aPKC

Summary

Gene Symbol: aPKC
Description: atypical protein kinase C
Alias: CG10261, CG30475, CG42783, DaPKC, Dmel\CG42783, Dmel_CG10261, Dmel_CG30475, PKCl, PKCzeta, a-PKC, aPKC-zeta, aPKCzeta, aPkc, alphaPKCzeta, apkc, daPKC, dapkc, l(2)k06403, pkc-3, psu, atypical protein kinase C, CG42783-PA, CG42783-PB, CG42783-PC, CG42783-PD, CG42783-PE, CG42783-PF, CG42783-PG, CG42783-PI, CG42783-PJ, CG42783-PK, CG42783-PL, CG42783-PM, aPKC-PA, aPKC-PB, aPKC-PC, aPKC-PD, aPKC-PE, aPKC-PF, aPKC-PG, aPKC-PI, aPKC-PJ, aPKC-PK, aPKC-PL, aPKC-PM, atypical PKC, atypical protein kinase, atypical-Protein kinase C, pschur
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Lu H, Bilder D. Endocytic control of epithelial polarity and proliferation in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1232-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a critical and specific role for endocytic traffic in the control of both apico-basal polarity and cell proliferation. ..
  2. Weng M, Golden K, Lee C. dFezf/Earmuff maintains the restricted developmental potential of intermediate neural progenitors in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;18:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Erm dependence functionally distinguishes intermediate neural progenitors from neuroblasts in the Drosophila larval brain, balancing neurogenesis with stem cell maintenance. ..
  3. Wodarz A, Ramrath A, Grimm A, Knust E. Drosophila atypical protein kinase C associates with Bazooka and controls polarity of epithelia and neuroblasts. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1361-74 pubmed
    ..This study is the first functional analysis of an atypical protein kinase C isoform using a loss-of-function allele in a genetically tractable organism.
  4. Bowman S, Rolland V, Betschinger J, Kinsey K, Emery G, Knoblich J. The tumor suppressors Brat and Numb regulate transit-amplifying neuroblast lineages in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;14:535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data describe a transit-amplifying lineage in the Drosophila nervous system and suggest that different vulnerabilities in intermediate cell types can affect the outcome of tumor suppressor loss in stem cell lineages. ..
  5. Albertson R, Doe C. Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:166-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Dlg/Scrib/Lgl are important in regulating cortical polarity, cell size asymmetry and mitotic spindle asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. ..
  6. Harris T, Peifer M. aPKC controls microtubule organization to balance adherens junction symmetry and planar polarity during development. Dev Cell. 2007;12:727-38 pubmed
    ..We show that atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) is required for symmetric AJ positioning during Drosophila embryogenesis...
  7. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. Asymmetric segregation of the tumor suppressor brat regulates self-renewal in Drosophila neural stem cells. Cell. 2006;124:1241-53 pubmed
    ..Similar defects are seen in lethal giant larvae (lgl) mutants where Brat and Prospero are not asymmetric. We have identified a molecular mechanism that may control self-renewal and prevent tumor formation in other stem cells as well. ..
  8. Martin S, St Johnston D. A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior-posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity. Nature. 2003;421:379-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, Drosophila and human LKB1 may be functional homologues, suggesting that loss of cell polarity may contribute to tumour formation in individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome...
  9. Krahn M, Klopfenstein D, Fischer N, Wodarz A. Membrane targeting of Bazooka/PAR-3 is mediated by direct binding to phosphoinositide lipids. Curr Biol. 2010;20:636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The PAR-3/PAR-6/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex is the first to become asymmetrically localized, and it controls the localization of ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Bachmann A, Schneider M, Theilenberg E, Grawe F, Knust E. Drosophila Stardust is a partner of Crumbs in the control of epithelial cell polarity. Nature. 2001;414:638-43 pubmed
    ..The Stardust proteins represent versatile candidates as structural and possibly regulatory constituents of the SAC, a crucial element in the control of epithelial cell polarity. ..
