Gene Symbol: ap
Description: apterous
Alias: Apt, CG8376, Dmel\CG8376, LIM, S-2a, blt, neuro, trw, apterous, APTEROUS, CG8376-PA, CG8376-PB, CG8376-PC, CG8376-PE, ap-PA, ap-PB, ap-PC, ap-PE, apteroys, neuromuscular, no-wings, tornwing, xasta
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ap

Top Publications

  1. Bourgouin C, Lundgren S, Thomas J. Apterous is a Drosophila LIM domain gene required for the development of a subset of embryonic muscles. Neuron. 1992;9:549-61 pubmed
    ..We have identified a Drosophila member of this class, the product of the apterous (ap) gene...
  2. Cohen B, McGuffin M, Pfeifle C, Segal D, Cohen S. apterous, a gene required for imaginal disc development in Drosophila encodes a member of the LIM family of developmental regulatory proteins. Genes Dev. 1992;6:715-29 pubmed
    The apterous (ap) gene is required for the normal development of the wing and haltere imaginal discs in Drosophila melanogaster. ap encodes a new member of the LIM family of developmental regulatory genes...
  3. Park D, Han M, Kim Y, Han K, Taghert P. Ap-let neurons--a peptidergic circuit potentially controlling ecdysial behavior in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;269:95-108 pubmed
    ..We show that a small complement of 28 apterous-expressing cells (Ap-let neurons) in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Drosophila larvae co-express numerous gene ..
  4. Weihe U, Milan M, Cohen S. Regulation of Apterous activity in Drosophila wing development. Development. 2001;128:4615-22 pubmed
    b>Apterous is a LIM-homeodomain protein that confers dorsal compartment identity in Drosophila wing development. Apterous activity requires formation of a complex with a co-factor, Chip/dLDB...
  5. Blair S. Compartments and appendage development in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1995;17:299-309 pubmed
    ..states of gene expression; the compartment-specific expression of two such 'selector'-like genes, engrailed and apterous, are critical for anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral compartmentalization, respectively...
  6. Blair S, Brower D, Thomas J, Zavortink M. The role of apterous in the control of dorsoventral compartmentalization and PS integrin gene expression in the developing wing of Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:1805-15 pubmed
    ..Recent results suggest that the dorsally expressed transcription factor encoded by apterous may control dorsoventral identity in the wing...
  7. Speicher S, Thomas U, Hinz U, Knust E. The Serrate locus of Drosophila and its role in morphogenesis of the wing imaginal discs: control of cell proliferation. Development. 1994;120:535-44 pubmed
  8. Morante J, Erclik T, Desplan C. Cell migration in Drosophila optic lobe neurons is controlled by eyeless/Pax6. Development. 2011;138:687-93 pubmed publisher
    In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, eyeless, apterous and distal-less, three genes that encode transcription factors with important functions during development, are expressed in broad subsets of medulla neurons...
  9. Oktaba K, Gutierrez L, Gagneur J, Girardot C, Sengupta A, Furlong E, et al. Dynamic regulation by polycomb group protein complexes controls pattern formation and the cell cycle in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of cell cycle regulators indicates that the PcG system also dynamically modulates the expression levels of certain genes, providing a possible explanation for the tumor phenotype of PcG mutants. ..

More Information


  1. Koelzer S, Klein T. Regulation of expression of Vg and establishment of the dorsoventral compartment boundary in the wing imaginal disc by Suppressor of Hairless. Dev Biol. 2006;289:77-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, de-repression of its target genes obscures the involvement of Su(H) in this process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Dx does not signal in a Su(H)-independent manner as has been suggested previously. ..
  2. Irvine K, Vogt T. Dorsal-ventral signaling in limb development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997;9:867-76 pubmed
  3. Butterworth F, King R. The developmental genetics of apterous mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1965;52:1153-74 pubmed
  4. Marques G, Haerry T, Crotty M, Xue M, Zhang B, O Connor M. Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5457-70 pubmed
    ..of the FMRFamide class regulate numerous physiological processes including synaptic efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  5. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..Each Tv neuron resides within a neuronal cell group specified by the LIM-homeodomain gene apterous. We find that the zinc-finger gene squeeze acts in Tv cells to promote their unique axon pathfinding to a ..
  6. Calleja M, Moreno E, Pelaz S, Morata G. Visualization of gene expression in living adult Drosophila. Science. 1996;274:252-5 pubmed
    ..The boundary between two of these domains coincides with localized expression of the signaling molecule wingless. ..
