Gene Symbol: ara
Description: araucan
Alias: Ara, CG10571, Dmel\CG10571, IRO-C, Iro, Iro-C, IroC, iro, iro-C, araucan, CG10571-PA, CG10571-PB, ara-PA, ara-PB, aracucan, auracan, iroquis complex, iroquois, iroquois gene complex, iroquois-complex
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ara

Top Publications

  1. Cavodeassi F, Modolell J, Gomez Skarmeta J. The Iroquois family of genes: from body building to neural patterning. Development. 2001;128:2847-55 pubmed
    The Iroquois (Iro) family of genes are found in nematodes, insects and vertebrates. They usually occur in one or two genomic clusters of three genes each and encode transcriptional controllers that possess a characteristic homeodomain...
  2. Gomez Skarmeta J, Diez Del Corral R, de la Calle Mustienes E, Ferré Marcó D, Modolell J. Araucan and caupolican, two members of the novel iroquois complex, encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Cell. 1996;85:95-105 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence for the existence of this prepattern by identifying two of its factors, Araucan and Caupolican. They are members of a novel family of homeoproteins, with homologs in vertebrates...
  3. Letizia A, Barrio R, Campuzano S. Antagonistic and cooperative actions of the EGFR and Dpp pathways on the iroquois genes regulate Drosophila mesothorax specification and patterning. Development. 2007;134:1337-46 pubmed
    In Drosophila, restricted expression of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes in the proximal region of the wing imaginal disc contributes to its territorial subdivision, specifying first the development of the notum versus the wing hinge, ..
  4. Villa Cuesta E, Modolell J. Mutual repression between msh and Iro-C is an essential component of the boundary between body wall and wing in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4087-96 pubmed
    ..It is known that the homeobox genes of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) define the notum territory and that the distal limit of the Iro-C expression domain demarks the ..
  5. Calleja M, Renaud O, Usui K, Pistillo D, Morata G, Simpson P. How to pattern an epithelium: lessons from achaete-scute regulation on the notum of Drosophila. Gene. 2002;292:1-12 pubmed
    ..Other factors may play subsidiary roles. On the lateral notum genes of the iroquois complex appear to regulate the lateral pattern...
  6. Pichaud F, Desplan C. A new visualization approach for identifying mutations that affect differentiation and organization of the Drosophila ommatidia. Development. 2001;128:815-26 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the power of this detection system using known genetic backgrounds and new mutations that affect ommatidial differentiation, morphology or chirality. ..
  7. Carrasco Rando M, Tutor A, Prieto Sánchez S, González Pérez E, Barrios N, Letizia A, et al. Drosophila araucan and caupolican integrate intrinsic and signalling inputs for the acquisition by muscle progenitors of the lateral transverse fate. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002186 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify, by means of loss-of-function and ectopic expression approaches, the Iroquois Complex homeobox genes araucan and caupolican as novel muscle identity genes that confer lateral transverse muscle ..
  8. Kehl B, Cho K, Choi K. mirror, a Drosophila homeobox gene in the Iroquois complex, is required for sensory organ and alula formation. Development. 1998;125:1217-27 pubmed
    ..Moreno, E., Pelaz, S. and Morata, G. (1996) Science 274, 252-255). Two homeobox genes clustered in the iroquois complex, araucan and caupolican, regulate proneural genes and are required for development of sensory bristles in the ..
  9. Calleja M, Moreno E, Pelaz S, Morata G. Visualization of gene expression in living adult Drosophila. Science. 1996;274:252-5 pubmed
    ..The boundary between two of these domains coincides with localized expression of the signaling molecule wingless. ..

More Information


  1. Ikmi A, Netter S, Coen D. Prepatterning the Drosophila notum: the three genes of the iroquois complex play intrinsically distinct roles. Dev Biol. 2008;317:634-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The three homeobox genes clustered in the iroquois complex (araucan, caupolican and mirror) are such prepattern genes...
