Gene Symbol: Amy-d
Description: Amylase distal
Alias: AMY, Amy, Amy(d), Amy-distal, Amy1, Amy3, Amy6, AmyB, AmyD, CG17876, Dmel\CG17876, alpha-AMY, alphaAmy, amy, amy-d, amyB(3), amylase distal, Amy-d-PA, Amylase-B, CG17876-PA, alpha-amylase, alpha-amylase distal, amylase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. de Jong G, Scharloo W. Environmental determination of selective significance or neutrality of amylase variants in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1976;84:77-94 pubmed
    Strains homozygous at the amylase locus were derived from a polymorphic laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster. The Amy4,6 strain has higher enzyme activity than Amy1 strain.-Maltose has the same nutritional value as starch...
  2. Schwartz P, Doane W. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylase genes from Drosophila melanogaster. III. An inversion at the Amy locus in an amylase-null strain. Biochem Genet. 1989;27:31-46 pubmed
    Overlapping clones of the structural gene region for alpha-amylase, Amy, were isolated from a lambda EMBL4 library containing genomic DNA fragments from an amylase-null strain of Drosophila melanogaster...
  3. Bahn E. Crossing over in the chromosomal region determining amylase isozymes in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1967;58:1-12 pubmed
  4. Magoulas C, Bally Cuif L, Loverre Chyurlia A, Benkel B, Hickey D. A short 5'-flanking region mediates glucose repression of amylase gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;134:507-15 pubmed
    Expression of the alpha-amylase gene is highly repressed by dietary glucose in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Here, we show that glucose repression is controlled by DNA sequences that are located upstream of the transcribed region...
  5. Araki H, Inomata N, Yamazaki T. Molecular evolution of duplicated amylase gene regions in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence of positive selection in the coding regions and selective constraints in the cis-regulatory regions. Genetics. 2001;157:667-77 pubmed
    ..We sequenced duplicated (proximal and distal) Amy gene regions to test whether the patterns of polymorphism were consistent with neutral molecular evolution...
  6. Innan H. The coalescent and infinite-site model of a small multigene family. Genetics. 2003;163:803-10 pubmed
    ..Using the coalescent simulation of duplicated genes, the applicability of statistical tests of neutrality to multigene families is considered. ..
  7. Thornton K, Long M. Excess of amino acid substitutions relative to polymorphism between X-linked duplications in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2005;22:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, available data from autosomal duplicates show a deficit of fixations, consistent with gene conversion being a strong homogenizing force...
  8. Inomata N, Shibata H, Okuyama E, Yamazaki T. Evolutionary relationships and sequence variation of alpha-amylase variants encoded by duplicated genes in the Amy locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995;141:237-44 pubmed
    To infer the genealogical relationships of alpha-amylase electromorphs of Drosophila melanogaster, we determined the nucleotide sequences of a collection of electromorphs sampled throughout the world. On average there were 1...
  9. Innan H. A method for estimating the mutation, gene conversion and recombination parameters in small multigene families. Genetics. 2002;161:865-72 pubmed
    ..estimating the mutation, gene conversion, and recombination parameters is developed and applied to the data of the Amy multigene family in Drosophila melanogaster...

More Information


  1. Boer P, Hickey D. The alpha-amylase gene in Drosophila melanogaster: nucleotide sequence, gene structure and expression motifs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:8399-411 pubmed
    We present the complete nucleotide sequence of a Drosophila alpha-amylase gene and its flanking regions, as determined by cDNA and genomic sequence analysis. This gene, unlike its mammalian counterparts, contains no introns...
  2. Zhang Z, Inomata N, Yamazaki T, Kishino H. Evolutionary history and mode of the amylase multigene family in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:702-9 pubmed
    Previous studies indicate that the tandemly repeated members of the amylase (Amy) gene family evolved in a concerted manner in the melanogaster subgroup and in some other species...
  3. Inomata N, Tachida H, Yamazaki T. Molecular evolution of the Amy multigenes in the subgenus Sophophora of Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:942-50 pubmed
    Molecular evolution of the Amy multigenes in Drosophila was investigated using PCR amplification...
  4. Begun D, Aquadro C. Levels of naturally occurring DNA polymorphism correlate with recombination rates in D. melanogaster. Nature. 1992;356:519-20 pubmed
    ..Hitch-hiking thus seems to occur over a large fraction of the Drosophila genome and may constitute a major constraint on levels of genetic variation in nature. ..
