Gene Symbol: Arr1
Description: Arrestin 1
Alias: 3H10, ARR1, Arr, ArrA, CG5711, DAI, DS-Ag, DmArr1, Dmarrestin, Dmel\CG5711, Dro.-Arr.I, FBgn0000120, PRII, arr1, arrestin 1, Arr1-PA, Arr1-PB, Arr1-PC, Arrestin1, CG5711-PA, CG5711-PB, CG5711-PC, Phosrestin-II, arrestin, arrestin A, drosophila arrestin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Zuker C. Phototransduction in Drosophila: a paradigm for the genetic dissection of sensory transduction cascades. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992;2:622-7 pubmed
    ..The availability of Drosophila mutants with defects in visual physiology allows for an in vivo dissection of this complex sensory signal transduction process. ..
  2. Zelhof A, Koundakjian E, Scully A, Hardy R, Pounds L. Mutation of the photoreceptor specific homeodomain gene Pph13 results in defects in phototransduction and rhabdomere morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:4383-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Pph13 exerts its effect by the regulation of photoreceptor specific gene expression. ..
  3. Mecklenburg K, Takemori N, Komori N, Chu B, Hardie R, Matsumoto H, et al. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1238-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RTP is a light-regulated phosphoprotein that organizes rhabdomeric components to suppress random activation of the phototransduction cascade and thus increases the signaling fidelity of dark-adapted photoreceptors. ..
  4. Alloway P, Dolph P. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6072-7 pubmed
    ..The major arrestin in the Drosophila visual system, Arrestin 2 (Arr2), is phosphorylated in a light-dependent manner by a Ca2+/..
  5. Inagaki H, Ben Tabou de Leon S, Wong A, Jagadish S, Ishimoto H, Barnea G, et al. Visualizing neuromodulation in vivo: TANGO-mapping of dopamine signaling reveals appetite control of sugar sensing. Cell. 2012;148:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reinforce the concept that sensory neurons constitute an important locus for state-dependent gain control of behavior and introduce a methodology that can be extended to other neuromodulators and model organisms. ..
  6. Hardie R, Raghu P. Visual transduction in Drosophila. Nature. 2001;413:186-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis in Drosophila has revealed many of the underlying molecular strategies, leading to the discovery and characterization of signalling molecules of widespread importance. ..
  7. Zuker C. The biology of vision of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:571-6 pubmed
    ..In this manuscript I review some of our recent findings and the strategies used to dissect this process. ..
  8. Tsuda M, Kikuchi T, Yamaki K, Shinohara T. The mouse S-antigen gene. Comparison with human and Drosophila. Eur J Biochem. 1991;200:95-101 pubmed
    ..0 kbp long, had no regulatory elements for transcription such as the TATA, CAAT and GC boxes, while a Drosophila arrestin gene has TATA and CAAT boxes...
  9. Levine H, Smith D, Whitney M, Malicki D, Dolph P, Smith G, et al. Isolation of a novel visual-system-specific arrestin: an in vivo substrate for light-dependent phosphorylation. Mech Dev. 1990;33:19-25 pubmed
    ..We show that the two Drosophila arrestin genes are differentially regulated, and that Arr2 is a specific substrate for a calcium-dependent protein ..

More Information


  1. Han J, Reddig K, Li H. Prolonged G(q) activity triggers fly rhodopsin endocytosis and degradation, and reduces photoreceptor sensitivity. EMBO J. 2007;26:4966-73 pubmed
    Rapid deactivation of the Drosophila light receptor rhodopsin, through a visual arrestin Arr2 and a pathway that involves a transcription factor dCAMTA, is required for timely termination of light responses in the photoreceptor neuron...
  2. Acharya J, Dasgupta U, Rawat S, Yuan C, Sanxaridis P, Yonamine I, et al. Cell-nonautonomous function of ceramidase in photoreceptor homeostasis. Neuron. 2008;57:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..overexpression of ceramidase in tissues distant from photoreceptors suppresses photoreceptor degeneration in an arrestin mutant and facilitates membrane turnover in a rhodopsin null mutant...