  2. Calleja M, Herranz H, Estella C, Casal J, Lawrence P, Simpson P, et al. Generation of medial and lateral dorsal body domains by the pannier gene of Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3971-80 pubmed
    ..The homeobox gene iroquois (iro) is expressed in the LAT region...
  3. McNeill H, Yang C, Brodsky M, Ungos J, Simon M. mirror encodes a novel PBX-class homeoprotein that functions in the definition of the dorsal-ventral border in the Drosophila eye. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1073-82 pubmed
    ..Mirror is a member of the class of homeoproteins defined by the human proto-oncogene PBX1. mrr is similar to the Iroquois genes ara and caup and is located adjacent to them in this recently described homeotic cluster.
  4. Tomlinson A. Patterning the peripheral retina of the fly: decoding a gradient. Dev Cell. 2003;5:799-809 pubmed
    ..Higher Wg levels induce PR, intermediate levels induce DR, and lower levels induce baldness. The predisposition of dorsal cells to generate DR ommatidia appears to be endowed by the exclusive dorsal expression of Iroquois genes.
  5. Mukherjee K, Burglin T. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:137-53 pubmed
    ..Apart from the previously identified TALE classes MEIS, PBC, IRO, and TGIF, a novel class is identified, termed MOHAWK (MKX)...
  6. Cavodeassi F, Modolell J, Campuzano S. The Iroquois homeobox genes function as dorsal selectors in the Drosophila head. Development. 2000;127:1921-9 pubmed
    The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes are expressed in the dorsal compartment of the Drosophila eye/antenna imaginal disc...
  7. de Navascués J, Modolell J. tailup, a LIM-HD gene, and Iro-C cooperate in Drosophila dorsal mesothorax specification. Development. 2007;134:1779-88 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of tup, together with araucan, a 'pronotum' gene of the iroquois complex (Iro-C), synergistically reinforces the weak capacity of either gene, when overexpressed singly, to induce ..
  8. Leyns L, Gomez Skarmeta J, Dambly Chaudiere C. iroquois: a prepattern gene that controls the formation of bristles on the thorax of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;59:63-72 pubmed
    ..This mutation, iroquois (iro), defines a new gene which maps at 69D...
  9. Bilioni A, Craig G, Hill C, McNeill H. Iroquois transcription factors recognize a unique motif to mediate transcriptional repression in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14671-6 pubmed
    b>Iroquois transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of developmental patterning in all metazoans. Despite their widespread importance, the direct targets of the Iroquois are poorly understood...
  10. Pichaud F, Casares F. homothorax and iroquois-C genes are required for the establishment of territories within the developing eye disc. Mech Dev. 2000;96:15-25 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the iroquois-complex genes are required for dorsal head development antagonizing the function of homothorax in this region of ..
  11. Cavodeassi F, Diez Del Corral R, Campuzano S, Dominguez M. Compartments and organising boundaries in the Drosophila eye: the role of the homeodomain Iroquois proteins. Development. 1999;126:4933-42 pubmed
    ..The dorsally expressed homeodomain Iroquois genes are true selector genes for the dorsal compartment; their expression is regulated by Hedgehog and Wingless...
  12. Diez Del Corral R, Aroca P, G mez Skarmeta J, Cavodeassi F, Modolell J. The Iroquois homeodomain proteins are required to specify body wall identity in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1754-61 pubmed
    The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) homeodomain proteins allow cells at the proximal part of the Drosophila imaginal wing disc to form mesothoracic body wall (notum)...
  13. Dominguez M, de Celis J. A dorsal/ventral boundary established by Notch controls growth and polarity in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1998;396:276-8 pubmed
    ..establishing the equator is not fully understood, but it involves the transcription factors encoded by the Iroquois gene complex. The Iroquois genes are expressed in the dorsal half of the eye and here we show that they regulate the ..