  7. Klebes A, Biehs B, Cifuentes F, Kornberg T. Expression profiling of Drosophila imaginal discs. Genome Biol. 2002;3:RESEARCH0038 pubmed
    ..These methods should be widely applicable to comparisons of expression profiles for tissues or parts of tissues that are available only in small amounts. ..
  8. Gotwals P, Paine Saunders S, Stark K, Hynes R. Drosophila integrins and their ligands. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994;6:734-9 pubmed
  9. Yagi R, Mayer F, Basler K. Refined LexA transactivators and their use in combination with the Drosophila Gal4 system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimized LexA system facilitates precise analyses of complex biological phenomena and signaling pathways in Drosophila. ..
  10. Dahmann C, Basler K. Compartment boundaries: at the edge of development. Trends Genet. 1999;15:320-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the exciting progress that has been made recently towards elucidating the mechanisms of boundary formation. ..
  11. O Keefe D, Thor S, Thomas J. Function and specificity of LIM domains in Drosophila nervous system and wing development. Development. 1998;125:3915-23 pubmed
    ..Here we use Drosophila to test the roles of the LIM domains of the LIM-HD family member Apterous (Ap) in wing and nervous system development...
  12. Garcia Bellido A. The engrailed story. Genetics. 1998;148:539-44 pubmed
  13. Baumgardt M, Miguel Aliaga I, Karlsson D, Ekman H, Thor S. Specification of neuronal identities by feedforward combinatorial coding. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e37 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a limited number of regulators may constitute a potent combinatorial code that dictates unique neuronal cell fate, and that such codes show a surprising disregard for many global instructive cues. ..
  14. Morante J, Desplan C. The color-vision circuit in the medulla of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This precise characterization of the medulla circuitry will allow us to understand how color vision is processed in the optic lobe of Drosophila, providing a paradigm for more complex systems in vertebrates. ..
  15. Milan M, Perez L, Cohen S. Short-range cell interactions and cell survival in the Drosophila wing. Dev Cell. 2002;2:797-805 pubmed
    ..We also present evidence showing that activation of the Notch signal transduction pathway is involved in triggering apoptosis of cells misspecified for their dorsal-ventral position. ..
  16. Zecca M, Struhl G. Control of growth and patterning of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by EGFR-mediated signaling. Development. 2002;129:1369-76 pubmed
    ..wing-notum) primordia depends on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling, which heritably activates apterous (ap) in D compartment cells and maintains Iroquois Complex (Iro-C) gene expression in prospective notum cells...
  17. Kim J, Irvine K, Carroll S. Cell recognition, signal induction, and symmetrical gene activation at the dorsal-ventral boundary of the developing Drosophila wing. Cell. 1995;82:795-802 pubmed
    ..of two dorsally expressed putative signaling molecules, fringe (fng) and Serrate (Ser), are regulated by the apterous selector gene...
  18. van Meyel D, O Keefe D, Thor S, Jurata L, Gill G, Thomas J. Chip is an essential cofactor for apterous in the regulation of axon guidance in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:1823-31 pubmed
    ..The LIM-homeodomain family member Apterous requires the LIM-binding protein Chip to execute patterned outgrowth of the Drosophila wing...
  19. Irvine K, Wieschaus E. fringe, a Boundary-specific signaling molecule, mediates interactions between dorsal and ventral cells during Drosophila wing development. Cell. 1994;79:595-606 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that fringe encodes a boundary-specific cell-signaling molecule that is responsible for dorsal-ventral cell interactions during wing development. ..
  20. Micchelli C, Blair S. Dorsoventral lineage restriction in wing imaginal discs requires Notch. Nature. 1999;401:473-6 pubmed
    ..that arises late in the developing wing imaginal disc requires the dorsal expression of the transcription factor Apterous and it has been hypothesized that apterous (ap) maintains compartmentalization by directly regulating the ..
  21. Couso J, Knust E, Martinez Arias A. Serrate and wingless cooperate to induce vestigial gene expression and wing formation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1437-48 pubmed
  22. Diaz Benjumea F, Cohen S. Interaction between dorsal and ventral cells in the imaginal disc directs wing development in Drosophila. Cell. 1993;75:741-52 pubmed
    ..We report here that spatially localized expression of the homeobox gene apterous (ap) specifies the identity of dorsal cells in the wing...
  23. Milan M, Cohen S. Notch signaling is not sufficient to define the affinity boundary between dorsal and ventral compartments. Mol Cell. 1999;4:1073-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we present evidence that the dorsal selector gene apterous plays a role in establishing the dorsoventral affinity boundary that is independent of Notch-mediated signaling ..