  2. Hong Y, Stronach B, Perrimon N, Jan L, Jan Y. Drosophila Stardust interacts with Crumbs to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts. Nature. 2001;414:634-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the subset of ectodermal cells that delaminate and form neuroblasts, their polarity requires the function of Bazooka, but not of Stardust or Crumbs. ..
  3. Horne Badovinac S, Bilder D. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development. ..
  4. Drier E, Tello M, Cowan M, Wu P, Blace N, Sacktor T, et al. Memory enhancement and formation by atypical PKM activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:316-24 pubmed
    ..PKMzeta is a truncated, persistently active isoform of atypical protein kinase C-zeta (aPKCzeta), which lacks the N-terminal pseudosubstrate regulatory domain...
  5. Pinheiro E, Montell D. Requirement for Par-6 and Bazooka in Drosophila border cell migration. Development. 2004;131:5243-51 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the localization of several apical epithelial proteins, Par-6, Par-3/Bazooka and aPKC, during border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary...
  6. Nam S, Choi K. Interaction of Par-6 and Crumbs complexes is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4363-72 pubmed
    ..Crb, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs-lost (Dlt) colocalizes with another protein complex containing Par-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in the rhabdomere stalk of photoreceptors...
  7. Kaplan N, Tolwinski N. Spatially defined Dsh-Lgl interaction contributes to directional tissue morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that apical-basal proteins, used to establish polarity within a cell, can be independently co-opted to function in epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  8. Siegrist S, Doe C. Extrinsic cues orient the cell division axis in Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts. Development. 2006;133:529-36 pubmed
    ..This ensures the proper coordination between neuroblast cell polarity and CNS tissue polarity. ..
  9. Guilgur L, Prudêncio P, Ferreira T, Pimenta Marques A, Martinho R. Drosophila aPKC is required for mitotic spindle orientation during symmetric division of epithelial cells. Development. 2012;139:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies in mammalian tissue culture cells suggest that the apically localised atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is important for the planar orientation of the mitotic spindle in dividing epithelial cells...
  10. Bécam I, Tanentzapf G, Lepesant J, Brown N, Huynh J. Integrin-independent repression of cadherin transcription by talin during axis formation in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:510-6 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, this function of talin is independent of integrins. These results uncover a new role for talin in regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. ..
  11. Sotillos S, Diaz Meco M, Caminero E, Moscat J, Campuzano S. DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:549-57 pubmed
    ..We show, by overexpression of a kinase-dead Drosophila atypical PKC (DaPKC), the requirement for the kinase activity of DaPKC to maintain the position of apical determinants and ..
  12. Pellettieri J, Seydoux G. Anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila--PARallels and differences. Science. 2002;298:1946-50 pubmed
    ..Although clear mechanistic parallels remain to be established, par-dependent regulation of microtubule dynamics and protein stability emerge as common themes. ..
  13. Kim S, Gailite I, Moussian B, Luschnig S, Goette M, Fricke K, et al. Kinase-activity-independent functions of atypical protein kinase C in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3759-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of many cell types is controlled by a protein complex consisting of Bazooka/PAR-3 (Baz), PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  14. Margolis B, Borg J. Apicobasal polarity complexes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5157-9 pubmed
  15. Wang Y, Khan Z, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Differential positioning of adherens junctions is associated with initiation of epithelial folding. Nature. 2012;484:390-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus establish a direct link between modification of epithelial polarity and initiation of epithelial folding...
  16. Grifoni D, Garoia F, Bellosta P, Parisi F, De Biase D, Collina G, et al. aPKCzeta cortical loading is associated with Lgl cytoplasmic release and tumor growth in Drosophila and human epithelia. Oncogene. 2007;26:5960-5 pubmed
    b>Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) regulate apical-basal polarity in Drosophila and mammalian epithelia...