  5. Kusakabe S, Yamaguchi Y, Baba H, Mukai T. The genetic structure of the Raleigh natural population of Drosophila melanogaster revisited. Genetics. 2000;154:679-85 pubmed
    ..The homozygous load markedly decreased in the 15 years since a previous study of the same population. ..
  6. Shibata H, Yamazaki T. Molecular evolution of the duplicated Amy locus in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup: concerted evolution only in the coding region and an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions in speciation. Genetics. 1995;141:223-36 pubmed
    From the analysis of restriction maps of the Amy region in eight sibling species belonging to the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup, we herein show that the patterns of duplication of the Amy gene are almost the same in all ..
  7. Benkel B, Hickey D. Glucose Repression of Amylase Gene Expression in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1986;114:137-44 pubmed
    We have previously shown that dietary glucose can reduce amylase activity in both adults and larvae of Drosophila; this reduction in enzyme activity reflects a reduction in the quantity of amylase protein, rather than an inhibition of ..
  8. Brown C, Aquadro C, Anderson W. DNA sequence evolution of the amylase multigene family in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics. 1990;126:131-8 pubmed
    The alpha-Amylase locus in Drosophila pseudoobscura is a multigene family of one, two or three copies on the third chromosome. The nucleotide sequences of the three Amylase genes from a single chromosome of D. pseudoobscura are presented...
  9. Araki H, Yoshizumi S, Inomata N, Yamazaki T. Genetic coadaptation of the amylase gene system in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for the selective advantage of the lowest AMY activity and of its epistatic genetic background. J Hered. 2005;96:388-95 pubmed
    In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, an amylase isozyme with the lowest alpha-amylase activity (AMY(1,1)) is predominant...
  10. Da Lage J, Wegnez M, Cariou M. Distribution and evolution of introns in Drosophila amylase genes. J Mol Evol. 1996;43:334-47 pubmed
    While the two amylase genes of Drosophila melanogaster are intronless, the three genes of D. pseudoobscura harbor a short intron. This raises the question of the common structure of the Amy gene in Drosophila species...
  11. Magoulas C, Loverre Chyurlia A, Abukashawa S, Bally Cuif L, Hickey D. Functional conservation of a glucose-repressible amylase gene promoter from Drosophila virilis in Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Evol. 1993;36:234-42 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of the alpha-amylase gene is repressed by dietary glucose in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the alpha-amylase gene of a distantly related species, D...
  12. Levy J, Gemmill R, Doane W. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylase genes from Drosophila melanogaster. II. Clone organization and verification. Genetics. 1985;110:313-24 pubmed
    Restriction maps of an alpha-amylase structural gene clone, lambda Dm65, and of four putative alpha-amylase pseudogene clones are presented...
  13. Yamate N, Yamazaki T. Is the difference in alpha-amylase activity in the strains of Drosophila melanogaster with different allozymes due to transcriptional or posttranscriptional control?. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:345-56 pubmed
    The alpha-amylase in Drosophila melanogaster is a highly polymorphic enzyme, at both the allozyme level and the specific activity level...
  14. Zhang Z, Inomata N, Cariou M, Da Lage J, Yamazaki T. Phylogeny and the evolution of the Amylase multigenes in the Drosophila montium species subgroup. J Mol Evol. 2003;56:121-30 pubmed
    To investigate the phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of alpha-amylase (Amy) genes in the Drosophila montium species subgroup, we constructed the phylogenetic tree of the Amy genes from 40 species from the montium ..
  15. Steinemann S, Steinemann M. The Amylase gene cluster on the evolving sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda. Genetics. 1999;151:151-61 pubmed
    On the basis of chromosomal homology, the Amylase gene cluster in Drosophila miranda must be located on the secondary sex chromosome pair, neo-X (X2) and neo-Y, but is autosomally inherited in all other Drosophila species...
  16. Dissel S, Angadi V, Kirszenblat L, Suzuki Y, Donlea J, Klose M, et al. Sleep restores behavioral plasticity to Drosophila mutants. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that sleep plays a more fundamental role in modulating behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated and suggest that increasing sleep may benefit patients with certain neurological disorders. ..
  17. Templeton A, Crandall K, Sing C. A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequence data. III. Cladogram estimation. Genetics. 1992;132:619-33 pubmed
    ..We apply this estimation procedure to three data sets to illustrate varying degrees of cladogram ambiguity and recombination. ..
