Gene Symbol: amn
Description: amnesiac
Alias: Amn, Anm, CG11937, Dmel\CG11937, Drm-amn, EP(X)1442, PACAP, PACAP-38, PACAP-like, PACAP38, PACAP38-like, Pacap38, chpd, amnesiac, CG11937-PA, amn-PA, cheap date, cheapdate, pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide, pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-like
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Yamazaki D, Horiuchi J, Nakagami Y, Nagano S, Tamura T, Saitoe M. The Drosophila DCO mutation suppresses age-related memory impairment without affecting lifespan. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:478-84 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila AMI consists of a specific reduction in memory dependent on the amnesiac (amn) gene. amn encodes putative neuropeptides that have been proposed to regulate cAMP levels in mushroom bodies...
  2. Tanaka N, Tanimoto H, Ito K. Neuronal assemblies of the Drosophila mushroom body. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:711-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural differences between lobes are also discussed. ..
  3. Tully T, Quinn W. Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Physiol A. 1985;157:263-77 pubmed
    ..The mutants amnesiac, rutabaga and dunce showed appreciable learning acquisition, but their memories decayed very rapidly during the ..
  4. Waddell S, Armstrong J, Kitamoto T, Kaiser K, Quinn W. The amnesiac gene product is expressed in two neurons in the Drosophila brain that are critical for memory. Cell. 2000;103:805-13 pubmed
    Mutations in the amnesiac gene in Drosophila affect both memory retention and ethanol sensitivity. The predicted amnesiac gene product, AMN, is an apparent preproneuropeptide, and previous studies suggest that it stimulates cAMP synthesis...
  5. Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed
    ..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
  6. Isabel G, Pascual A, Preat T. Exclusive consolidated memory phases in Drosophila. Science. 2004;304:1024-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that ARM acts as a gating mechanism that ensures that LTM is formed only after repetitive and spaced training. ..
  7. Liu W, Guo F, Lu B, Guo A. amnesiac regulates sleep onset and maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The amnesiac (amn) gene, encodes a neuropeptide that is homologous with vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ..
  8. Folkers E, Drain P, Quinn W. Radish, a Drosophila mutant deficient in consolidated memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8123-7 pubmed
    ..The mutant shows normal locomotor activity and normal sensitivity to the odor cues and electric-shock reinforcement used in the learning tests. The radish gene maps within a 180-kb interval in the 11D-E region of the X chromosome. ..
  9. DeZazzo J, Xia S, Christensen J, Velinzon K, Tully T. Developmental expression of an amn(+) transgene rescues the mutant memory defect of amnesiac adults. J Neurosci. 1999;19:8740-6 pubmed
    The Drosophila memory gene amnesiac (amn) has been proposed to encode a neuropeptide protein, which includes regions homologous to vertebrate pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP; Feany and Quinn, 1995)...

More Information


  1. Park S, Sedore S, Cronmiller C, Hirsh J. Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase-deficient Drosophila are viable but show developmental, circadian, and drug response phenotypes. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20588-96 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate type II PKA activity in these processes in Drosophila and imply a common role for PKA signaling in regulating responsiveness to cocaine and alcohol. ..
  2. Livingstone M, Sziber P, Quinn W. Loss of calcium/calmodulin responsiveness in adenylate cyclase of rutabaga, a Drosophila learning mutant. Cell. 1984;37:205-15 pubmed
    ..The mutation possibly affects the catalytic subunit directly. We postulate that there is at least one other type of adenylate cyclase activity that is unaffected by the mutation and insensitive to calcium/calmodulin. ..
  3. Feany M, Quinn W. A neuropeptide gene defined by the Drosophila memory mutant amnesiac. Science. 1995;268:869-73 pubmed
    ..One suppressor mutation that was recovered mapped in the amnesiac (amn) gene. Cloning of the locus revealed that amn encodes a previously uncharacterized neuropeptide gene...
  4. van Swinderen B. Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes. Science. 2007;315:1590-3 pubmed
    ..These processes were modulated by genes involved in short-term memory formation, namely dunce and rutabaga. Attention defects in these mutants were associated with distinct optomotor effects in behavioral assays. ..
  5. Bhattacharya A, Lakhman S, Singh S. Modulation of L-type calcium channels in Drosophila via a pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-mediated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:37291-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the amnesiac (amn) gene, which encodes a polypeptide homologous to human PACAP-38, reduced the L-type current in larval ..
  6. Moore M, DeZazzo J, Luk A, Tully T, Singh C, Heberlein U. Ethanol intoxication in Drosophila: Genetic and pharmacological evidence for regulation by the cAMP signaling pathway. Cell. 1998;93:997-1007 pubmed
    ..Using an inebriometer to measure ethanol-induced loss of postural control, we identified cheapdate, a mutant with enhanced sensitivity to ethanol...
  7. Keene A, Stratmann M, Keller A, Perrat P, Vosshall L, Waddell S. Diverse odor-conditioned memories require uniquely timed dorsal paired medial neuron output. Neuron. 2004;44:521-33 pubmed
    b>Amnesiac mutant flies have an olfactory memory defect. The amn gene encodes a homolog of vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and it is strongly expressed in dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons...
