Gene Symbol: Antp
Description: Antennapedia
Alias: ANT-C, ANT-P, ANTC, ANTP, Ant, AntP, AntP1, Antp P1, Antp P2, Antp1, Aus, BG:DS07700.1, CG1028, DMANTPE1, DRO15DC96Z, DmAntp, Dmel\CG1028, Scx, antp, l(3)84Ba, antennapedia, Antp-PD, Antp-PE, Antp-PF, Antp-PG, Antp-PH, Antp-PI, Antp-PJ, Antp-PK, Antp-PL, Antp-PM, Antp-PN, Aus, CG1028-PD, CG1028-PE, CG1028-PF, CG1028-PG, CG1028-PH, CG1028-PI, CG1028-PJ, CG1028-PK, CG1028-PL, CG1028-PM, CG1028-PN, Dm-Antennapedia, Sex comb extra, Sex combs extra, antenapedia, antennapaedia, antennapedia P1, antennapedia P2, atennapedia, humeral, nasobemia
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Antp

Top Publications

  1. Alonso C. Hox proteins: sculpting body parts by activating localized cell death. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R776-8 pubmed
    ..A recent study reveals that the Drosophila Hox protein Deformed directly activates the cell-death-promoting gene reaper to maintain the boundaries between distinct head segments. ..
  2. Levine M, Hafen E, Garber R, Gehring W. Spatial distribution of Antennapedia transcripts during Drosophila development. EMBO J. 1983;2:2037-46 pubmed
    We have localized transcripts specified by the homeotic Antennapedia (Antp) locus within serial tissue sections of Drosophila embryos and larvae by in situ hybridization. As a hybridization probe we used a 2...
  3. Scott M, Weiner A. Structural relationships among genes that control development: sequence homology between the Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax, and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4115-9 pubmed
    ..These clusters, the bithorax complex (BX-C) and the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C), both contain multiple homoeotic loci: mutations in each locus cause a transformation of one ..
  4. Struhl G. A homoeotic mutation transforming leg to antenna in Drosophila. Nature. 1981;292:635-8 pubmed
  5. McCormick A, Core N, Kerridge S, Scott M. Homeotic response elements are tightly linked to tissue-specific elements in a transcriptional enhancer of the teashirt gene. Development. 1995;121:2799-812 pubmed
    ..Sites where Antennapedia (Antp) and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) proteins bind in vitro were mapped within evolutionarily conserved sequences...
  6. Grimaud C, Bantignies F, Pal Bhadra M, Ghana P, Bhadra U, Cavalli G. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Cell. 2006;124:957-71 pubmed
    ..This suggests a novel role for the RNAi machinery in regulating the nuclear organization of PcG chromatin targets. ..
  7. Tokusumi Y, Tokusumi T, Stoller Conrad J, Schulz R. Serpent, suppressor of hairless and U-shaped are crucial regulators of hedgehog niche expression and prohemocyte maintenance during Drosophila larval hematopoiesis. Development. 2010;137:3561-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Enriquez J, Boukhatmi H, Dubois L, Philippakis A, Bulyk M, Michelson A, et al. Multi-step control of muscle diversity by Hox proteins in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2010;137:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential control of col transcription by the Antennapedia and Ultrabithorax/Abdominal-A paralogs is mediated by separate cis-regulatory modules (CRMs)...
  9. Löhr U, Pick L. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:643-9 pubmed
    ..Strengthening the Ftz/Ftz-F1 interaction led to degeneration of the YPWM and loss of homeotic activity. Thus, small changes in protein sequence can result in a qualitative switch in function during evolution. ..

More Information


  1. Prokop A, Technau G. Early tagma-specific commitment of Drosophila CNS progenitor NB1-1. Development. 1994;120:2567-78 pubmed
    ..At that stage antibody stainings reveal both proteins to be present in NB1-1 during normal development. Possible mechanisms conferring the early tagma-specific determination are discussed. ..
  2. Gebelein B, Culi J, Ryoo H, Zhang W, Mann R. Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins. Dev Cell. 2002;3:487-98 pubmed
    ..Ubx) suppresses limb formation in the abdomen by repressing the leg selector gene Distalless, whereas Antennapedia (Antp), a thoracic Hox protein, does not repress Distalless...