  3. Matsumoto H, Kurien B, Takagi Y, Kahn E, Kinumi T, Komori N, et al. Phosrestin I undergoes the earliest light-induced phosphorylation by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila photoreceptors. Neuron. 1994;12:997-1010 pubmed
    ..We find that phosrestin I (PRI), a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate photoreceptor arrestin, undergoes light-induced phosphorylation on a subsecond time scale which is faster than that of any other protein ..
  4. Smith D, Shieh B, Zuker C. Isolation and structure of an arrestin gene from Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1003-7 pubmed
    A Drosophila gene encoding a homologue of vertebrate arrestin was isolated by subtractive hybridization and identified as a member of a set of genes that are preferentially expressed in the visual system...
  5. Carman C, Benovic J. G-protein-coupled receptors: turn-ons and turn-offs. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:335-44 pubmed
    ..Of particular interest are recent studies that have dramatically expanded the known cellular functions of these molecules to include roles in receptor endocytosis and activation of MAP kinase signalling pathways. ..
  6. Kiselev A, Subramaniam S. Studies of Rh1 metarhodopsin stabilization in wild-type Drosophila and in mutants lacking one or both arrestins. Biochemistry. 1997;36:2188-96 pubmed
    ..deficient in one or both of the arrestins present in photoreceptor cells to critically test the requirements for arrestin in the stabilization of Rh1 metarhodopsin under in vitro and in vivo conditions...
  7. Matsumoto H, Yamada T. Phosrestins I and II: arrestin homologs which undergo differential light-induced phosphorylation in the Drosophila photoreceptor in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;177:1306-12 pubmed
    ..We propose to name these phosphorylated homologs of arrestin phosrestin I (49-kDa protein) and phosrestin II (39-kDa protein or the Dmarrestin gene product)...
  8. Fernandes G, Mudado M, Ortega J. Testing the performance of automated annotation of ESTs with the Kegg Orthology (KO) database demonstrates lack of completeness of clusters. Genet Mol Res. 2008;7:948-57 pubmed
    ..elegans. Thus, the KO database still demands some effort for moving sequences from Kegg GENES to KO, to complement the annotation performance. ..
  9. Byk T, Bar Yaacov M, Doza Y, Minke B, Selinger Z. Regulatory arrestin cycle secures the fidelity and maintenance of the fly photoreceptor cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1907-11 pubmed
    ..Binding of 49-kDa arrestin further quenches the activity of metarhodopsin and protects it from dephosphorylation...
  10. Dolph P, Ranganathan R, Colley N, Hardy R, Socolich M, Zuker C. Arrestin function in inactivation of G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Science. 1993;260:1910-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations in two Drosophila photoreceptor-specific arrestin genes, arrestin 1 and arrestin 2, were generated...
  11. Salminen T, Vesala L, Laiho A, Merisalo M, Hoikkala A, Kankare M. Seasonal gene expression kinetics between diapause phases in Drosophila virilis group species and overwintering differences between diapausing and non-diapausing females. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11197 pubmed publisher
    ..littoralis and D. ezoana. The present study helps to achieve a better understanding of the genetic regulation of diapause and of the plasticity of seasonal responses in general. ..
  12. Kiselev A, Subramaniam S. Activation and regeneration of rhodopsin in the insect visual cycle. Science. 1994;266:1369-73 pubmed
    ..was found not to be an intrinsic property of the visual pigment but a consequence of its interaction with arrestin (49 kilodaltons)...
  13. Satoh A, Ready D. Arrestin1 mediates light-dependent rhodopsin endocytosis and cell survival. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1722-33 pubmed
    ..Arr2) triggers cell death, implicating Rh1/Arr2-bearing endosomes in pro-cell death signaling, potentially via arrestin-mediated GPCR activation of effector kinase pathways...