  17. Hafer N, Xu S, Bhat K, Schedl P. The Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2 has a novel expression pattern and is important for asymmetric cell division and nervous system function. Genetics. 2011;189:907-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that orb2 funtions in asymmetric division of stem cells and precursor cells during the development of the embryonic nervous system and mesoderm. ..
  18. Doe C, Bowerman B. Asymmetric cell division: fly neuroblast meets worm zygote. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:68-75 pubmed
    ..Mammalian epithelia also use this complex to regulate apical/basal polarity. Recent results have allowed us to compare the mechanisms regulating asymmetric cell division in Drosophila neuroblasts and the C. elegans zygote. ..
  19. Sawyer J, Choi W, Jung K, He L, Harris N, Peifer M. A contractile actomyosin network linked to adherens junctions by Canoe/afadin helps drive convergent extension. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2491-508 pubmed publisher
    ..polarity and dramatically increases planar polarity of the apical polarity proteins Bazooka/Par3 and atypical protein kinase C. Changes in Bazooka localization parallel retraction of the actomyosin network...
  20. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..This inhibits formation of the Bazooka/PAR-6/aPKC complex by blocking Bazooka oligomerization and binding to aPKC...
  21. Caussinus E, Gonzalez C. Induction of tumor growth by altered stem-cell asymmetric division in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1125-9 pubmed
  22. Smith C, Lau K, Rahmani Z, Dho S, Brothers G, She Y, et al. aPKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates asymmetric membrane localization of the cell fate determinant Numb. EMBO J. 2007;26:468-80 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the partition defective (Par) complex containing Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) directs the polarized distribution and unequal segregation of the cell fate determinant Numb during asymmetric cell divisions...
  23. Campbell K, Knust E, Skaer H. Crumbs stabilises epithelial polarity during tissue remodelling. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2604-12 pubmed publisher
  24. David D, Wang Q, Feng J, Harris T. Bazooka inhibits aPKC to limit antagonism of actomyosin networks during amnioserosa apical constriction. Development. 2013;140:4719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a known inhibitor of apicomedial actomyosin networks in Drosophila amnioserosa cells, the Par-6-aPKC complex, is recruited to the apicomedial domain by actomyosin networks during dorsal closure of the embryo...
  25. Bonaccorsi S, Mottier V, Giansanti M, Bolkan B, Williams B, Goldberg M, et al. The Drosophila Lkb1 kinase is required for spindle formation and asymmetric neuroblast division. Development. 2007;134:2183-93 pubmed
    ..of larval neuroblasts (NBs); they suppress unequal cytokinesis, abrogate proper localization of Bazooka, Par-6, DaPKC and Miranda, but affect neither Pins/Galphai localization nor spindle rotation...
  26. Wang H, Somers G, Bashirullah A, Heberlein U, Yu F, Chia W. Aurora-A acts as a tumor suppressor and regulates self-renewal of Drosophila neuroblasts. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3453-63 pubmed
    ..AurA suppresses tumor formation by asymmetrically localizing atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), an NB proliferation factor...
  27. Gilbert M, Robinson B, Moberg K. Functional interactions between the erupted/tsg101 growth suppressor gene and the DaPKC and rbf1 genes in Drosophila imaginal disc tumors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7039 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic reductions of the Drosophila aPKC kinase (DaPKC), which has been shown to promote tumor growth in other fly tumor models, prevent both the ept neoplastic ..
  28. Fletcher G, Lucas E, Brain R, Tournier A, Thompson B. Positive feedback and mutual antagonism combine to polarize Crumbs in the Drosophila follicle cell epithelium. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ovarian follicle cell epithelium, apical membranes are specified by Crumbs (Crb), Stardust (Sdt), and the aPKC-Par6-cdc42 complex...
  29. Bergstralh D, Haack T, St Johnston D. Epithelial polarity and spindle orientation: intersecting pathways. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20130291 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we examine several factors implicated in both processes, namely Canoe, Bazooka, aPKC and Discs large, and consider the implications of this work on how the spindle is oriented during epithelial cell ..