  18. Seugnet L, Boero J, Gottschalk L, Duntley S, Shaw P. Identification of a biomarker for sleep drive in flies and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19913-8 pubmed
    ..These studies have identified a biomarker, Amylase, that is highly correlated with sleep drive...
  19. Okuyama E, Tachida H, Yamazaki T. Molecular analysis of the intergenic region of the duplicated Amy genes of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila teissieri. J Mol Evol. 1997;45:32-42 pubmed
    The intergenic regions between the duplicated amylase coding regions (Amy) of D. melanogaster and D. teissieri were sequenced. Their lengths in D. melanogaster and D. teissieri were 4,536 bp and 4,621 bp, respectively...
  20. Picchio L, Plantie E, Renaud Y, Poovthumkadavil P, Jagla K. Novel Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy type 1: phenotypic characterization and genome-wide view of altered gene expression. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2795-810 pubmed publisher
  21. Harada K, Kusakabe S, Yamazaki T, Mukai T. Spontaneous mutation rates in null and band-morph mutations of enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Genet. 1993;68:605-16 pubmed
    ..04 x 10(-7) to 1.91 x 10(-6) per locus per generation. Similarly, the pooled null mutation rate becomes 1.30 x 10(-5) with 95% confidence limit of 1.15 x 10(-5) to 1.52 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. ..
  22. Fujimoto J, Kanou C, Eguchi Y, Matsuo Y. Adaptation to a starch environment and regulation of alpha-amylase in Drosophila. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:53-62 pubmed
    ..levanonensis, and D. americana did not distinctly adapt to either environment. In addition, the regulation of amylase in the six species was investigated by measuring the levels of amylase activity with glucose and starch food ..
  23. Zhang Z, Inomata N, Ohba T, Cariou M, Yamazaki T. Codon bias differentiates between the duplicated amylase loci following gene duplication in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;161:1187-96 pubmed
    We examined the pattern of synonymous substitutions in the duplicated Amylase (Amy) genes (called the Amy1- and Amy3-type genes, respectively) in the Drosophila montium species subgroup...
  24. Clark A. Inference of haplotypes from PCR-amplified samples of diploid populations. Mol Biol Evol. 1990;7:111-22 pubmed
    ..The algorithm also applies to the problem of inferring haplotype frequencies of closely linked restriction-site polymorphisms. ..
  25. Pecsenye K, Meglecz E. Enzyme polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster populations collected in two different habitats in Hungary. Genetica. 1995;96:257-68 pubmed
    ..Thus the dominating force acting on the 'distillery populations' was genetic drift. ..
  26. Parsch J, Meiklejohn C, Hauschteck Jungen E, Hunziker P, Hartl D. Molecular evolution of the ocnus and janus genes in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:801-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with previous studies that have detected an increased rate of evolution in genes with reproductive function...
  27. Ruaud A, Lam G, Thummel C. The Drosophila NR4A nuclear receptor DHR38 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and glycogen storage. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphoglucomutase, which is required for glycogen synthesis, and the two genes that encode the digestive enzyme amylase, accounting for the reduced amylase enzyme activity seen in DHR38 mutant larvae...
  28. Hawley S, Norman R, Brown C, Doane W, Anderson W, Hickey D. Amylase gene expression in intraspecific and interspecific somatic transformants of Drosophila. Genome. 1990;33:501-8 pubmed
    The Amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster normally contains two copies of the structural gene for alpha-amylase, a centromere-proximal copy, Amy-p, and a distal copy, Amy-d...
  29. Harada K. A quantitative analysis of modifier mutations which occur in mutation accumulation lines in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1995;75 ( Pt 6):589-98 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase (IDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and alpha-amylase (AMY). A significant genetic variance was observed for some enzyme activities...
  30. Schorderet D, Gartler S. Analysis of CpG suppression in methylated and nonmethylated species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:957-61 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the excess of CpGs at position III-I in nonmethylated forms may be related to a requirement for minimal thermal stability of the DNA. ..
  31. Shibata H, Yamazaki T. A comparative study of the enzymological features of alpha-amylase in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Jpn J Genet. 1994;69:251-8 pubmed
    A comparative study was done on the enzymological features of alpha-amylase among six sibling species belonging to the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. The pH optima were 7.6 for D. melanogaster, D. mauritiana and D...