  24. Miguel Aliaga I, Allan D, Thor S. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Development. 2004;131:5837-48 pubmed
    ..dac is required for high-level Fmrf expression, and acts potently together with apterous and BMP signaling to trigger Fmrf expression ectopically, even in motoneurons...
  25. Milan M, Cohen S. A re-evaluation of the contributions of Apterous and Notch to the dorsoventral lineage restriction boundary in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2003;130:553-62 pubmed
    ..The wing is subdivided into dorsal (D) and ventral (V) compartments by the activity of the selector gene apterous in D cells. Apterous causes segregation of D and V cell populations by at least two distinct mechanisms...
  26. Park D, Shafer O, Shepherd S, Suh H, Trigg J, Taghert P. The Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix protein DIMMED directly activates PHM, a gene encoding a neuropeptide-amidating enzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:410-21 pubmed
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that DIMM is a master regulator of a peptidergic cell fate in Drosophila and provides a detailed transcriptional mechanism of DIMM action on a defined target gene. ..
  27. Bachmann A, Knust E. Positive and negative control of Serrate expression during early development of the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 1998;76:67-78 pubmed
    ..of expression in the dorsal compartment of the wing discs of second and early third instar larvae depends on apterous, as revealed by reporter gene expression in discs either lacking or ectopically expressing apterous...
  28. Wang S, Simcox A, Campbell G. Dual role for Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in early wing disc development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2271-6 pubmed
    ..genes; (2) Vn/EGFR signaling directs cells to become part of the dorsal compartment by induction of apterous, the dorsal selector gene, and consequently also controls wing development, which depends on an interaction ..
  29. Zecca M, Struhl G. Recruitment of cells into the Drosophila wing primordium by a feed-forward circuit of vestigial autoregulation. Development. 2007;134:3001-10 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wg promotes the expansion of the wing primordium following the D-V segregation by fueling this non-autonomous autoregulatory mechanism. ..
  30. Peterson A, Mallin D, Francis N, Ketel C, Stamm J, Voeller R, et al. Requirement for sex comb on midleg protein interactions in Drosophila polycomb group repression. Genetics. 2004;167:1225-39 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SCM, although not a core component of PRC1, interacts and functions with PRC1 in gene silencing. ..
  31. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  32. Klein T, Arias A. Interactions among Delta, Serrate and Fringe modulate Notch activity during Drosophila wing development. Development. 1998;125:2951-62 pubmed
    ..In these processes, the activity of Notch is controlled by the activity of the dorsal specific nuclear protein Apterous, which regulates the expression of the Notch ligand, Serrate, and the Fringe signalling molecule...
  33. Lawrence P, Struhl G. Morphogens, compartments, and pattern: lessons from drosophila?. Cell. 1996;85:951-61 pubmed
  34. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..central nervous system, the segmentally repeated neuroblast 5-6 generates a unique group of neurons, the Apterous (Ap) cluster, only in thoracic segments...
  35. Blair S. Lineage compartments in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R548-51 pubmed
  36. Muller D, Jagla T, Bodart L, Jährling N, Dodt H, Jagla K, et al. Regulation and functions of the lms homeobox gene during development of embryonic lateral transverse muscles and direct flight muscles in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14323 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the direct flight muscles in the adults require lms for reliably exerting their functions in controlling wing postures. ..
  37. Milan M, Perez L, Cohen S. Boundary formation in the Drosophila wing: functional dissection of Capricious and Tartan. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:804-10 pubmed
    ..is subdivided into dorsal (D) and ventral (V) compartments by the activity of the LIM-homeodomain protein Apterous in D cells...
  38. Lundgren S, Callahan C, Thor S, Thomas J. Control of neuronal pathway selection by the Drosophila LIM homeodomain gene apterous. Development. 1995;121:1769-73 pubmed
    The Drosophila apterous gene encodes a LIM homeodomain protein expressed embryonically in a small subset of differentiating neurons...
  39. Klein T, Seugnet L, Haenlin M, Martinez Arias A. Two different activities of Suppressor of Hairless during wing development in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:3553-66 pubmed
    ..After its release Su(H) can activate gene expression in absence of Nintra. ..
  40. Klein T, Arias A. Different spatial and temporal interactions between Notch, wingless, and vestigial specify proximal and distal pattern elements of the wing in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1998;194:196-212 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that the growth of the cells in the wing blade results from a synergistic effect of the three genes N, wg, and vg on the cells that have been specified as wing blade. ..
  41. Capovilla M, Kambris Z, Botas J. Direct regulation of the muscle-identity gene apterous by a Hox protein in the somatic mesoderm. Development. 2001;128:1221-30 pubmed
    ..We show that apterous expression in the somatic mesoderm is under direct Hox control...