  3. Li X, McGinnis W. Activity regulation of Hox proteins, a mechanism for altering functional specificity in development and evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6802-7 pubmed
    The closely related Hox transcription factors Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) respectively direct first abdominal (A1) and second thoracic (T2) segment identities in Drosophila...
  4. Pindyurin A, Moorman C, de Wit E, Belyakin S, Belyaeva E, Christophides G, et al. SUUR joins separate subsets of PcG, HP1 and B-type lamin targets in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2344-51 pubmed
    ..Finally, SUUR target genes are repressed in Drosophila embryos and gradually activated later in development. Together these results suggest that SUUR is a ubiquitous marker of heterochromatin in different cell types. ..
  5. Li Kroeger D, Witt L, Grimes H, Cook T, Gebelein B. Hox and senseless antagonism functions as a molecular switch to regulate EGF secretion in the Drosophila PNS. Dev Cell. 2008;15:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..As the vertebrate senseless homolog is essential for neural development as well as hematopoiesis, we propose Hox-Senseless antagonism will broadly control cell fate decisions. ..
  6. Southworth J, Kennison J. Transvection and silencing of the Scr homeotic gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2002;161:733-46 pubmed
    ..This allele, which is associated with an insertion near the Antennapedia P1 promoter, inactivates the Antennapedia P1 and P2 promoters in cis and derepresses the Scr promoters both in ..
  7. Brodu V, Elstob P, Gould A. abdominal A specifies one cell type in Drosophila by regulating one principal target gene. Development. 2002;129:2957-63 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that much of the overall Hox downstream complexity results from cascades of indirect regulation and cell-to-cell heterogeneity. ..
  8. Manak J, Mathies L, Scott M. Regulation of a decapentaplegic midgut enhancer by homeotic proteins. Development. 1994;120:3605-19 pubmed
    ..The enhancer is activated ectopically in the visceral mesoderm by ubiquitous expression of Ubx or Antennapedia but not by Sex combs reduced protein. Ectopic expression of abd-A represses the enhancer...
  9. Prokop A, Bray S, Harrison E, Technau G. Homeotic regulation of segment-specific differences in neuroblast numbers and proliferation in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1998;74:99-110 pubmed
  10. Zeng W, Andrew D, Mathies L, Horner M, Scott M. Ectopic expression and function of the Antp and Scr homeotic genes: the N terminus of the homeodomain is critical to functional specificity. Development. 1993;118:339-52 pubmed
    ..The two Drosophila homeotic proteins encoded by Antennapedia and Sex combs reduced determine cell fates in the epidermis and internal tissues of the posterior head and ..
  11. McGinnis W, Garber R, Wirz J, Kuroiwa A, Gehring W. A homologous protein-coding sequence in Drosophila homeotic genes and its conservation in other metazoans. Cell. 1984;37:403-8 pubmed
    The homeotic genes of the bithorax complex (BX-C) and the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) of Drosophila appear to specify the developmental fate of segments or parts of segments of the fly...
  12. Ronshaugen M, McGinnis N, McGinnis W. Hox protein mutation and macroevolution of the insect body plan. Nature. 2002;415:914-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that naturally selected alteration of the Ubx protein is linked to the evolutionary transition to hexapod limb pattern. ..
  13. González Crespo S, Morata G. Control of Drosophila adult pattern by extradenticle. Development. 1995;121:2117-25 pubmed
    ..produced by known homeotic mutations such as Ultrabithorax (Ubx), labial (lab), spineless-aristapedia (ssa) or Antennapedia (Antp). In other regions, the lack of exd causes novel homeotic transformations producing ectopic eyes and legs...
  14. Wirz J, Fessler L, Gehring W. Localization of the Antennapedia protein in Drosophila embryos and imaginal discs. EMBO J. 1986;5:3327-34 pubmed
    Antibodies have been raised against a fusion protein containing the 3' region of the coding sequence of the Antennapedia (Antp) gene fused to beta-galactosidase...
  15. Ryoo H, Mann R. The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1704-16 pubmed
    ..This element, fkh[250(con)], is activated by Scr, Antennapedia (Antp), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) but repressed by abdominal-A (abd-A)...