  14. Scott K, Zuker C. Lights out: deactivation of the phototransduction cascade. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:350-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on phototransduction in Drosophila as a paradigm for the study of deactivation in a complex G-protein-coupled signaling pathway in vivo. ..
  15. Bernardo Garcia F, Fritsch C, Sprecher S. The transcription factor Glass links eye field specification with photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2016;143:1413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide a transcriptional link between eye field specification and photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila, placing Glass at a central position in this developmental process. ..
  16. Fortini M, Bonini N. Modeling human neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila: on a wing and a prayer. Trends Genet. 2000;16:161-7 pubmed
    ..With the advent of complete genomic sequencing on the horizon, Drosophila will continue to be an outstanding model system in which to unravel the complexities, causes and treatments for human neural degeneration. ..
  17. Ranganathan R, Harris W, Zuker C. The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14:486-93 pubmed
    ..The results of a combination of molecular, genetic, physiological and biochemical studies are beginning to produce a clearer model for the complex mechanisms involved in invertebrate visual transduction. ..
  18. Caldwell J, Fineberg S, Eberl D. reduced ocelli encodes the leucine rich repeat protein Pray For Elves in Drosophila melanogaster. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:146-52 pubmed
    ..The PFE locus maps to polytene region 36E on chromosome 2L between elfless (Fbgn0032660) and Arrestin 1 (Fbgn0000120)...
  19. Rosenbaum E, Vasiljevic E, Cleland S, Flores C, Colley N. The Gos28 SNARE protein mediates intra-Golgi transport of rhodopsin and is required for photoreceptor survival. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32392-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify Gos28 as an essential SNARE protein in Drosophila photoreceptors and provide mechanistic insights into the role of SNAREs in neurodegenerative disease. ..
  20. Rosenbaum E, Brehm K, Vasiljevic E, Liu C, Hardie R, Colley N. XPORT-dependent transport of TRP and rhodopsin. Neuron. 2011;72:602-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify XPORT as a molecular chaperone and provide a mechanistic link between TRP channels and their GPCRs during biosynthesis and transport. ..
  21. Liu C, Satoh A, Postma M, Huang J, Ready D, Hardie R. Ca2+-dependent metarhodopsin inactivation mediated by calmodulin and NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2008;59:778-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca2+ dependence of M( *) inactivation was unaffected by mutations affecting phosphorylation of rhodopsin or arrestin but was abolished in mutants of calmodulin (CaM) or the CaM-binding myosin III, NINAC...
  22. Ranganathan R, Stevens C. Arrestin binding determines the rate of inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Cell. 1995;81:841-8 pubmed
    ..that describes the kinetics of inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin based on the rate of arrestin binding and test the theory using a combination of genetic and electrophysiological techniques in Drosophila ..
  23. Cronin M, Lieu M, Tsunoda S. Two stages of light-dependent TRPL-channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2935-44 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that arrestin2 is required for the rhabdomeric localization and stability of TRPL channels. ..
  24. Shinohara T, Kikuchi T, Tsuda M, Yamaki K. A family of retinal S-antigens (arrestins) and their genes: comparative analysis of human, mouse, rat, bovine and Drosophila. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:505-9 pubmed
  25. Merrill C, Sherertz T, Walker W, Zwiebel L. Odorant-specific requirements for arrestin function in Drosophila olfaction. J Neurobiol. 2005;63:15-28 pubmed
    ..sensitivity reveals decreased responsiveness to a host of chemically distinct odorants in flies deficient for arrestin1 (arr1), arrestin2 (arr2), or both. These phenotypes are manifest in odorant- and dose- dependent fashions...
  26. Alvarez C, Robison K, Gilbert W. Novel Gq alpha isoform is a candidate transducer of rhodopsin signaling in a Drosophila testes-autonomous pacemaker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12278-82 pubmed
    ..This proposal is supported by the finding that rhodopsin 2 and arrestin 1, two photoreceptor-cell-specific genes, are also expressed in male gonads.
