Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Arr2
Description: Arrestin 2
Alias: ARR2, Arr, Arr-2, ArrB, ArrB-ml, CG5962, DAII, Dmel\CG5962, Dro.-Arr.II, PRI, arr, arr2, arrestin 2, 49kD arrestin homolog, Arr2-PA, Arrestin-2, Beta-Arrestin, CG5962-PA, arrestin, arrestin B, arrestin-like protein, arrestin2, phosrestin I, phosrestin-1
Species: fruit fly
- Hardie R. Phototransduction in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3403-9 pubmed
- Acharya U, Patel S, Koundakjian E, Nagashima K, Han X, Acharya J. Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science. 2003;299:1740-3 pubmed..Targeted expression of Drosophila neutral ceramidase rescued retinal degeneration in arrestin and phospholipase C mutants...
- Vinós J, Jalink K, Hardy R, Britt S, Zuker C. A G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase required for rhodopsin function. Science. 1997;277:687-90 pubmed..These results suggest the existence of a family of receptor phosphatases involved in the regulation of G protein-coupled signaling cascades. ..
- Dolph P, Ranganathan R, Colley N, Hardy R, Socolich M, Zuker C. Arrestin function in inactivation of G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Science. 1993;260:1910-6 pubmed..Mutations in two Drosophila photoreceptor-specific arrestin genes, arrestin 1 and arrestin 2, were generated...
- Byk T, Bar Yaacov M, Doza Y, Minke B, Selinger Z. Regulatory arrestin cycle secures the fidelity and maintenance of the fly photoreceptor cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1907-11 pubmed..Binding of 49-kDa arrestin further quenches the activity of metarhodopsin and protects it from dephosphorylation...
- Wang T, Wang X, Xie Q, Montell C. The SOCS box protein STOPS is required for phototransduction through its effects on phospholipase C. Neuron. 2008;57:56-68 pubmed publisher..Moreover, this work demonstrates that a PLCbeta derivative that does not promote TRP channel activation, still contributes to signaling in vivo. ..
- Zuker C. The biology of vision of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:571-6 pubmed..In this manuscript I review some of our recent findings and the strategies used to dissect this process. ..
- Matsumoto H, Yamada T. Phosrestins I and II: arrestin homologs which undergo differential light-induced phosphorylation in the Drosophila photoreceptor in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;177:1306-12 pubmed..We propose to name these phosphorylated homologs of arrestin phosrestin I (49-kDa protein) and phosrestin II (39-kDa protein or the Dmarrestin gene product)...
- Meyer N, Joel Almagor T, Frechter S, Minke B, Huber A. Subcellular translocation of the eGFP-tagged TRPL channel in Drosophila photoreceptors requires activation of the phototransduction cascade. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2592-603 pubmed..The critical role of Ca2+ influx was directly demonstrated when the light-induced TRPL-eGFP translocation was blocked by removing extracellular Ca2+. ..
- Rosenbaum E, Vasiljevic E, Cleland S, Flores C, Colley N. The Gos28 SNARE protein mediates intra-Golgi transport of rhodopsin and is required for photoreceptor survival. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32392-409 pubmed publisher..Our results identify Gos28 as an essential SNARE protein in Drosophila photoreceptors and provide mechanistic insights into the role of SNAREs in neurodegenerative disease. ..
- Belusic G, Pirih P, Stavenga D. Photoreceptor responses of fruitflies with normal and reduced arrestin content studied by simultaneous measurements of visual pigment fluorescence and ERG. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010;196:23-35 pubmed publisher..ERG) and the metarhodopsin content via fluorescence in white-eyed, wild-type Drosophila and the arrestin2 hypomorphic mutant (w(-);arr2 (3)) at a range of stimulus wavelengths and intensities...
- Scott K, Zuker C. Lights out: deactivation of the phototransduction cascade. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:350-4 pubmed..Here, we focus on phototransduction in Drosophila as a paradigm for the study of deactivation in a complex G-protein-coupled signaling pathway in vivo. ..
- Krishnan R, Ganguly R. A 3.5-kb DNA fragment contains the cis-regulatory elements for retina-specific expression and partial dosage compensation of the Arrestin B (ArrB) gene of Drosophila miranda. Gene. 1995;160:185-90 pubmedA 3.5-kb genomic DNA fragment containing the X1R chromosome-linked retina-specific Arrestin B gene (also called Arrestin 2) of Drosophila miranda (ArrB-mr) was introduced into the Drosophila melanogaster genome via germ-line ..