  16. Papadopoulos D, Resendez Perez D, Cárdenas Chávez D, Villanueva Segura K, Canales del Castillo R, Felix D, et al. Functional synthetic Antennapedia genes and the dual roles of YPWM motif and linker size in transcriptional activation and repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we derive synthetic Drosophila Antennapedia genes, consisting only of the YPWM motif and homeodomain, and investigate their functional role throughout ..
  17. Noro B, Lelli K, Sun L, Mann R. Competition for cofactor-dependent DNA binding underlies Hox phenotypic suppression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Hox-specific motifs endow posterior Hox proteins with the ability to dominate over more anterior ones via a cofactor-dependent DNA-binding mechanism. ..
  18. Kusch T, Reuter R. Functions for Drosophila brachyenteron and forkhead in mesoderm specification and cell signalling. Development. 1999;126:3991-4003 pubmed
    ..We propose that the functions of brachyenteron in mesodermal development of Drosophila are comparable to the roles of the vertebrate Brachyury genes during gastrulation. ..
  19. Rogulja Ortmann A, Renner S, Technau G. Antagonistic roles for Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia in regulating segment-specific apoptosis of differentiated motoneurons in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development. 2008;135:3435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the Hox genes Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) regulate segment-specific survival of differentiated motoneurons in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila ..
  20. Perrin L, Monier B, Ponzielli R, Astier M, Semeriva M. Drosophila cardiac tube organogenesis requires multiple phases of Hox activity. Dev Biol. 2004;272:419-31 pubmed
    ..The three Hox genes of the Bithorax Complex as well as Antennapedia (Antp) have been shown to be expressed in the posterior cardiac tube, while no Hox gene is expressed in the ..
  21. Rauskolb C, Wieschaus E. Coordinate regulation of downstream genes by extradenticle and the homeotic selector proteins. EMBO J. 1994;13:3561-9 pubmed
    ..altered in the embryonic midgut of embryos lacking exd, while the expression of their respective regulators (abd-A, Antp and Ubx) remains normal...
  22. Morata G. Homeotic genes of Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:606-14 pubmed
    ..Comparison between Drosophila and other species suggests a common functional organization of homeotic complexes in the animal kingdom. ..
  23. Berger C, Pallavi S, Prasad M, Shashidhara L, Technau G. A critical role for cyclin E in cell fate determination in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:56-62 pubmed
    ..However, other components of the cell cycle seem to have a minor role in this process, suggesting a critical role for CycE in regulating cell fate in segment-specific neural lineages. ..
  24. Mihaly J, Mishra R, Karch F. A conserved sequence motif in Polycomb-response elements. Mol Cell. 1998;1:1065-6 pubmed
  25. Carroll S, Weatherbee S, Langeland J. Homeotic genes and the regulation and evolution of insect wing number. Nature. 1995;375:58-61 pubmed
  26. Chan S, Jaffe L, Capovilla M, Botas J, Mann R. The DNA binding specificity of Ultrabithorax is modulated by cooperative interactions with extradenticle, another homeoprotein. Cell. 1994;78:603-15 pubmed
    The Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) genes of Drosophila encode homeodomain proteins that have very similar DNA binding specificities in vitro but specify the development of different segmental patterns in vivo...
  27. Raftery L, Sutherland D. TGF-beta family signal transduction in Drosophila development: from Mad to Smads. Dev Biol. 1999;210:251-68 pubmed
    ..Identification of more ligand sequences and demonstration of a functional Drosophila activin-like signal transduction pathway suggest that all TGF-beta signal transduction pathways are present in flies. ..
  28. Beisel C, Buness A, Roustan Espinosa I, Koch B, Schmitt S, Haas S, et al. Comparing active and repressed expression states of genes controlled by the Polycomb/Trithorax group proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16615-20 pubmed
    ..PcG/TrxG proteins, as well as histone modifications in active and repressed genes across the two homeotic complexes ANT-C and BX-C...
  29. Slattery M, Riley T, Liu P, Abe N, Gomez Alcala P, Dror I, et al. Cofactor binding evokes latent differences in DNA binding specificity between Hox proteins. Cell. 2011;147:1270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that emergent DNA recognition properties revealed by interactions with cofactors contribute to transcription factor specificities in vivo. ..
  30. Akbari O, Bousum A, Bae E, Drewell R. Unraveling cis-regulatory mechanisms at the abdominal-A and Abdominal-B genes in the Drosophila bithorax complex. Dev Biol. 2006;293:294-304 pubmed
    ..The hope is that these studies of gene regulation at the BX-C in the humble fruit fly will provide clues as to how vast intergenic regions contribute to the incredible complexity of gene regulation in other species, including humans. ..
