Gene Symbol: apolpp
Description: apolipophorin
Alias: ApoL1, ApoL2, ApoLI, ApoLII, CG11064, DRBP, Dmel\CG11064, Lipophorin, Lpp, RFABG, RFABP, RFBP, RfaBP, RfaBp, Rfabg, Rfabp, apoLI, apoLII, apoLPP, apoLpp, chr4:1088013..1088173, lipophorin, rfabg, apolipophorin, CG11064-PA, CG11064-PB, CG11064-PC, CG11064-PD, Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein, Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding protein, Retinoid- and fatty-acid binding protein, Retinoid-fatty acid-binding glycoprotein, RfaBp, apolipophorin I, apolipophorin II, apolipophorin-2, apolpp-PA, apolpp-PB, apolpp-PC, apolpp-PD, lipophorin, retinoid and fatty acid binding glycoprotein, retinoid and fatty acid binding protein, retinoid and fatty-acid binding protein, retinoid- and fatty acid-binding gene, retinoid-fatty acid binding protein
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Parra Peralbo E, Culi J. Drosophila lipophorin receptors mediate the uptake of neutral lipids in oocytes and imaginal disc cells by an endocytosis-independent mechanism. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001297 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that lipophorin receptor 1 and 2 (lpr1 and lpr2), two partially redundant genes belonging to the Low Density Lipoprotein ..
  2. Khaliullina H, Panàkovà D, Eugster C, Riedel F, Carvalho M, Eaton S. Patched regulates Smoothened trafficking using lipoprotein-derived lipids. Development. 2009;136:4111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Ptc normally regulates Smo degradation by changing the lipid composition of endosomes through which Smo passes, and that the presence of Hh on lipoproteins inhibits utilization of their lipids by Ptc. ..
  3. Panàkovà D, Sprong H, Marois E, Thiele C, Eaton S. Lipoprotein particles are required for Hedgehog and Wingless signalling. Nature. 2005;435:58-65 pubmed
    ..Similarly, the range of Wingless signalling is narrowed. We propose a novel function for lipoprotein particles, in which they act as vehicles for the movement of lipid-linked morphogens and glycophosphatidylinositol-linked proteins. ..
  4. Brankatschk M, Eaton S. Lipoprotein particles cross the blood-brain barrier in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10441-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Drosophila lipoprotein lipophorin exists in two isoforms...
  5. Palm W, Sampaio J, Brankatschk M, Carvalho M, Mahmoud A, Shevchenko A, et al. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster--assembly, function, and influence on tissue lipid composition. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002828 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier...
  6. Kutty R, Kutty G, Kambadur R, Duncan T, Koonin E, Rodriguez I, et al. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of a retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein from Drosophila. A putative lipophorin. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20641-9 pubmed
    ..polypeptide and that predicted for the >200-kDa polypeptide showed high sequence similarity to blowfly apolipophorin II and apolipophorin I, respectively...
  7. Scherfer C, Karlsson C, Loseva O, Bidla G, Goto A, Havemann J, et al. Isolation and characterization of hemolymph clotting factors in Drosophila melanogaster by a pullout method. Curr Biol. 2004;14:625-9 pubmed
    ..The most abundant clot protein is Hemolectin, and we confirm that hemolectin mutant larvae show clotting defects. ..
  8. Callejo A, Culi J, Guerrero I. Patched, the receptor of Hedgehog, is a lipoprotein receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, by using different Ptc mutants, we show that Lp internalization does not play a major role in Hh signal transduction but does in Hh gradient formation. ..
  9. Eugster C, Panàkovà D, Mahmoud A, Eaton S. Lipoprotein-heparan sulfate interactions in the Hh pathway. Dev Cell. 2007;13:57-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila lipoprotein particle, Lipophorin, bears lipid-linked morphogens on its surface and is required for long-range signaling activity of Wingless and Hedgehog...

More Information


  1. Eaton S. Release and trafficking of lipid-linked morphogens. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:17-22 pubmed
  2. Renfranz P, Siegrist S, Stronach B, Macalma T, Beckerle M. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Zyx102, a Drosophila orthologue of the zyxin family that interacts with Drosophila Enabled. Gene. 2003;305:13-26 pubmed
  3. Rodríguez Vázquez M, Vaquero D, Parra Peralbo E, Mejía Morales J, Culi J. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005356 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements...
  4. Baer M, Palm W, Eaton S, Leptin M, Affolter M. Microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) is required to expand tracheal lumen in Drosophila in a cell-autonomous manner. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:6038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, in tracheal cells, MTP is involved in regulation of de novo apical membrane delivery to the existing lumen and thus promotes proper expansion of the larval tracheal system. ..