  30. Morrison H, Dionne H, Rusten T, Brech A, Fisher W, Pfeiffer B, et al. Regulation of early endosomal entry by the Drosophila tumor suppressors Rabenosyn and Vps45. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This work represents the first characterization of a Rab5 effector as a tumor suppressor, and it provides in vivo evidence for a Rbsn-Vps45 complex on early endosomes that links Rab5 to the SNARE fusion machinery. ..
  31. Kaplan N, Liu X, Tolwinski N. Epithelial polarity: interactions between junctions and apical-basal machinery. Genetics. 2009;183:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model where zw3 regulates protein levels of apical and adhesion components and suggest that a reciprocal interaction between junctions and polarity modules functions to maintain stable apical and basolateral domains. ..
  32. Lee C, Andersen R, Cabernard C, Manning L, Tran K, Lanskey M, et al. Drosophila Aurora-A kinase inhibits neuroblast self-renewal by regulating aPKC/Numb cortical polarity and spindle orientation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3464-74 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is due to two independent neuroblast defects: abnormal atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)/Numb cortical polarity and failure to align the mitotic spindle with the cortical polarity axis...
  33. Boggiano J, Vanderzalm P, Fehon R. Tao-1 phosphorylates Hippo/MST kinases to regulate the Hippo-Salvador-Warts tumor suppressor pathway. Dev Cell. 2011;21:888-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that one family of Ste20 kinases can activate another and identify Tao-1 as a component of the regulatory network controlling HSW pathway signaling, and therefore tissue growth, during development. ..
  34. Blankenship J, Fuller M, Zallen J. The Drosophila homolog of the Exo84 exocyst subunit promotes apical epithelial identity. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3099-110 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that epithelial polarity in the Drosophila embryo is actively maintained by exocyst-dependent apical localization of the Crumbs transmembrane protein. ..
  35. Atwood S, Chabu C, Penkert R, Doe C, Prehoda K. Cdc42 acts downstream of Bazooka to regulate neuroblast polarity through Par-6 aPKC. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3200-6 pubmed
    Cdc42 recruits Par-6-aPKC to establish cell polarity from worms to mammals...
  36. Lee C, Robinson K, Doe C. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature. 2006;439:594-8 pubmed
    ..The lgl pins neuroblasts show ectopic cortical localization of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), and a decrease in aPKC expression reduces neuroblast numbers, suggesting that aPKC promotes ..
  37. Cabernard C, Prehoda K, Doe C. A spindle-independent cleavage furrow positioning pathway. Nature. 2010;467:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This spindle-independent cleavage furrow mechanism may be relevant to other highly polarized mitotic cells, such as mammalian neural progenitors. ..
  38. Brumby A, Goulding K, Schlosser T, Loi S, Galea R, Khoo P, et al. Identification of novel Ras-cooperating oncogenes in Drosophila melanogaster: a RhoGEF/Rho-family/JNK pathway is a central driver of tumorigenesis. Genetics. 2011;188:105-25 pubmed publisher
    ..are important for the cooperation of RhoGEF2 or Pbl overexpression and of mutants in polarity regulators, Dlg and aPKC, with Ras(ACT) in the whole-tissue context...
  39. Li Z, Wang L, Hays T, Cai Y. Dynein-mediated apical localization of crumbs transcripts is required for Crumbs activity in epithelial polarity. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:31-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Menut L, Vaccari T, Dionne H, Hill J, Wu G, Bilder D. A mosaic genetic screen for Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes based on defective pupation. Genetics. 2007;177:1667-77 pubmed
    ..The isolation of additional loci that affect hyperplastic as well as neoplastic growth indicates the utility of this screening strategy for studying epithelial growth control. ..
  41. Doggett K, Grusche F, Richardson H, Brumby A. Loss of the Drosophila cell polarity regulator Scribbled promotes epithelial tissue overgrowth and cooperation with oncogenic Ras-Raf through impaired Hippo pathway signaling. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:57 pubmed publisher
    ..in scrib mutant eye disc clones is not dependent upon JNK activity, but can be significantly rescued by reducing aPKC kinase activity, and ectopic aPKC activity is sufficient to impair Hippo signaling in the eye disc, even when JNK ..