  31. Staehling Hampton K, Hoffmann F. Ectopic decapentaplegic in the Drosophila midgut alters the expression of five homeotic genes, dpp, and wingless, causing specific morphological defects. Dev Biol. 1994;164:502-12 pubmed
    ..Ectopic dpp in the visceral mesoderm caused changes in the gene expression of Sex combs reduced, Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and abdominal-A (abd-A) and disrupted the formation of the gastric caeca and the first ..
  32. Mukherjee K, Burglin T. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:137-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution. ..
  33. Chan S, Mann R. The segment identity functions of Ultrabithorax are contained within its homeo domain and carboxy-terminal sequences. Genes Dev. 1993;7:796-811 pubmed
    ..the structural differences that distinguish two Drosophila homeotic selector proteins, Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp), have been investigated...
  34. Cimbora D, Sakonju S. Drosophila midgut morphogenesis requires the function of the segmentation gene odd-paired. Dev Biol. 1995;169:580-95 pubmed
    ..proceeds, interruptions are less frequently observed; however, one interruption, coincident with the Antennapedia expression and variability of Ultrabithorax expression in opa mutants...
  35. Appel B, Sakonju S. Cell-type-specific mechanisms of transcriptional repression by the homeotic gene products UBX and ABD-A in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1993;12:1099-109 pubmed
    ..Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and abdominal-A (abd-A) genes within a negatively regulated target, the P2 promoter of the Antennapedia (Antp) gene...
  36. Gambetta M, Oktaba K, Muller J. Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science. 2009;325:93-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycomb repression appears to be a critical function of Sxc/Ogt in Drosophila and may be mediated by the glycosylation of Polyhomeotic. ..
  37. Dixit R, Vijayraghavan K, Bate M. Hox genes and the regulation of movement in Drosophila. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:309-16 pubmed
    ..By loss and gain of function experiments we show that particular Hox gene functions are necessary and sufficient to dictate the formation of a neuromuscular network that orchestrates the movements of peristaltic locomotion. ..
  38. Minakhina S, Steward R. Hematopoietic stem cells in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:27-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Zfrp8/PDCD2 is likely to have similar functions in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in vertebrates. ..
  39. Duboule D. The rise and fall of Hox gene clusters. Development. 2007;134:2549-60 pubmed
    ..By integrating these parameters, general conclusions emerge that can help solve the aforementioned dilemma. ..
  40. Siepel A, Bejerano G, Pedersen J, Hinrichs A, Hou M, Rosenbloom K, et al. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes. Genome Res. 2005;15:1034-50 pubmed
    ..Noncoding HCEs also show strong statistical evidence of an enrichment for RNA secondary structure. ..
  41. Rogulja Ortmann A, Technau G. Multiple roles for Hox genes in segment-specific shaping of CNS lineages. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:316-9 pubmed
  42. Bello B, Hirth F, Gould A. A pulse of the Drosophila Hox protein Abdominal-A schedules the end of neural proliferation via neuroblast apoptosis. Neuron. 2003;37:209-19 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a mechanism linking the Hox axial patterning system to neural proliferation, and this involves temporal regulation of precursor cell death rather than the cell cycle. ..
  43. Bejarano F, Busturia A. Function of the Trithorax-like gene during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2004;268:327-41 pubmed
    ..We also suggest that GAGA factor may not have a dual activator/repressor function. Rather, Trithorax-like mutations may produce dual loss of activation and loss of repression effects. ..
  44. Capovilla M, Botas J. Functional dominance among Hox genes: repression dominates activation in the regulation of Dpp. Development. 1998;125:4949-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results suggest that other cases of Hox competition and functional dominance may also be understood in terms of competition for target gene regulation in which repression dominates over activation. ..
  45. Brizuela B, Kennison J. The Drosophila homeotic gene moira regulates expression of engrailed and HOM genes in imaginal tissues. Mech Dev. 1997;65:209-20 pubmed
    ..We show that moira is required for the function of multiple homeotic genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes (HOM genes) in most imaginal tissues and that the requirement for moira function is at ..