  8. Quinn W, Sziber P, Booker R. The Drosophila memory mutant amnesiac. Nature. 1979;277:212-4 pubmed
  9. Eddison M, Guarnieri D, Cheng L, Liu C, Moffat K, Davis G, et al. arouser reveals a role for synapse number in the regulation of ethanol sensitivity. Neuron. 2011;70:979-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus show that a developmental abnormality affecting synapse number and ethanol sensitivity is not permanent and can be reversed by manipulating the environment of the adult fly. ..
  10. Hasegawa E, Kitada Y, Kaido M, Takayama R, Awasaki T, Tabata T, et al. Concentric zones, cell migration and neuronal circuits in the Drosophila visual center. Development. 2011;138:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, genes that show the concentric zones may form a genetic hierarchy to establish neuronal circuits in the medulla. ..
  11. Tamura T, Chiang A, Ito N, Liu H, Horiuchi J, Tully T, et al. Aging specifically impairs amnesiac-dependent memory in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:1003-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that age-related defects in olfactory memory are identical to those of the MTM mutant amnesiac (amn)...
  12. Lee P, Lin H, Chang Y, Fu T, Dubnau J, Hirsh J, et al. Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..two genetically distinct forms of intermediate-term memories: anesthesia-sensitive memory, which requires the amnesiac gene, and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), which requires the radish gene...
  13. Cervantes Sandoval I, Davis R. Distinct traces for appetitive versus aversive olfactory memories in DPM neurons of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the persistence and breadth of the DPM neuron memory trace influences the duration of behavioral memory. ..
  14. Heisenberg M. Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:266-75 pubmed
  15. Hong S, Bang S, Hyun S, Kang J, Jeong K, Paik D, et al. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;454:771-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants...
  16. Yu D, Akalal D, Davis R. Drosophila alpha/beta mushroom body neurons form a branch-specific, long-term cellular memory trace after spaced olfactory conditioning. Neuron. 2006;52:845-55 pubmed
    ..This modification occurred only in the alpha branch of the neurons and was blocked by mutation of the amnesiac gene, inhibition of protein synthesis, or the expression of a protein blocker of the transcription factor Creb...
  17. Tully T, Preat T, Boynton S, del Vecchio M. Genetic dissection of consolidated memory in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;79:35-47 pubmed
    ..LTM showed no appreciable decay over 7 days, was sensitive to CXM, and was not disrupted by the radish mutation. ..
  18. Yu D, Keene A, Srivatsan A, Waddell S, Davis R. Drosophila DPM neurons form a delayed and branch-specific memory trace after olfactory classical conditioning. Cell. 2005;123:945-57 pubmed
    Formation of normal olfactory memory requires the expression of the wild-type amnesiac gene in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons...
  19. Tempel B, Bonini N, Dawson D, Quinn W. Reward learning in normal and mutant Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1482-6 pubmed
    ..Memory in amnesiac mutants appears to be similarly lengthened, from 1 hr to 6 hr, by substituting sucrose reward for shock ..
  20. Keene A, Krashes M, Leung B, Bernard J, Waddell S. Drosophila dorsal paired medial neurons provide a general mechanism for memory consolidation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1524-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that stable reward-odor memory is also DPM neuron dependent. DPM neuron expression of amnesiac (amn) in amn mutant flies restores wild-type memory...
  21. Gailey D, Jackson F, Siegel R. Male courtship in Drosophila: the conditioned response to immature males and its genetic control. Genetics. 1982;102:771-82 pubmed
    ..Other results indicate that immature males constitutively release a chemical signal that is sufficient for the expression of conditioned courtship. The interpretation of conditioned courtship as a component of fitness is discussed. ..
  22. Pflugfelder G. Genetic lesions in Drosophila behavioural mutants. Behav Brain Res. 1998;95:3-15 pubmed
    ..Various mutagens are reviewed as to their suitability in inducing selective regulatory mutations. ..
  23. Barth M, Hirsch H, Meinertzhagen I, Heisenberg M. Experience-dependent developmental plasticity in the optic lobe of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurosci. 1997;17:1493-504 pubmed
    ..Dark-rearing for 1 d or more at any stage during that period decreases its volume to the level of flies raised in constant darkness. A lamina that is once reduced in size seems not to recover. ..
  24. Honjo K, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Distinctive neuronal networks and biochemical pathways for appetitive and aversive memory in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2009;29:852-62 pubmed publisher
    ..larval aversive memory produced in this paradigm depends on intact cAMP signaling, but neither mutation of amnesiac nor suppression of CREB activity affects its kinetics...
  25. Dubnau J, Tully T. Functional anatomy: from molecule to memory. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R240-3 pubmed
    The Drosophila memory gene amnesiac is expressed in neurons that project to mushroom body axons...
  26. Chi M, Griffith L, Vecsey C. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies. Brain Sci. 2014;4:453-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain ..