  14. de Navas L, Reed H, Akam M, Barrio R, Alonso C, Sánchez Herrero E. Integration of RNA processing and expression level control modulates the function of the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax during adult development. Development. 2011;138:107-16 pubmed publisher
  15. Wernet M, Labhart T, Baumann F, Mazzoni E, Pichaud F, Desplan C. Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors. Cell. 2003;115:267-79 pubmed
    ..Homothorax expression is induced by the iroquois complex and the wingless (wg) pathway...
  16. Aruga J. The role of Zic genes in neural development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:205-21 pubmed
    ..This association might be is a clue toward understanding of the multifunctional property of Zic proteins because Notch signaling also is implicated in the control of several developmental processes. ..
  17. de Celis J, Barrio R. Function of the spalt/spalt-related gene complex in positioning the veins in the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 2000;91:31-41 pubmed
    ..that Spalt and Spalt-related regulate the vein-specific expression of the transcription factors of the knirps and iroquois gene complexes, delimiting their domains of expression in the wing pouch...
  18. Chan Y, Jan Y. Conservation of neurogenic genes and mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:582-8 pubmed
    ..These findings pave the way for future work that will help to establish the extent to which these similarities represent evolutionary conservation. ..
  19. Cruz C, Glavic A, Casado M, de Celis J. A gain-of-function screen identifying genes required for growth and pattern formation of the Drosophila melanogaster wing. Genetics. 2009;183:1005-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present a preliminary characterization of a gene identified in the screen, the function of which is required for the development of the L5 longitudinal vein. ..
  20. Mullor J, Guerrero I. A gain-of-function mutant of patched dissects different responses to the hedgehog gradient. Dev Biol. 2000;228:211-24 pubmed
    ..state of Cubitus interruptus activity responsible for the activation of araucan and caupolican genes of the iroquois complex, independent of Fused kinase function, was shown...
  21. Mazzoni E, Celik A, Wernet M, Vasiliauskas D, Johnston R, Cook T, et al. Iroquois complex genes induce co-expression of rhodopsins in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e97 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes from the Iroquois Complex (Iro-C) are necessary and sufficient to induce co-expression in yR7...
  22. de Celis J, Diaz Benjumea F. Developmental basis for vein pattern variations in insect wings. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:653-63 pubmed
    ..Assuming a general conservation of the processes involved in different species, the transitions between different patterns may require few changes in the regulatory gene networks involved. ..
  23. Park Y, Kelley R, Oh H, Kuroda M, Meller V. Extent of chromatin spreading determined by roX RNA recruitment of MSL proteins. Science. 2002;298:1620-3 pubmed
    ..We propose that this local production of MSL complexes determines the extent of spreading into flanking chromatin. ..
  24. Klein T. Wing disc development in the fly: the early stages. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:470-5 pubmed
    ..Recent data have now started to provide some insight in the molecular processes required for the definition of the major boundaries and subdivision of the wing anlage into the hinge and blade region. ..
  25. Fisher A, Caudy M. The function of hairy-related bHLH repressor proteins in cell fate decisions. Bioessays. 1998;20:298-306 pubmed
    ..This general function in cell fate specification has been conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates and has implications for human disease pathogenesis. ..
  26. Sato M, Kojima T, Michiue T, Saigo K. Bar homeobox genes are latitudinal prepattern genes in the developing Drosophila notum whose expression is regulated by the concerted functions of decapentaplegic and wingless. Development. 1999;126:1457-66 pubmed
  27. Callejo A, Torroja C, Quijada L, Guerrero I. Hedgehog lipid modifications are required for Hedgehog stabilization in the extracellular matrix. Development. 2006;133:471-83 pubmed
    ..All these data show that the interaction of lipid-modified Hh with HSPG is important both for precise Hh spreading through the epithelium surface and for correct Hh reception. ..
  28. Baena Lopez L, Pastor Pareja J, Resino J. Wg and Egfr signalling antagonise the development of the peripodial epithelium in Drosophila wing discs. Development. 2003;130:6497-506 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that suppression of Wg and Egfr activities is an early step in the development of the peripodial epithelium of the wing discs. ..