  32. Inomata N, Yamazaki T. Evolution of nucleotide substitutions and gene regulation in the amylase multigenes in Drosophila kikkawai and its sibling species. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:601-15 pubmed
    ..evolutionary changes in gene regulation and the nucleotide substitution pattern in a multigene family, the amylase multigenes were characterized in Drosophila kikkawai and its sibling species...
  33. Hickey D, Bally Cuif L, Abukashawa S, Payant V, Benkel B. Concerted evolution of duplicated protein-coding genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:1611-5 pubmed
    Very rapid rates of gene conversion were observed between duplicated alpha-amylase-coding sequences in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene conversion process was also seen in the related species Drosophila erecta...
  34. Greenspan R. The varieties of selectional experience in behavioral genetics. J Neurogenet. 2003;17:241-70 pubmed
  35. Da Lage J, Renard E, Chartois F, Lemeunier F, Cariou M. Amyrel, a paralogous gene of the amylase gene family in Drosophila melanogaster and the Sophophora subgenus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6848-53 pubmed
    We describe a gene from Drosophila melanogaster related to the alpha-amylase gene Amy. This gene, which exists as a single copy, was named Amyrel. It is strikingly divergent from Amy because the amino acid divergence is 40%...
  36. Li H, Sun L, Mittapalli O, Muir W, Xie J, Wu J, et al. Bowman-Birk inhibitor affects pathways associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. In addition, ultrastructure studies indicate that microvilli are significantly shortened in BBI-fed larvae. These data provide further insights into the complex cellular response of insects to dietary protease inhibitors. ..
  37. Gemmill R, Schwartz P, Doane W. Structural organization of the Amy locus in seven strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:5337-52 pubmed
    Restriction maps were made by Southern blot analysis of the Amy (alpha-amylase) region in 7 strains of D. melanogaster using endonucleases SalI, XhoI and EcoRI...
  38. Matsuo Y, Inomata N, Yamazaki T. Evolution of the amylase isozymes in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:289-300 pubmed
    ..Therefore five reference amino acid sites, which are informative residues for charge differences among amylase isozymes, were considered for the evolution of the isozymes in Drosophila melanogaster. The amylase isozymes in D...
  39. Okuyama E, Shibata H, Tachida H, Yamazaki T. Molecular evolution of the 5'-flanking regions of the duplicated Amy genes in Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:574-83 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequences of the 5'-flanking regions of the duplicated Amy genes in eight sibling species belonging to the melanogaster species subgroup are analyzed...
  40. Da Lage J, Maisonhaute C, Maczkowiak F, Cariou M. A nested alpha-amylase gene in Drosophila ananassae. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:355-62 pubmed publisher
    The amylase gene family of Drosophila ananassae consists in seven copies, scattered on several chromosomal arms. We have evidenced that a member of the family, Amy35, lies within an intron of a gene homologous to the CG14696 gene of D...
  41. Templeton A, Sing C. A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested analyses with cladogram uncertainty and recombination. Genetics. 1993;134:659-69 pubmed
    ..In particular, recombination can be used to assign a physical localization to a given subregion for mutations responsible for significant phenotypic effects. ..
  42. Thompson D, Treat Clemons L, Doane W. Tissue-specific and dietary control of alpha-amylase gene expression in the adult midgut of Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1992;262:122-34 pubmed the trans-acting mapP locus and of dietary glucose on the expression of the duplicate genes for alpha-amylase (Amy) in Drosophila melanogaster were examined in the anterior midgut and posterior midgut regions of mature ..
  43. Eguchi Y, Matsuo Y. Divergence of the regulation of alpha-amylase activity in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila funebris, and Drosophila saltans. Biochem Genet. 1999;37:41-52 pubmed
    The regulation of amylase activity in three Drosophila species, D. melanogaster, D. funebris and D...
  44. Ohta T. Evolution of gene families. Gene. 2000;259:45-52 pubmed
    ..Positive selection is necessary for the evolution of novel functions. However, many examples of current gene families suggest that both drift and selection are at work on their evolution. ..
  45. Crandall K, Templeton A. Empirical tests of some predictions from coalescent theory with applications to intraspecific phylogeny reconstruction. Genetics. 1993;134:959-69 pubmed
  46. Aquadro C, Weaver A, Schaeffer S, Anderson W. Molecular evolution of inversions in Drosophila pseudoobscura: the amylase gene region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:305-9 pubmed
    The amylase region of the third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura has been cloned and localized to cytological band 73A...