- Carman C, Benovic J. G-protein-coupled receptors: turn-ons and turn-offs. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:335-44 pubmed..Of particular interest are recent studies that have dramatically expanded the known cellular functions of these molecules to include roles in receptor endocytosis and activation of MAP kinase signalling pathways. ..
- Mitra A, Chinchore Y, Kinser R, Dolph P. Characterization of two dominant alleles of the major rhodopsin-encoding gene ninaE in Drosophila. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3224-33 pubmed..Localization of rhodopsin revealed that in mutant flies, wild-type rhodopsin is mislocalized to the cell body and the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
- Taraszka J, Kurulugama R, Sowell R, Valentine S, Koeniger S, Arnold R, et al. Mapping the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of embryos and adult heads by LC-IMS-MS methods. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1223-37 pubmed..All of this information is discussed in terms of the relationship between the predicted genome, and measured transcriptomes and proteomes. Additionally, the merits and weaknesses of current technologies are assessed in some detail. ..
- Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
- Merrill C, Sherertz T, Walker W, Zwiebel L. Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction. J Neurobiol. 2005;63:15-28 pubmed..decreased responsiveness to a host of chemically distinct odorants in flies deficient for arrestin1 (arr1), arrestin2 (arr2), or both. These phenotypes are manifest in odorant- and dose- dependent fashions...
- Mishra M, Oke A, Lebel C, McDonald E, Plummer Z, Cook T, et al. Pph13 and orthodenticle define a dual regulatory pathway for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis and function. Development. 2010;137:2895-904 pubmed publisher..Our studies define a key transcriptional regulatory pathway that is necessary for late Drosophila photoreceptor development and will serve as a basis for better understanding rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell development and function. ..
- Kyriakakis P, Tipping M, Abed L, Veraksa A. Tandem affinity purification in Drosophila: the advantages of the GS-TAP system. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:229-35 pubmed..Overall, GS-TAP is an improved method of protein complex purification because it provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio of the bait protein relative to contaminants in purified material. ..
- Zelhof A, Koundakjian E, Scully A, Hardy R, Pounds L. Mutation of the photoreceptor specific homeodomain gene Pph13 results in defects in phototransduction and rhabdomere morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:4383-92 pubmed..In addition, we demonstrate that Pph13 exerts its effect by the regulation of photoreceptor specific gene expression. ..
- Tsuda M, Kikuchi T, Yamaki K, Shinohara T. The mouse S-antigen gene. Comparison with human and Drosophila. Eur J Biochem. 1991;200:95-101 pubmed..S-antigen genes in human and mouse were highly conserved. In contrast, genes for the Drosophila 49-kDa arrestin homolog and arrestin consist of three introns and four exons and two introns and three exons, respectively...
- Rajaram S, Scott R, Nash H. Retrograde signaling from the brain to the retina modulates the termination of the light response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17840-5 pubmed..Although the mechanism of this retrograde signaling remains to be discerned, the phenomenon establishes a previously unappreciated mode of control of the temporal responsiveness of a primary sensory neuron. ..
- Hardie R, Satoh A, Liu C. Regulation of arrestin translocation by Ca2+ and myosin III in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9205-16 pubmed publisher..In Drosophila photoreceptors arrestin (Arr2) translocates from cell body to the microvillar rhabdomere down a diffusion gradient created by binding of ..
- Tian Y, Li T, Sun M, Wan D, Li Q, Li P, et al. Neurexin regulates visual function via mediating retinoid transport to promote rhodopsin maturation. Neuron. 2013;77:311-22 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal a role for Neurexin in mediating retinoid transport and subsequent rhodopsin maturation and suggest that Neurexin regulates lipoprotein function. ..
- Cronin M, Diao F, Tsunoda S. Light-dependent subcellular translocation of Gqalpha in Drosophila photoreceptors is facilitated by the photoreceptor-specific myosin III NINAC. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4797-806 pubmed
- Acharya J, Dasgupta U, Rawat S, Yuan C, Sanxaridis P, Yonamine I, et al. Cell-nonautonomous function of ceramidase in photoreceptor homeostasis. Neuron. 2008;57:69-79 pubmed publisher..overexpression of ceramidase in tissues distant from photoreceptors suppresses photoreceptor degeneration in an arrestin mutant and facilitates membrane turnover in a rhodopsin null mutant...