  29. Ayala Camargo A, Anderson A, Amoyel M, Rodrigues A, Flaherty M, Bach E. JAK/STAT signaling is required for hinge growth and patterning in the Drosophila wing disc. Dev Biol. 2013;382:413-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We report negative interactions between Stat92E and the notum factor Araucan, resulting in restriction of JAK/STAT signaling from the notum...
  30. Brennan K, Gardner P. Notching up another pathway. Bioessays. 2002;24:405-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, they show that Wnt signalling may regulate this Deltex-dependent signal. ..
  31. Simpson P, Woehl R, Usui K. The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. Development. 1999;126:1349-64 pubmed
  32. Terriente Félix A, Molnar C, Gomez Skarmeta J, de Celis J. A conserved function of the chromatin ATPase Kismet in the regulation of hedgehog expression. Dev Biol. 2011;350:382-92 pubmed publisher
  33. Skaer N, Pistillo D, Gibert J, Lio P, W lbeck C, Simpson P. Gene duplication at the achaete-scute complex and morphological complexity of the peripheral nervous system in Diptera. Trends Genet. 2002;18:399-405 pubmed
    ..This probably coincided in time with gene duplication events, raising the possibility that an increase in gene copy number might have provided the flexibility necessary for more complex transcriptional regulation...
  34. Kiritooshi N, Yorimitsu T, Shirai T, Puli O, Singh A, Nakagoshi H. A vertex specific dorsal selector Dve represses the ventral appendage identity in Drosophila head. Mech Dev. 2014;133:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes function as dorsal selectors and repress the default, ventral, identity in the eye-head ..
  35. Simpson P. A prepattern for sensory organs. Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 1996;6:948-50 pubmed
    ..A set of genes has now been identified that regulate achaete-scute expression and form a prepattern for sensory bristle development. ..
  36. Blair S. Eye development: Notch lends a handedness. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R356-60 pubmed
    ..Notch signalling helps determine this handedness, first by establishing a signalling center at the eye equator, and second by mediating a choice between two photoreceptor fates ..
  37. Kerner P, Ikmi A, Coen D, Vervoort M. Evolutionary history of the iroquois/Irx genes in metazoans. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:74 pubmed publisher
    The iroquois (iro/Irx) genes encode transcriptional regulators that belong to the TALE superclass of homeodomain proteins and have key functions during development in both vertebrates and insects...
  38. Raisin S, Ruel L, Ranieri N, Staccini Lavenant L, Thérond P. Dynamic phosphorylation of the kinesin Costal-2 in vivo reveals requirement of fused kinase activity for all levels of hedgehog signalling. Dev Biol. 2010;344:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that the extracellular Hh information is conveyed to an intracellular signal through graded Fu kinase activity. ..
  39. Crozatier M, Glise B, Vincent A. Connecting Hh, Dpp and EGF signalling in patterning of the Drosophila wing; the pivotal role of collier/knot in the AP organiser. Development. 2002;129:4261-9 pubmed
    ..A model recapitulating the molecular interplay between the Hh, Dpp and EGF signalling pathways in the wing AP organiser is presented...
  40. Andreu M, González Pérez E, Ajuria L, Samper N, González Crespo S, Campuzano S, et al. Mirror represses pipe expression in follicle cells to initiate dorsoventral axis formation in Drosophila. Development. 2012;139:1110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, related RTK-Cic repressor circuits regulate the early stages of Drosophila DV and AP body axis formation. ..
  41. Kumar R, Dobi K, Baylies M, Abmayr S. Muscle cell fate choice requires the T-box transcription factor midline in Drosophila. Genetics. 2015;199:777-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Mid is the first T-box factor shown to influence LT3 and LT4 muscle identity and, along with the T-box protein Optomotor-blind-related-gene 1 (Org-1), is representative of a new class of transcription factors in muscle specification. ..
  42. Dobi K, Halfon M, Baylies M. Whole-genome analysis of muscle founder cells implicates the chromatin regulator Sin3A in muscle identity. Cell Rep. 2014;8:858-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicate Sin3A as a key buffer controlling muscle responsiveness to transcription factors in the formation of muscle identity, thereby generating tissue diversity. ..