  5. Solis G, Lüchtenborg A, Katanaev V. Wnt secretion and gradient formation. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:5130-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. ..
  6. Herren J, Paredes J, Sch pfer F, Arafah K, Bulet P, Lemaitre B. Insect endosymbiont proliferation is limited by lipid availability. elife. 2014;3:e02964 pubmed publisher
    ..specifically depletes host hemolymph diacylglyceride, the major lipid class transported by the lipoprotein, Lpp. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Lpp expression, which reduces the amount of circulating lipids, inhibits Spiroplasma ..
  7. Bilousov O, Kozeretska I, Katanaev V. Role of the gene Miniature in Drosophila wing maturation. Genesis. 2012;50:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Miniature acts upstream from the heterotrimeric Gs protein transducing the bursicon signal in wing epithelia. We propose that Miniature interacts with bursicon and regulates its diffusion through or stability within the wing tissue. ..
  8. Palm W, Swierczynska M, Kumari V, Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S, Eaton S. Secretion and signaling activities of lipoprotein-associated hedgehog and non-sterol-modified hedgehog in flies and mammals. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001505 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of Hh secretion forms with distinct signaling activities suggests a novel mechanism for generating a diversity of Hh responses...
  9. Mann C, Anderson T, Read J, Chester S, Harrison G, Kochl S, et al. The structure of vitellogenin provides a molecular model for the assembly and secretion of atherogenic lipoproteins. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:391-408 pubmed
    ..The structural and functional evolution of the VTGs provides a unifying scheme for the invertebrate origins of the major vertebrate lipid transport system. ..
  10. Khaliullina H, Bilgin M, Sampaio J, Shevchenko A, Eaton S. Endocannabinoids are conserved inhibitors of the Hedgehog pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:3415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Phytocannabinoids are also potent Smo inhibitors. These findings link organismal metabolism to local Hedgehog signaling and suggest previously unsuspected mechanisms for the physiological activities of cannabinoids. ..
  11. Picking W, Chen D, Lee R, Vogt M, Polizzi J, Marietta R, et al. Control of Drosophila opsin gene expression by carotenoids and retinoic acid: northern and western analyses. Exp Eye Res. 1996;63:493-500 pubmed
    ..Preliminary evidence shows that carotenoid deprivation decreases two proteins relevant to visual function: [1] phospholipase C (PLC); and [2] Drosophila retinoid binding protein (DRBP).
  12. Stern S, Snir O, Mizrachi E, Galili M, Zaltsman I, Soen Y. Reduction in maternal Polycomb levels contributes to transgenerational inheritance of a response to toxic stress in flies. J Physiol. 2014;592:2343-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this shows that exposure to G418 stress reduces the maternal levels of Polycomb in the offspring embryos and this reduction contributes to the inheritance of induced expression. ..
  13. Bi J, Wang W, Liu Z, Huang X, Jiang Q, Liu G, et al. Seipin promotes adipose tissue fat storage through the ER Ca²?-ATPase SERCA. Cell Metab. 2014;19:861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that Seipin promotes adipose tissue fat storage by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. ..
  14. Vierstraete E, Verleyen P, Sas F, Van den Bergh G, De Loof A, Arckens L, et al. The instantly released Drosophila immune proteome is infection-specific. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:1052-60 pubmed
    ..Next to known immune proteins, unannotated proteins were identified such as CG4306 protein, which has homologues with unknown function in all metazoan genome databases available today. ..
  15. Vierstraete E, Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Van den Bergh G, Arckens L, et al. A proteomic approach for the analysis of instantly released wound and immune proteins in Drosophila melanogaster hemolymph. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:470-5 pubmed
    ..Determining the function of all of these immune-induced proteins represents an exciting challenge for increasing our knowledge of insect immunity. ..
  16. Duncan T, Kutty G, Chader G, Wiggert B. A glycoprotein binding retinoids and fatty acids is present in Drosophila. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;312:158-66 pubmed
  17. Duncan T, Osawa Y, Kutty R, Kutty G, Wiggert B. Heme-binding by Drosophila retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein (RFABG), a member of the proapolipophorin gene family. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1222-8 pubmed
    We previously have cloned and characterized a retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein (RFABG) isolated from the heads of Drosophila melanogaster...
