interacts with asp: in a background homozygous for asp, three doses of this region enhance the asp phenotype. ..