  46. Ebner A, Cabernard C, Affolter M, Merabet S. Recognition of distinct target sites by a unique Labial/Extradenticle/Homothorax complex. Development. 2005;132:1591-600 pubmed
    ..Thus Lab, and most probably other Hox proteins, selects different DNA sequences in regulating downstream target genes. These observations have implications with regard to the current model of Hox-binding selectivity. ..
  47. Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y. Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity. Trends Genet. 2005;21:477-80 pubmed
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information. ..
  48. Carroll S, Laymon R, McCutcheon M, Riley P, Scott M. The localization and regulation of Antennapedia protein expression in Drosophila embryos. Cell. 1986;47:113-22 pubmed
    The homeotic Antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila is required for the normal differentiation of the thoracic segments during embryonic development and metamorphosis...
  49. Stark A, Bushati N, Jan C, Kheradpour P, Hodges E, Brennecke J, et al. A single Hox locus in Drosophila produces functional microRNAs from opposite DNA strands. Genes Dev. 2008;22:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report sense/antisense miRNAs in mouse and find antisense transcripts close to many miRNAs in both flies and mammals, suggesting that additional sense/antisense pairs exist. ..
  50. Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Segment-specific prevention of pioneer neuron apoptosis by cell-autonomous, postmitotic Hox gene activity. Development. 2004;131:6093-105 pubmed
    ..In addition, they provide a novel mechanism linking Hox positional information to differences in neuronal architecture along the anteroposterior axis by the selective elimination of mature neurons. ..
  51. Zhao J, Lazzarini R, Pick L. The mouse Hox-1.3 gene is functionally equivalent to the Drosophila Sex combs reduced gene. Genes Dev. 1993;7:343-54 pubmed
    ..3. The results suggest that mouse Hox-1.3 cannot only substitute functionally for Drosophila Scr in the determination of external structures but also can participate in the regulatory hierarchy of insect organogenesis. ..
  52. Rieckhof G, Casares F, Ryoo H, Abu Shaar M, Mann R. Nuclear translocation of extradenticle requires homothorax, which encodes an extradenticle-related homeodomain protein. Cell. 1997;91:171-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a novel and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating HOX activity in which a direct protein-protein interaction between EXD and HTH results in EXD's nuclear translocation. ..
  53. Miura S, Nozawa M, Nei M. Evolutionary changes of the target sites of two microRNAs encoded in the Hox gene cluster of Drosophila and other insect species. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Searching for the target sites in all Hox genes, we found several target sites of miR-iab-4 and miR-iab-4as in Antp in addition to Abd-A and Ubx in most insect species examined...
  54. Thomsen S, Azzam G, Kaschula R, Williams L, Alonso C. Developmental RNA processing of 3'UTRs in Hox mRNAs as a context-dependent mechanism modulating visibility to microRNAs. Development. 2010;137:2951-60 pubmed publisher
  55. Casares F, Mann R. Control of antennal versus leg development in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;392:723-6 pubmed
    ..antennae and legs are homologous structures that differ from each other as a result of the Hox gene Antennapedia (Antp), which promotes leg identities by repressing unknown antennal-determining genes...
  56. Decoville M, Giacomello E, Leng M, Locker D. DSP1, an HMG-like protein, is involved in the regulation of homeotic genes. Genetics. 2001;157:237-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that DSP1 protein is a chromatin remodeling factor, acting as a trx-G or a Pc-G protein depending on the considered function. ..
  57. Casares F, Mann R. The ground state of the ventral appendage in Drosophila. Science. 2001;293:1477-80 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that, during evolution, leglike appendages could have developed without selector gene activity. ..
  58. Schlossherr J, Eggert H, Paro R, Cremer S, Jack R. Gene inactivation in Drosophila mediated by the Polycomb gene product or by position-effect variegation does not involve major changes in the accessibility of the chromatin fibre. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;243:453-62 pubmed
    ..These results favour models in which the inactivation is achieved by sequestration of the silenced region in a particular nuclear compartment rather than by a chromatin packaging model. ..
  59. Kannan R, Berger C, Myneni S, Technau G, Shashidhara L. Abdominal-A mediated repression of Cyclin E expression during cell-fate specification in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 2010;127:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest a complex network to regulate CycE expression where AbdA functions as a key regulator. ..