  18. Matusek T, Wendler F, Polès S, Pizette S, D Angelo G, Fürthauer M, et al. The ESCRT machinery regulates the secretion and long-range activity of Hedgehog. Nature. 2014;516:99-103 pubmed publisher
  19. Zeng Q, Smith D, Shippy S. Proteomic analysis of individual fruit fly hemolymph. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;981-982:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This nano-scale analysis method will facilitate future study of Drosophila and lead to a more complete understanding of the physiology of the fly model system. ..
  20. Sharma A, Singh P. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5763 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that adult acquired transcriptomic alteration in soma is spermatogenically inherited across generations has potential implications in human health and evolution. ..
  21. Riddle N, Leung W, Haynes K, Granok H, Wuller J, Elgin S. An investigation of heterochromatin domains on the fourth chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:1177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The data require that heterochromatin formation as a whole depends on a more complex pattern of sequence organization rather than the presence of a single sequence element. ..
  22. Shim K, Picking W, Kutty R, Thomas C, Wiggert B, Stark W. Control of Drosophila retinoid and fatty acid binding glycoprotein expression by retinoids and retinoic acid: northern, western and immunocytochemical analyses. Exp Eye Res. 1997;65:717-27 pubmed
    ..we examined the effect of retinoids on the translation and transcription of a Drosophila Retinoid and Fatty Acid Binding Glycoprotein. Western blots showed that this protein is high in retinoid replete flies and low in deprived ..
  23. Pho D, Pennanec h M, Jallon J. Purification of adult Drosophila melanogaster lipophorin and its role in hydrocarbon transport. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;31:289-303 pubmed
    b>Lipophorin was isolated from homogenized adult Drosophila melanogaster. It is stained by Sudan Black and has a native molecular mass of 640 kD and a density of 1.12 g/ml. It consists of two glycosylated apoproteins of 240 and 75 kDa...
  24. Vandenborre G, Van Damme E, Ghesquière B, Menschaert G, Hamshou M, Rao R, et al. Glycosylation signatures in Drosophila: fishing with lectins. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:3235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a specific glycosylation signature can be associated with a functionally related group of glycoproteins in Drosophila, both in terms of biological process and molecular function. ..
  25. Tian Y, Li T, Sun M, Wan D, Li Q, Li P, et al. Neurexin regulates visual function via mediating retinoid transport to promote rhodopsin maturation. Neuron. 2013;77:311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..with apolipoprotein I (ApoL I), a product generated by cleavage of retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein (RFABG) that functions in retinoid transport...
  26. Ballard S, Jarolimova J, Wharton K. Gbb/BMP signaling is required to maintain energy homeostasis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2010;337:375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results implicate Gbb/BMP signaling as a new pathway critical for positive regulation of nutrient storage and energy homeostasis during development. ..
  27. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that animal cell cytokinesis depends on both actomyosin-based contraction and Golgi-derived membrane secretion. ..
  28. Shibata T, Ariki S, Shinzawa N, Miyaji R, Suyama H, Sako M, et al. Protein crosslinking by transglutaminase controls cuticle morphogenesis in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13477 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi of their corresponding genes caused a lethal phenotype or cuticle abnormality. Our results indicate that TG-dependent protein crosslinking in Drosophila plays a key role in cuticle morphogenesis and sclerotization. ..
  29. Diaconeasa B, Mazock G, Mahowald A, Dubreuil R. Genetic studies of spectrin in the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for a novel lipid uptake apparatus. Genetics. 2013;195:871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypermorphic phenotype appears to be the result of blocking secretion of the lipid carrier lipophorin from fat cells...
  30. Briscoe J, Therond P. Hedgehog signaling: from the Drosophila cuticle to anti-cancer drugs. Dev Cell. 2005;8:143-51 pubmed
  31. Podemski L, Sousa Neves R, Marsh J, Locke J. Molecular mapping of deletion breakpoints on chromosome 4 of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2004;112:381-8 pubmed
    ..This will substantially reduce the amount of DHPLC analysis required to match each mutation to a predicted transcript on chromosome 4. ..
  32. Wang W, Thornton K, Berry A, Long M. Nucleotide variation along the Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome. Science. 2002;295:134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, contrary to the expectation of no recombination, we identified six recombination events within the chromosome. Thus, positive Darwinian selection and recombination have affected the evolution of this chromosome...
  33. Locke J, Podemski L, Aippersbach N, Kemp H, Hodgetts R. A physical map of the polytenized region (101EF-102F) of chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;155:1175-83 pubmed
    ..A minimal tiling set of the clones we have mapped will facilitate both the assembly of the DNA sequence of the chromosome and a functional analysis of its genes. ..
  34. Paredes J, Herren J, Schüpfer F, Lemaitre B. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi) construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S...