  42. Morais de Sá E, Mirouse V, St Johnston D. aPKC phosphorylation of Bazooka defines the apical/lateral border in Drosophila epithelial cells. Cell. 2010;141:509-23 pubmed publisher
    Bazooka (PAR-3), PAR-6, and aPKC form a complex that plays a key role in the polarization of many cell types. In epithelial cells, however, Bazooka localizes below PAR-6 and aPKC at the apical/lateral junction...
  43. Cai Y, Yu F, Lin S, Chia W, Yang X. Apical complex genes control mitotic spindle geometry and relative size of daughter cells in Drosophila neuroblast and pI asymmetric divisions. Cell. 2003;112:51-62 pubmed
    ..show that mitotic spindle geometry and unequal daughter cell size are controlled by two parallel pathways (Bazooka/DaPKC and Pins/G alpha i) within the apical complex...
  44. Abdelilah Seyfried S, Cox D, Jan Y. Bazooka is a permissive factor for the invasive behavior of discs large tumor cells in Drosophila ovarian follicular epithelia. Development. 2003;130:1927-35 pubmed
    Drosophila Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are essential for epithelial polarity and adhesion...
  45. Gibson M, Perrimon N. Apicobasal polarization: epithelial form and function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:747-52 pubmed
    ..Recent findings show that segregation of ligand and receptor with one on each side of this barrier can be a crucial regulator of cell-cell signaling events. ..
  46. Leong G, Goulding K, Amin N, Richardson H, Brumby A. Scribble mutants promote aPKC and JNK-dependent epithelial neoplasia independently of Crumbs. BMC Biol. 2009;7:62 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that genetically distinct atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-dependent and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent alterations in scrib mutants drive epithelial ..
  47. David D, Tishkina A, Harris T. The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:1645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical constriction at Drosophila dorsal closure...
  48. Woodfield S, Graves H, Hernandez J, Bergmann A. De-regulation of JNK and JAK/STAT signaling in ESCRT-II mutant tissues cooperatively contributes to neoplastic tumorigenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56021 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first rigorous study of tissues predominantly mutant for endocytic nTSGs and provides clear evidence for cooperation among de-regulated signaling pathways leading to tumorigenesis. ..
  49. Letizia A, Sotillos S, Campuzano S, Llimargas M. Regulated Crb accumulation controls apical constriction and invagination in Drosophila tracheal cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis is supported by the phenotype of lethal giant larvae (lgl); crb double mutants. These results unveil a link between Crb and the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  50. Zhou W, Hong Y. Drosophila Patj plays a supporting role in apical-basal polarity but is essential for viability. Development. 2012;139:2891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results confirm that dPatj possesses an as yet unidentified function that is essential for pupal development. ..
  51. Mastushita Sakai T, White Grindley E, Samuelson J, Seidel C, Si K. Drosophila Orb2 targets genes involved in neuronal growth, synapse formation, and protein turnover. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These targets suggest that the persistent form of the memory trace might be comprised of molecules that maintain a sustained, permissive environment for synaptic growth in an activated synapse. ..
  52. Bergstralh D, Lovegrove H, St Johnston D. Discs large links spindle orientation to apical-basal polarity in Drosophila epithelia. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has implicated the apical polarity factor aPKC, the junctional protein APC2, and basal integrins in epithelial spindle orientation, but the underlying mechanisms ..
  53. Xu N, Keung B, Myat M. Rho GTPase controls invagination and cohesive migration of the Drosophila salivary gland through Crumbs and Rho-kinase. Dev Biol. 2008;321:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..of zygotic function of Rho1 results in the selective loss of the apical proteins, Crumbs (Crb), Drosophila atypical PKC and Stardust during gland invagination and that this is partially due to reduced crb RNA levels and apical ..