  60. Swaminathan J, Baxter E, Corces V. The role of histone H2Av variant replacement and histone H4 acetylation in the establishment of Drosophila heterochromatin. Genes Dev. 2005;19:65-76 pubmed
  61. Prince F, Katsuyama T, Oshima Y, Plaza S, Resendez Perez D, Berry M, et al. The YPWM motif links Antennapedia to the basal transcriptional machinery. Development. 2008;135:1669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, we investigated the importance of the Antennapedia (Antp) YPWM motif for homeotic transformations in adult Drosophila...
  62. Lewis R, Wakimoto B, Denell R, Kaufman T. Genetic Analysis of the Antennapedia Gene Complex (Ant-C) and Adjacent Chromosomal Regions of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Polytene Chromosome Segments 84A-84B1,2. Genetics. 1980;95:383-97 pubmed
    ..To explore the limits of the Antennapedia gene complex (ANT-C) more proximally, a second screen has been undertaken utilizing Df(3R)Scr, a deficiency of ..
  63. Hirth F, Hartmann B, Reichert H. Homeotic gene action in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1579-89 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the action of the homeotic genes labial and Deformed are required for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain of Drosophila. ..
  64. Plaza S, Prince F, Adachi Y, Punzo C, Cribbs D, Gehring W. Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of the Antennapedia (ANTP) homeodomain protein in Drosophila imaginal discs induces distinct phenotypes, including an antenna-to-..
  65. Merabet S, Litim Mecheri I, Karlsson D, Dixit R, Saadaoui M, Monier B, et al. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002302 pubmed publisher
  66. Schneuwly S, Klemenz R, Gehring W. Redesigning the body plan of Drosophila by ectopic expression of the homoeotic gene Antennapedia. Nature. 1987;325:816-8 pubmed
    Genetic and molecular studies on the expression of Antennapedia (Antp) have suggested that this gene specifies mainly the second thoracic segment...
  67. Kosman D, Mizutani C, Lemons D, Cox W, McGinnis W, Bier E. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos. Science. 2004;305:846 pubmed
  68. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  69. Tolhuis B, Blom M, Kerkhoven R, Pagie L, Teunissen H, Nieuwland M, et al. Interactions among Polycomb domains are guided by chromosome architecture. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001343 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that many interactions among PcG target genes exist and that these interactions are guided by overall chromosome architecture. ..
  70. Mito Y, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains. Science. 2007;315:1408-11 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the existence of a continuous process that disrupts nucleosomes and maintains accessibility of cis-regulatory elements. ..
  71. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  72. Papadopoulos D, Vukojevic V, Adachi Y, Terenius L, Rigler R, Gehring W. Function and specificity of synthetic Hox transcription factors in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4087-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that synthetic peptides behave largely in a predictable way, by exhibiting Scr-specific phenotypes throughout development, which makes them an important tool for synthetic biology. ..
  73. Abbott M, Kaufman T. The relationship between the functional complexity and the molecular organization of the Antennapedia locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1986;114:919-42 pubmed
    ..the loss of Antp+ function in the development of the adult thorax causes specific portions of the leg, wing and humeral imaginal discs to develop abnormally...
  74. Mann R, Chan S. Extra specificity from extradenticle: the partnership between HOX and PBX/EXD homeodomain proteins. Trends Genet. 1996;12:258-62 pubmed
  75. Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, et al. Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation. ..
  76. Sanders L, Patel M, Mahaffey J. The Drosophila gap gene giant has an anterior segment identity function mediated through disconnected and teashirt. Genetics. 2008;179:441-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the homeosis does not occur through altered expression of the Hom-C genes but through changes in the regulation of disco and tsh. ..
  77. Merabet S, Saadaoui M, Sambrani N, Hudry B, Pradel J, Affolter M, et al. A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16946-51 pubmed
  78. Li X, Murre C, McGinnis W. Activity regulation of a Hox protein and a role for the homeodomain in inhibiting transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 1999;18:198-211 pubmed
    ..The regulation of Hox transcriptional activation functions may underlie the different functional specificities of proteins belonging to this developmental patterning family. ..
  79. Hirth F, Loop T, Egger B, Miller D, Kaufman T, Reichert H. Functional equivalence of Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebrum during embryonic brain development of Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4781-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that in embryonic brain development, differences in Hox gene action rely mainly on cis-acting regulatory elements and not on Hox protein specificity. ..
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