  43. Minervini C, Marsano R, Casieri P, Fanti L, Caizzi R, Pimpinelli S, et al. Heterochromatin protein 1 interacts with 5'UTR of transposable element ZAM in a sequence-specific fashion. Gene. 2007;393:1-10 pubmed
    ..Our observations confirm an HP1 co-operative DNA-binding and display for the first time the HP1 DNA target motif that, we hypothesize, should be one of its nucleation sites. ..
  44. Kelley R, Kuroda M. The Drosophila roX1 RNA gene can overcome silent chromatin by recruiting the male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex. Genetics. 2003;164:565-74 pubmed
    ..The potency with which an ectopic MSL complex overcomes silent chromatin suggests that its normal action on the X must be under strict regulation. ..
  45. Rodriguez I. The dachsous gene, a member of the cadherin family, is required for Wg-dependent pattern formation in the Drosophila wing disc. Development. 2004;131:3195-206 pubmed
  46. Cavodeassi F, Rodriguez I, Modolell J. Dpp signalling is a key effector of the wing-body wall subdivision of the Drosophila mesothorax. Development. 2002;129:3815-23 pubmed
    ..Expression of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) homeobox genes in the most proximal part of the disc defines the notum, since Iro-C(-) cells within ..
  47. Fujise M, Izumi S, Selleck S, Nakato H. Regulation of dally, an integral membrane proteoglycan, and its function during adult sensory organ formation of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2001;235:433-48 pubmed
    ..We have also determined that, for pSA, a bristle on the lateral notum, dally shows genetic interactions with iroquois complex (IRO-C), a gene complex affecting ac-sc expression...
  48. Villa Cuesta E, González Pérez E, Modolell J. Apposition of iroquois expressing and non-expressing cells leads to cell sorting and fold formation in the Drosophila imaginal wing disc. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:106 pubmed
    ..In the Drosophila imaginal wing disc the iroquois homeobox genes are expressed in the notum anlage and contribute to the specification of notum identity...
  49. Bellefroid E, Kobbe A, Gruss P, Pieler T, Gurdon J, Papalopulu N. Xiro3 encodes a Xenopus homolog of the Drosophila Iroquois genes and functions in neural specification. EMBO J. 1998;17:191-203 pubmed Xenopus and in the mouse two highly related genes, Xiro3 and Irx3 respectively, that encode a Drosophila Iroquois-related homeobox transcription factor...
  50. Aldaz S, Morata G, Azpiazu N. The Pax-homeobox gene eyegone is involved in the subdivision of the thorax of Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4473-82 pubmed
    ..Eyg product cannot induce the formation of notum patterns; its thoracic function requires co-expression with the Iroquois (Iro) genes...
  51. Maurel Zaffran C, Treisman J. pannier acts upstream of wingless to direct dorsal eye disc development in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:1007-16 pubmed
    ..This boundary region seems to be established by the genes of the iroquois complex, which are expressed in the dorsal half of the disc and inhibit fringe expression there...
  52. Barrios N, González Pérez E, Hernández R, Campuzano S. The Homeodomain Iroquois Proteins Control Cell Cycle Progression and Regulate the Size of Developmental Fields. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005463 pubmed publisher
    ..The homeodomain Iroquois/Irx proteins play a key, evolutionarily conserved, role in territorial specification...
  53. Sotillos S, de Celis J. Regulation of decapentaplegic expression during Drosophila wing veins pupal development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the shv region of different Drosophila species, we found binding sites for the vein-specific transciption factors Araucan, Knirps and Ventral veinless, as well as binding sites for the Dpp pathway effectors Mad and Med...
  54. Gomez Skarmeta J, Modolell J. araucan and caupolican provide a link between compartment subdivisions and patterning of sensory organs and veins in the Drosophila wing. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2935-45 pubmed
    The homeo box prepattern genes araucan (ara) and caupolican (caup) are coexpressed near the anterior-posterior (AP) compartment border of the developing Drosophila wing in two symmetrical patches located one at each side of the ..