- Rosenbaum E, Hardie R, Colley N. Calnexin is essential for rhodopsin maturation, Ca2+ regulation, and photoreceptor cell survival. Neuron. 2006;49:229-41 pubmed..Our results illustrate a critical role for calnexin in Rh1 maturation and Ca2+ regulation and provide genetic evidence that defects in calnexin lead to retinal degeneration. ..
- Shinohara T, Kikuchi T, Tsuda M, Yamaki K. A family of retinal S-antigens (arrestins) and their genes: comparative analysis of human, mouse, rat, bovine and Drosophila. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:505-9 pubmed
- Kwon Y, Montell C. Dependence on the Lazaro phosphatidic acid phosphatase for the maximum light response. Curr Biol. 2006;16:723-9 pubmed..The genetic interactions with both rdgA and Pld indicate that Laza functions in the convergence of both PLC- and PLD-coupled signaling in vivo. ..
- Chanut Delalande H, Hashimoto Y, Pelissier Monier A, Spokony R, Dib A, Kondo T, et al. Pri peptides are mediators of ecdysone for the temporal control of development. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:1035-44 pubmed publisher..Here we show that Pri peptides, encoded by small open reading frames, are direct mediators of the steroid hormone ecdysone for the timing ..
- Krishnan R, Swanson K, Ganguly R. Dosage compensation of a retina-specific gene in Drosophila miranda. Chromosoma. 1991;100:125-33 pubmed..miranda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Kalderon D. Hedgehog signaling: an Arrestin connection?. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R175-8 pubmed..New binding, localization and genetic studies suggest that Arrestins may also participate in the transduction of Hedgehog signals by the seven transmembrane domain protein, Smoothened. ..
- Kahn E, Matsumoto H. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II phosphorylates Drosophila visual arrestin. J Neurochem. 1997;68:169-75 pubmed..Immediately following light activation, phosphorylation of a photoreceptor-specific protein, phosrestin I, is detected...
- Lee S, Montell C. Suppression of constant-light-induced blindness but not retinal degeneration by inhibition of the rhodopsin degradation pathway. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2076-85 pubmed..in rhodopsin and the visual response were suppressed by a C-terminal truncation of rhodopsin, by mutations in arrestin, and by elimination of a lysosomal protein, Sunglasses...
- Wang T, Jiao Y, Montell C. Dissecting independent channel and scaffolding roles of the Drosophila transient receptor potential channel. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:685-94 pubmed..This retinal degeneration was greatly suppressed by elimination of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, CalX, indicating that the cell death was due primarily to deficient Ca(2+) entry rather than disruption of the TRP-anchoring function. ..
- Shenoy S, Lefkowitz R. Receptor regulation: beta-arrestin moves up a notch. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1159-61 pubmed
- Montell C. Drosophila TRP channels. Pflugers Arch. 2005;451:19-28 pubmed..As a result, the repertoire of biological roles attributed to Drosophila TRPs has increased considerably and is likely to lead to many additional surprises over the next few years. ..
- Hardie R. Phototransduction: shedding light on translocation. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R775-7 pubmedLight induces the migration of arrestin to the photosensitive membrane in both vertebrate and invertebrate photoreceptors...
- Kiselev A, Subramaniam S. Studies of Rh1 metarhodopsin stabilization in wild-type Drosophila and in mutants lacking one or both arrestins. Biochemistry. 1997;36:2188-96 pubmed..deficient in one or both of the arrestins present in photoreceptor cells to critically test the requirements for arrestin in the stabilization of Rh1 metarhodopsin under in vitro and in vivo conditions...
- Frechter S, Elia N, Tzarfaty V, Selinger Z, Minke B. Translocation of Gq alpha mediates long-term adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5571-83 pubmed..The slow time scale of this adaptation fits well with day/night light intensity changes, because there is no need to maintain single photon sensitivity during daytime. ..
- Lee S, Montell C. Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2004;43:95-103 pubmedThe rhodopsin regulatory protein, visual arrestin, undergoes light-dependent trafficking in mammalian and Drosophila photoreceptor cells, though the mechanisms underlying these movements are poorly understood...
- Chen W, ten Berge D, Brown J, Ahn S, Hu L, Miller W, et al. Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4. Science. 2003;301:1391-4 pubmed..293 cells was dependent on added Wnt5A protein and was accomplished by the multifunctional adaptor protein beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2), which was recruited to Fz4 by binding to phosphorylated Dvl2...
- Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li H. The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell. 2006;127:847-58 pubmed..The known rhodopsin regulator Arr2 does not mediate this visual function of dCAMTA. A genome-wide screen identified five dCAMTA target genes...
- Shieh B, Kristaponyte I, Hong Y. Distinct roles of arrestin 1 protein in photoreceptors during Drosophila development. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18526-34 pubmed publisher..In Drosophila, Arrestin 1 (Arr1) is expressed at a lower level than Arrestin 2 (Arr2), and the role of Arr1 in visual physiology is less understood...
- Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Liu C, Hardie R, Colley N. XPORT-dependent transport of TRP and rhodopsin. Neuron. 2011;72:602-15 pubmed publisher..Our results identify XPORT as a molecular chaperone and provide a mechanistic link between TRP channels and their GPCRs during biosynthesis and transport. ..
- Matsumoto H, Pak W. Light-induced phosphorylation of retina-specific polypeptides of Drosophila in vivo. Science. 1984;223:184-6 pubmed..These results, and our previous results with norpA mutants, suggest that phosphorylation of these two polypeptides may be involved in some early stages of photoreceptor excitation or its modulation. ..
- Kristaponyte I, Hong Y, Lu H, Shieh B. Role of rhodopsin and arrestin phosphorylation in retinal degeneration of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10758-66 pubmed publisher..We used enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged arrestin 2 (Arr2) to monitor the turnover of the major rhodopsin (Rh1) in live Drosophila...
- Orem N, Xia L, Dolph P. An essential role for endocytosis of rhodopsin through interaction of visual arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3141-8 pubmed..a class of retinal degeneration mutants in Drosophila in which the normally transient interaction between arrestin2 (Arr2) and rhodopsin is stabilized and the complexes are rapidly internalized into the cell body by receptor-..
- Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
- Zemelman B, Lee G, Ng M, Miesenbock G. Selective photostimulation of genetically chARGed neurons. Neuron. 2002;33:15-22 pubmed..Coexpression of the Drosophila photoreceptor genes encoding arrestin-2, rhodopsin (formed by liganding opsin with retinal), and the alpha subunit of the cognate heterotrimeric G ..
- Krishnan R, Ganguly R. Nucleotide sequence of the arrestin-like 49 Kd protein gene of Drosophila miranda. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:5894 pubmed
- Han J, Reddig K, Li H. Prolonged G(q) activity triggers fly rhodopsin endocytosis and degradation, and reduces photoreceptor sensitivity. EMBO J. 2007;26:4966-73 pubmedRapid deactivation of the Drosophila light receptor rhodopsin, through a visual arrestin Arr2 and a pathway that involves a transcription factor dCAMTA, is required for timely termination of light responses in the photoreceptor neuron...
- Venkatachalam K, Wasserman D, Wang X, Li R, Mills E, Elsaesser R, et al. Dependence on a retinophilin/myosin complex for stability of PKC and INAD and termination of phototransduction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11337-45 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the slower termination of the photoresponse in retin(1) resulted from a requirement for the Retin/NINAC complex for stability of INAD and PKC. ..
- Matsumoto H, Kurien B, Takagi Y, Kahn E, Kinumi T, Komori N, et al. Phosrestin I undergoes the earliest light-induced phosphorylation by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1994;12:997-1010 pubmed..We find that phosrestin I (PRI), a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate photoreceptor arrestin, undergoes light-induced phosphorylation on a ..
- Wang S, Bellen H. The retromer complex in development and disease. Development. 2015;142:2392-6 pubmed publisher..Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of retromer-mediated protein trafficking, highlighting key examples of retromer function in vivo. ..
- Scott K, Sun Y, Beckingham K, Zuker C. Calmodulin regulation of Drosophila light-activated channels and receptor function mediates termination of the light response in vivo. Cell. 1997;91:375-83 pubmed..Our results show that CAM coordinates termination of the light response by modulating receptor and ion channel activity. ..
- Klebes A, Biehs B, Cifuentes F, Kornberg T. Expression profiling of Drosophila imaginal discs. Genome Biol. 2002;3:RESEARCH0038 pubmed..These methods should be widely applicable to comparisons of expression profiles for tissues or parts of tissues that are available only in small amounts. ..