  27. Meyer N, Joel Almagor T, Frechter S, Minke B, Huber A. Subcellular translocation of the eGFP-tagged TRPL channel in Drosophila photoreceptors requires activation of the phototransduction cascade. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2592-603 pubmed
    ..The critical role of Ca2+ influx was directly demonstrated when the light-induced TRPL-eGFP translocation was blocked by removing extracellular Ca2+. ..
  28. Kyriakakis P, Tipping M, Abed L, Veraksa A. Tandem affinity purification in Drosophila: the advantages of the GS-TAP system. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:229-35 pubmed
    ..Overall, GS-TAP is an improved method of protein complex purification because it provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio of the bait protein relative to contaminants in purified material. ..
  29. Taraszka J, Kurulugama R, Sowell R, Valentine S, Koeniger S, Arnold R, et al. Mapping the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of embryos and adult heads by LC-IMS-MS methods. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1223-37 pubmed
    ..All of this information is discussed in terms of the relationship between the predicted genome, and measured transcriptomes and proteomes. Additionally, the merits and weaknesses of current technologies are assessed in some detail. ..
  30. Shieh B, Kristaponyte I, Hong Y. Distinct roles of arrestin 1 protein in photoreceptors during Drosophila development. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18526-34 pubmed publisher
    Arrestin regulates many facets of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. In Drosophila, Arrestin 1 (Arr1) is expressed at a lower level than Arrestin 2 (Arr2), and the role of Arr1 in visual physiology is less understood...
  31. Hyde D, Mecklenburg K, Pollock J, Vihtelic T, Benzer S. Twenty Drosophila visual system cDNA clones: one is a homolog of human arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1008-12 pubmed
    ..clones has been identified, by sequence analysis, as the structural gene (Arr) for a Drosophila homolog of human arrestin. Vertebrate arrestin interacts with rhodopsin in phototransduction and has been associated with an autoimmune ..
  32. Landry C, Castillo Davis C, Ogura A, Liu J, Hartl D. Systems-level analysis and evolution of the phototransduction network in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3283-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide a preliminary quantification of variation and divergence of gene expression between species in a known gene network and provide a foundation for a system-level understanding of functional and evolutionary change. ..
  33. Rosenbaum E, Hardie R, Colley N. Calnexin is essential for rhodopsin maturation, Ca2+ regulation, and photoreceptor cell survival. Neuron. 2006;49:229-41 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate a critical role for calnexin in Rh1 maturation and Ca2+ regulation and provide genetic evidence that defects in calnexin lead to retinal degeneration. ..
  34. Harris B, Lim W. Mechanism and role of PDZ domains in signaling complex assembly. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3219-31 pubmed
    ..The predominance of PDZ domains in metazoans indicates that this highly specialized scaffolding module probably evolved in response to the increased signaling needs of multicellular organisms. ..
  35. Raming K, Freitag J, Krieger J, Breer H. Arrestin-subtypes in insect antennae. Cell Signal. 1993;5:69-80 pubmed
    b>Arrestin is supposed to be involved in uncoupling receptor-mediated second messenger cascades. Clones encoding proteins homologous to arrestin have been isolated from antennal cDNA libraries of Locusta migratoria and Heliothis virescens...
  36. Merrill C, Riesgo Escovar J, Pitts R, Kafatos F, Carlson J, Zwiebel L. Visual arrestins in olfactory pathways of Drosophila and the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1633-8 pubmed
    ..of previously identified arrestins from Drosophila melanogaster exposed similar bimodal expression, and Drosophila arrestin mutants demonstrate impaired electrophysiological responses to olfactory stimuli...
  37. Palazzolo M, Hyde D, Vijayraghavan K, Mecklenburg K, Benzer S, Meyerowitz E. Use of a new strategy to isolate and characterize 436 Drosophila cDNA clones corresponding to RNAs detected in adult heads but not in early embryos. Neuron. 1989;3:527-39 pubmed
    ..Many of these genes are likely to encode eye- and nervous system-specific products. ..