  55. Yorimitsu T, Kiritooshi N, Nakagoshi H. Defective proventriculus specifies the ocellar region in the Drosophila head. Dev Biol. 2011;356:598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Dve activity is involved in repression of the frons identity in an incoherent feedforward loop of Otd and Dve...
  56. Ghysen A, Dambly Chaudiere C. A genetic programme for neuronal connectivity. Trends Genet. 2000;16:221-6 pubmed
    ..The ongoing analysis of pathfinding mutants suggests plausible mechanisms for the translation of neuronal identity into axonal behaviour. ..
  57. Grieder N, Morata G, Affolter M, Gehring W. Spalt major controls the development of the notum and of wing hinge primordia of the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc. Dev Biol. 2009;329:315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that salm activity is down-regulated by its own product and by that of the Pax gene eyegone. ..
  58. Tolhuis B, Blom M, Kerkhoven R, Pagie L, Teunissen H, Nieuwland M, et al. Interactions among Polycomb domains are guided by chromosome architecture. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001343 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that many interactions among PcG target genes exist and that these interactions are guided by overall chromosome architecture. ..
  59. Matakatsu H, Tadokoro R, Gamo S, Hayashi S. Repression of the wing vein development in Drosophila by the nuclear matrix protein plexus. Development. 1999;126:5207-16 pubmed
    ..Plexus may regulate transcription of vein-and intervein-specific genes by tethering transcriptional regulators to specific locations in the nucleus. ..
  60. de Celis J, Barrio R, Kafatos F. Regulation of the spalt/spalt-related gene complex and its function during sensory organ development in the Drosophila thorax. Development. 1999;126:2653-62 pubmed
    ..We postulate that spalt and spalt-related belong to a category of transcriptional regulators that subdivide the thorax into expression domains (prepattern) required for the localised activation of proneural genes. ..
  61. Grillenzoni N, van Helden J, Dambly Chaudiere C, Ghysen A. The iroquois complex controls the somatotopy of Drosophila notum mechanosensory projections. Development. 1998;125:3563-9 pubmed
    ..We also analyze the role of the prepattern genes araucan and caupolican, two members of the iroquois gene complex which are required for the expression of achaete and scute in the lateral region of the notum, and we show ..
  62. Bejarano F, Perez L, Apidianakis Y, Delidakis C, Milan M. Hedgehog restricts its expression domain in the Drosophila wing. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:778-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Hh restricts its own expression domain in the Drosophila wing through the activity of Mtv and Gro. ..
  63. Sato M, Umetsu D, Murakami S, Yasugi T, Tabata T. DWnt4 regulates the dorsoventral specificity of retinal projections in the Drosophila melanogaster visual system. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:67-75 pubmed
    ..In contrast, iroquois homeobox genes are the dorsal cues for the retina...
  64. Dambly Chaudiere C, Leyns L. The determination of sense organs in Drosophila: a search for interacting genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1992;36:85-91 pubmed
    ..Our experience suggests that its efficiency should be substantially improved by the use of insertional mutagenesis. ..
  65. Hooper J. Smoothened translates Hedgehog levels into distinct responses. Development. 2003;130:3951-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, two activities of Smoothened translate different levels of Hedgehog into distinct intracellular responses. ..
  66. Irvine K. Fringe, Notch, and making developmental boundaries. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:434-41 pubmed
    ..Lunatic Fringe has been shown to be required for vertebrate somitogenesis, where it appears to act as a crucial link between a molecular clock and the regulation of Notch signaling. ..
  67. Grau B, Popescu C, Torroja L, Ortuño Sahagún D, Boros I, Ferrús A. Transcriptional adaptor ADA3 of Drosophila melanogaster is required for histone modification, position effect variegation, and transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:376-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that dADA3 plays a role in HAT complexes which acetylate H3 and H4 at specific residues. In turn, this acetylation results in chromatin structure effects of certain rearrangements and transcription of specific genes. ..