  42. Benveniste R, Thor S, Thomas J, Taghert P. Cell type-specific regulation of the Drosophila FMRF-NH2 neuropeptide gene by Apterous, a LIM homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 1998;125:4757-65 pubmed
    We describe the direct and cell-specific regulation of the Drosophila FMRFa neuropeptide gene by Apterous, a LIM homeodomain transcription factor...
  43. Allan D, Park D, St Pierre S, Taghert P, Thor S. Regulators acting in combinatorial codes also act independently in single differentiating neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:689-700 pubmed
    In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord, a small number of neurons express the LIM-homeodomain gene apterous (ap). These ap neurons can be subdivided based upon axon pathfinding and their expression of neuropeptidergic markers...
  44. Williams J, Paddock S, Vorwerk K, Carroll S. Organization of wing formation and induction of a wing-patterning gene at the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary. Nature. 1994;368:299-305 pubmed
    ..The link between dorsal/ventral compartmentalization and wing formation distinguishes the development of this sheet-like appendage from that of legs and antennae. ..
  45. Ng M, Diaz Benjumea F, Vincent J, Wu J, Cohen S. Specification of the wing by localized expression of wingless protein. Nature. 1996;381:316-8 pubmed
    ..DV subdivision of the wing disc occurs during the second larval instar through localized expression of the apterous protein (Apterous) in dorsal cells...
  46. Ghazi A, Anant S, Vijayraghavan K. Apterous mediates development of direct flight muscles autonomously and indirect flight muscles through epidermal cues. Development. 2000;127:5309-18 pubmed
    ..We show that the direct flight muscles are specified by the expression of Apterous, a Lim homeodomain protein, in groups of myoblasts...
  47. Micchelli C, Rulifson E, Blair S. The function and regulation of cut expression on the wing margin of Drosophila: Notch, Wingless and a dominant negative role for Delta and Serrate. Development. 1997;124:1485-95 pubmed
    ..We propose that the boundary of Notch ligand along the normal margin plays a similar role as part of a dynamic feedback loop that maintains the tripartite pattern of margin gene expression. ..
  48. Yasugi T, Umetsu D, Murakami S, Sato M, Tabata T. Drosophila optic lobe neuroblasts triggered by a wave of proneural gene expression that is negatively regulated by JAK/STAT. Development. 2008;135:1471-80 pubmed publisher
  49. Williams J, Paddock S, Carroll S. Pattern formation in a secondary field: a hierarchy of regulatory genes subdivides the developing Drosophila wing disc into discrete subregions. Development. 1993;117:571-84 pubmed
    ..The wingless product is required to restrict the expression of the apterous gene to dorsal cells and to promote the expression of the vestigial and scalloped genes that demarcate the wing ..
  50. Kim J, Sebring A, Esch J, Kraus M, Vorwerk K, Magee J, et al. Integration of positional signals and regulation of wing formation and identity by Drosophila vestigial gene. Nature. 1996;382:133-8 pubmed
    ..Signal integration must be a general feature of genes like vestigial, that regulate growth or patterning along more than one axis. ..
  51. Bernard F, Lalouette A, Gullaud M, Jeantet A, Cossard R, Zider A, et al. Control of apterous by vestigial drives indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2003;260:391-403 pubmed
    ..DFM development requires key regulatory genes such as cut (ct) and apterous (ap), whereas IFM development requires vestigial (vg)...
  52. Bridges C, Skoog E, Li J. Genetical and Cytological Studies of a Deficiency (Notopleural) in the Second Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1936;21:788-95 pubmed
  53. Nose A, Van Vactor D, Auld V, Goodman C. Development of neuromuscular specificity in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1992;57:441-9 pubmed
  54. Delanoue R, Zider A, Cossard R, Dutriaux A, Silber J. Interaction between apterous and early expression of vestigial in formation of the dorso-ventral compartments in the Drosophila wing disc. Genes Cells. 2002;7:1255-66 pubmed
    ..In the Drosophila wing disc, the dorso-ventral (D/V) compartment boundary is defined by the expression of the apterous (ap) selector gene in the dorsal compartment...
  55. van Meyel D, O Keefe D, Jurata L, Thor S, Gill G, Thomas J. Chip and apterous physically interact to form a functional complex during Drosophila development. Mol Cell. 1999;4:259-65 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the LIM-binding protein Chip acts as a cofactor for the Drosophila LIM-HD family member Apterous (Ap) in wing development...