- Satoh A, Xia H, Yan L, Liu C, Hardie R, Ready D. Arrestin translocation is stoichiometric to rhodopsin isomerization and accelerated by phototransduction in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 2010;67:997-1008 pubmed publisherUpon illumination, visual arrestin translocates from photoreceptor cell bodies to rhodopsin and membrane-rich photosensory compartments, vertebrate outer segments or invertebrate rhabdomeres, where it quenches activated rhodopsin...
- Komori N, Usukura J, Kurien B, Shichi H, Matsumoto H. Phosrestin I, an arrestin homolog that undergoes light-induced phosphorylation in dipteran photoreceptors. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;24:607-17 pubmed..2) Rabbit antibodies raised against Musca PRI, against bovine arrestin, and against a synthetic peptide based on the Drosophila PRI sequence stained the Drosophila and Musca PRIs ..
- Hu W, Wan D, Yu X, Cao J, Guo P, Li H, et al. Protein Gq modulates termination of phototransduction and prevents retinal degeneration. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13911-8 pubmed publisher..G(q) modulates the termination of the light response and that metarhodopsin/G(q) interaction affects subsequent arrestin-rhodopsin (Arr2-Rh1) binding, which mediates the deactivation of metarhodopsin...
- Pumir A, Graves J, Ranganathan R, Shraiman B. Systems analysis of the single photon response in invertebrate photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10354-9 pubmed publisher..The system-level analysis enabled by modeling phototransduction provides a foundation for understanding G protein signaling pathways less amenable to quantitative approaches. ..
- Rodriguez J, Tang C, Khodor Y, Vodala S, Menet J, Rosbash M. Nascent-Seq analysis of Drosophila cycling gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E275-84 pubmed publisher..The same comparison for core clock gene mRNAs gives rise to a qualitatively similar conclusion. The data therefore indicate a significant quantitative contribution of post transcriptional regulation to mRNA cycling. ..
- Wu L, Niemeyer B, Colley N, Socolich M, Zuker C. Regulation of PLC-mediated signalling in vivo by CDP-diacylglycerol synthase. Nature. 1995;373:216-22 pubmed..cds mutants undergo light-dependent retinal degeneration which can be suppressed by a mutation in phospholipase C. Thus, enzymes involved in PtdlnsP2 metabolism regulate phosphoinositide-mediated signalling cascades in vivo. ..
- Kahn E, Kinumi T, Tobin S, Matsumoto H. Phosrestide-1, a peptide derived from the Drosophila photoreceptor protein phosrestin I, is a potent substrate for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II from rat brain. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998;119:739-46 pubmed..The peptide is derived from a photoreceptor-specific protein, phosrestin I, of the Drosophila compound eye and is designated as phosrestide-1...
- Merrill C, Riesgo Escovar J, Pitts R, Kafatos F, Carlson J, Zwiebel L. Visual arrestins in olfactory pathways of Drosophila and the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1633-8 pubmed..We have isolated AgArr1, an arrestin-encoding cDNA from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, where olfaction is critical for vectorial ..
- Levine H, Smith D, Whitney M, Malicki D, Dolph P, Smith G, et al. Isolation of a novel visual-system-specific arrestin: an in vivo substrate for light-dependent phosphorylation. Mech Dev. 1990;33:19-25 pubmed..of the protein was determined by isolating the corresponding gene, which revealed it to be a new isoform of arrestin, Arr2...
- Cronin M, Lieu M, Tsunoda S. Two stages of light-dependent TRPL-channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2935-44 pubmed..Finally, we show that arrestin2 is required for the rhabdomeric localization and stability of TRPL channels.
- Wang T, Lao U, Edgar B. TOR-mediated autophagy regulates cell death in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:703-11 pubmed publisher..Thus, our data indicate that TOR induces cell death by suppressing autophagy and provide direct genetic evidence that autophagy alleviates cell death in several common types of neurodegenerative disease. ..
- Georgiev P, Toscano S, Nair A, Hardie R, Raghu P. Identification of a suppressor of retinal degeneration in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:338-47 pubmed publisher..Studies of su(40) as well as these new alleles should facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms by which excessive Ca(2+) influx results in retinal degeneration. ..
- Iakhine R, Chorna Ornan I, Zars T, Elia N, Cheng Y, Selinger Z, et al. Novel dominant rhodopsin mutation triggers two mechanisms of retinal degeneration and photoreceptor desensitization. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2516-26 pubmed..This desensitization primarily resulted from both the persistent binding of arrestin (ARR2) to the NINAE(pp100) mutant opsin and the constitutive activity of the phototransduction cascade...