  47. POPADIC A, Anderson W. The history of a genetic system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6819-23 pubmed
    ..First, not only Standard but also Hypothetical can be excluded as the ancestral gene arrangement. Second, although either Tree Line or Santa Cruz could be the ancestral type, the available data provide greater support for Santa Cruz. ..
  48. Takano T, Kusakabe S, Mukai T. The genetic structure of natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. XXII. Comparative study of DNA polymorphisms in northern and southern natural populations. Genetics. 1991;129:753-61 pubmed
    Restriction map variation in four gene regions (Adh, Amy, Pu and Gpdh) was surveyed for 86 second chromosomes from northern (Aomori) and southern (Ogasawara) Japanese populations of Drosophila melanogaster (43 chromosomes from each ..
  49. de Jong G, Hoorn A, Thörig G, Scharloo W. Frequencies of amylase variants in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 1972;238:453-4 pubmed
  50. Klarenberg A, Visser A, Willemse M, Scharloo W. Genetic Localization and Action of Regulatory Genes and Elements for Tissue-Specific Expression of alpha-Amylase in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1986;114:1131-45 pubmed
    Regulation of tissue-specific alpha-amylase (Amy) expression in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated with a newly developed method that detects the distribution of alpha-amylase allozymes in midguts of single adults or third-instar ..
  51. Benkel B, Hickey D. The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Factors in the Control of Amylase Gene Expression in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1986;114:943-54 pubmed
    A number of previous studies have established that amylase activity can vary between Drosophila strains which are maintained under identical laboratory conditions...
  52. Hickey D. Regulation of amylase activity in Drosophila melanogaster: variation in the number of enzyme molecules produced by different amylase genotypes. Biochem Genet. 1981;19:783-96 pubmed
    ..Control of amylase activity is "trans"-acting in heterozygotes between high- and low-activity variants...
  53. Goto H, Szmidt A, Yamazaki T, Inomata N. Effect of nucleotide polymorphism in cis-regulatory and coding regions on amylase activity and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 2005;95:369-76 pubmed
    In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, there are many amylase (AMY) isozymes encoded by the duplicated genes, but their adaptive significance remains unclear...
  54. Benkel B, Abukashawa S, Boer P, Hickey D. Molecular cloning of DNA complementary to Drosophila melanogaster alpha-amylase mRNA. Genome. 1987;29:510-5 pubmed
    ..identified in a lambda cDNA bank using two different approaches: (i) cross-species hybridization using a mouse amylase cDNA probe, and (ii) probing with a differential probe, generated from Drosophila RNA...
  55. Gemmill R, Levy J, Doane W. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylase genes from Drosophila melanogaster. I. Clone isolation by use of a mouse probe. Genetics. 1985;110:299-312 pubmed
    A cloned alpha-amylase cDNA sequence from the mouse is homologous to a small set of DNA sequences from Drosophila melanogaster under appropriate conditions of hybridization...
  56. Hawley S, Doane W, Norman R. Molecular analysis of cis-regulatory sequences at the alpha-amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1992;30:257-77 pubmed
    The Amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster contains duplicate, divergently transcribed structural genes for alpha-amylase, AmyA and AmyB...
  57. Doane W, Treat Clemons L, Gemmill R, Levy J, Hawley S, Buchberg A, et al. Genetic mechanism for tissue-specific control of alpha-amylase expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Isozymes Curr Top Biol Med Res. 1983;9:63-90 pubmed
  58. Abraham I, Doane W. Genetic regulation of tissue-specific expression of amylase structural genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:4446-50 pubmed
    Laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster were screened for spatial variations in adult midgut alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC expression...
  59. Osada N, Innan H. Duplication and gene conversion in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000305 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on a population genetic prediction, we applied a new genome-scan method to test for signatures of selection for neofunctionalization and found a strong signature in a pair of transporter genes. ..
  60. Cipolla A, Delbrassine F, Da Lage J, Feller G. Temperature adaptations in psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic chloride-dependent alpha-amylases. Biochimie. 2012;94:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The thermodependence of activity, the kinetic parameters, the activations parameters and fluorescence quenching support these activity-stability relationships in the investigated ?-amylases. ..
  61. Sakaguchi H, Suzuki M. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food. Front Physiol. 2013;4:200 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food...