  54. Ohno S. Intercellular junctions and cellular polarity: the PAR-aPKC complex, a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:641-8 pubmed
    Two PDZ-domain-containing adapter-like proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, and a protein kinase, atypical protein kinase C (PKC), cooperate together to establish cell polarity in a variety of biological contexts...
  55. Ruiz Canada C, Ashley J, Moeckel Cole S, Drier E, Yin J, Budnik V. New synaptic bouton formation is disrupted by misregulation of microtubule stability in aPKC mutants. Neuron. 2004;42:567-80 pubmed
    The Baz/Par-3-Par-6-aPKC complex is an evolutionarily conserved cassette critical for the development of polarity in epithelial cells, neuroblasts, and oocytes...
  56. Leibfried A, Fricke R, Morgan M, Bogdan S, Bellaiche Y. Drosophila Cip4 and WASp define a branch of the Cdc42-Par6-aPKC pathway regulating E-cadherin endocytosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Cdc42, Par6, or aPKC loss of function is accompanied by the accumulation of apical E-Cad intracellular punctate structures and the ..
  57. Genevet A, Polesello C, Blight K, Robertson F, Collinson L, Pichaud F, et al. The Hippo pathway regulates apical-domain size independently of its growth-control function. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the wing imaginal disc epithelium, we observe increased staining for members of the apical polarity complexes aPKC and Crumbs as well as adherens junction components when Hippo activity is compromised, while basolateral markers ..
  58. Shao W, Wu J, Chen J, Lee D, Tishkina A, Harris T. A modifier screen for Bazooka/PAR-3 interacting genes in the Drosophila embryo epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9938 pubmed publisher
    ..For 13 of the 17 genes, this is the first report of a link to baz or the regulation of epithelial structure. ..
  59. Wang H, Ng K, Qian H, Siderovski D, Chia W, Yu F. Ric-8 controls Drosophila neural progenitor asymmetric division by regulating heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1091-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, Gbetagamma acts to restrict Galphai (and GoLoco proteins) to the apical cortex, where Galphai (and Pins) can mediate asymmetric spindle geometry. ..
  60. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation by Drosophila atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the Par protein complex, releases Lgl from its association with membranes and the ..
  61. Baas A, Smit L, Clevers H. LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:312-9 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize the findings regarding LKB1 over the past six years. In addition, we discuss LKB1 in polarity in the context of both the other PAR proteins and its tumor suppressive activities. ..
  62. Franz A, Riechmann V. Stepwise polarisation of the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Dev Biol. 2010;338:136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, Par-6 and aPKC localise to the apical membrane in a Par-3-dependent manner...
  63. Kempkens O, Médina E, Fernandez Ballester G, Ozüyaman S, Le Bivic A, Serrano L, et al. Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006;85:753-67 pubmed
    ..in cell cultures and in the Drosophila embryo show that the cytoplasmic domain of Crumbs can recruit DmPar-6 and DaPKC to the plasma membrane...
  64. Baffet A, Benoit B, Januschke J, Audo J, Gourhand V, Roth S, et al. Drosophila tubulin-binding cofactor B is required for microtubule network formation and for cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a developmental function for the dTBCB gene that is essential for viability and MT-dependent cell polarity, but not cell division. ..
  65. Wirtz Peitz F, Nishimura T, Knoblich J. Linking cell cycle to asymmetric division: Aurora-A phosphorylates the Par complex to regulate Numb localization. Cell. 2008;135:161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Aurora-A phosphorylates Par-6, a regulatory subunit of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  66. Barros C, Phelps C, Brand A. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II promotes the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants by cortical exclusion rather than active transport. Dev Cell. 2003;5:829-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the movement of myosin II to the contractile ring not only initiates cytokinesis but also completes the partitioning of cell fate determinants from the neuroblast to its daughter. ..
  67. Betschinger J, Eisenhaber F, Knoblich J. Phosphorylation-induced autoinhibition regulates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae. Curr Biol. 2005;15:276-82 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila neuroblasts, the asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants to the basal cell cortex requires aPKC. aPKC localizes to the apical cell cortex and phosphorylates the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl)...
  68. Cox D, Seyfried S, Jan L, Jan Y. Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are required to regulate oocyte differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14475-80 pubmed
    ..diverse cell types by means of an evolutionarily conserved protein complex including PAR-3, PAR-6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  69. Choi W, Harris N, Sumigray K, Peifer M. Rap1 and Canoe/afadin are essential for establishment of apical-basal polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:945-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Bazooka then helps to position both adherens junctions and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)...
  70. Tian A, Deng W. Lgl and its phosphorylation by aPKC regulate oocyte polarity formation in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:463-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we show important roles for the tumor suppressor Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in regulating microtubule polarity and setting up the AP axis of the oocyte...
  71. Doe C. Cell polarity: the PARty expands. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:E7-9 pubmed
    ..This common cell-polarity mechanism is used in cell-specific ways, as highlighted by the recent finding that at least two different types of asymmetric division are observed in Drosophila neural precursors. ..
  72. Laprise P, Lau K, Harris K, Silva Gagliardi N, Paul S, Beronja S, et al. Yurt, Coracle, Neurexin IV and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase form a novel group of epithelial polarity proteins. Nature. 2009;459:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the mammalian Yrt orthologue EPB41L5 (also known as YMO1 and Limulus) is required for lateral membrane formation, indicating a conserved function of Yrt proteins in epithelial polarity. ..
  73. Hamaratoglu F, Gajewski K, Sansores Garcia L, Morrison C, Tao C, Halder G. The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway regulates apical-domain size in parallel to tissue growth. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2351-9 pubmed publisher
    ..double mutant imaginal disc cells have significantly increased levels of apical membrane determinants, such as Crb, aPKC and Patj...
  74. Sousa Nunes R, Chia W, Somers W. Protein phosphatase 4 mediates localization of the Miranda complex during Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions. Genes Dev. 2009;23:359-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Flfl may target PP4 to the MIra protein complex to facilitate dephosphorylation step(s) crucial for its cortical association/asymmetric localization. ..
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    ..of actin cytoskeletal regulators in the developing Drosophila notum, we have identified a critical role for Cdc42-aPKC-Par6 in the maintenance of AJ organization...
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    ..We propose that the generation of higher-order rosette structures links local cell interactions to global tissue reorganization during morphogenesis. ..
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    ..Bazooka/Par3 acts upstream of the RacGEF Sif/TIAM1 to limit filopodia to the basal domain, whereas Cdc42, aPKC and Par6 are required for normal protrusion morphology and dynamics...
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    ..Myosin is activated at the apical cortex by localized Rho kinase and inhibited at the basolateral cortex by PP1beta9C. In addition, our data indicate that active myosin is apically anchored by the Baz/Par-6/aPKC complex.
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    ..In many organisms, cell polarity is regulated by the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Bazooka (Baz/Par3), and Par6 proteins...
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    ..These results demonstrate that Rho-kinase plays an instructive role in planar polarity by targeting Baz/Par-3 and myosin II to complementary cortical domains. ..
  82. Izumi Y, Ohta N, Itoh Furuya A, Fuse N, Matsuzaki F. Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:729-38 pubmed
    ..However, the other apical components, Bazooka-atypical PKC-Par6-Inscuteable, still remain polarized and responsible for asymmetric Miranda localization, suggesting their ..
  83. Hutterer A, Betschinger J, Petronczki M, Knoblich J. Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:845-54 pubmed
    ..We show here that polarity is established shortly after cellularization when Par-6 and the atypical protein kinase C concentrate on the apical side of the newly formed cells...
  84. Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science. 2002;298:1955-9 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves. ..
  85. Betschinger J, Knoblich J. Dare to be different: asymmetric cell division in Drosophila, C. elegans and vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R674-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we outline the steps and factors that are involved in this process in Drosophila and C. elegans and discuss their potential conservation in vertebrates. ..