  27. Tully T, Bolwig G, Christensen J, Connolly J, Delvecchio M, DeZazzo J, et al. A return to genetic dissection of memory in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1996;61:207-18 pubmed
  28. Kyriacou C. The molecular ethology of the period gene in Drosophila. Behav Genet. 1990;20:191-211 pubmed
    ..Perhaps some of these per+staining cells represent the anatomical concomitant of "the clock." ..
  29. Wu C, Fu T, Chou Y, Yeh S. A single pair of neurons modulates egg-laying decisions in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121335 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that amnesiac (amn) mutant flies show significant defects in egg-laying decisions, and such defects can be reversed by ..
  30. Mehren J, Ejima A, Griffith L. Unconventional sex: fresh approaches to courtship learning. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:745-50 pubmed
    ..Advances in transgenic tools and developments in behavioral assays have increased the power of studying courtship learning in the fruit fly. ..
  31. Kitamoto T. Targeted expression of temperature-sensitive dynamin to study neural mechanisms of complex behavior in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:205-28 pubmed
  32. Perisse E, Burke C, Huetteroth W, Waddell S. Shocking revelations and saccharin sweetness in the study of Drosophila olfactory memory. Curr Biol. 2013;23:R752-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We emphasize that considering an ethologically-relevant viewpoint might provide additional experimental power in studies of Drosophila memory. ..
  33. Chen N, Guo A, Li Y. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:944-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. ..
  34. Zhong Y, Pena L. A novel synaptic transmission mediated by a PACAP-like neuropeptide in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;14:527-36 pubmed
    ..Focal application of vertebrate pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) to the neuromuscular junction region triggered two temporally distinct muscle responses: an immediate ..
  35. Ackerman S, Siegel R. Chemically reinforced conditioned courtship in Drosophila: responses of wild-type and the dunce, amnesiac and don giovanni mutants. J Neurogenet. 1986;3:111-23 pubmed
    ..dunce, continued to court females at high levels; and experienced males from the retention-defective strain, amnesiac, failed to demonstrate the wild-type refractory period...
  36. Bhandari P, Kendler K, Bettinger J, Davies A, Grotewiel M. An assay for evoked locomotor behavior in Drosophila reveals a role for integrins in ethanol sensitivity and rapid ethanol tolerance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:1794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethanol sensitivity and rapid ethanol tolerance, respectively, were altered in flies with mutations in amnesiac and hangover, genes known to influence these traits...
  37. Kyriacou C, Hall J. Learning and memory mutations impair acoustic priming of mating behaviour in Drosophila. Nature. 1984;308:62-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that it does. Furthermore, learning and memory mutations(8), expressed in the females to whom songs are being played, either 'block' or attenuate the effectiveness of acoustical priming. ..
  38. Rodan A, Kiger J, Heberlein U. Functional dissection of neuroanatomical loci regulating ethanol sensitivity in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9490-501 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the regulation of ethanol-induced behaviors by PKA involves complex interactions among groups of cells that mediate either increased or reduced sensitivity to the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. ..
  39. Belvin M, Yin J. Drosophila learning and memory: recent progress and new approaches. Bioessays. 1997;19:1083-9 pubmed
  40. Johnson E, Ringo J, Dowse H. Modulation of Drosophila heartbeat by neurotransmitters. J Comp Physiol B. 1997;167:89-97 pubmed
    ..We show here that amnesiac, a neurological mutation, and Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylasetemperature sensitive, a mutation that ..
  41. Kandel E, Abel T. Neuropeptides, adenylyl cyclase, and memory storage. Science. 1995;268:825-6 pubmed
  42. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..
  43. Caldwell P, Walkiewicz M, Stern M. Ras activity in the Drosophila prothoracic gland regulates body size and developmental rate via ecdysone release. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1785-95 pubmed
    ..We also suggest that ecdysone release is regulated in two ways: a PI3K-dependent growth-promoting effect on PG cells, and a Raf-dependent step that may involve the transcriptional regulation of ecdysone biosynthetic genes. ..
  44. Khurana S, Abu Baker M, Siddiqi O. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biosci. 2009;34:621-31 pubmed
    ..The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.
  45. Lebreton S, Martin J. Mutations affecting the cAMP transduction pathway disrupt the centrophobism behavior. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that disturbing this pathway by using different mutants, such as dnc, rut, PKA, or amn, lead to centrophobism defect...
  46. Motosaka K, Koganezawa M, Narikawa S, Furuyama A, Shinozaki K, Isono K, et al. Cyclic AMP-dependent memory mutants are defective in the food choice behavior of Drosophila. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:279-83 pubmed
    ..Effects on this behavior were examined for four mutations that block associative learning (dunce, rutabaga, amnesiac, and radish)...
  47. Maleszka R, de Couet H, Miklos G. Data transferability from model organisms to human beings: insights from the functional genomics of the flightless region of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3731-6 pubmed
  48. Aldrich B, Kasuya J, Faron M, Ishimoto H, Kitamoto T. The amnesiac gene is involved in the regulation of thermal nociception in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2010;24:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known, however, about other genetic components that control nociceptive behaviors in Drosophila. The amnesiac gene (amn), which encodes a putative neuropeptide precursor, is important for stabilizing olfactory memory, and ..
  49. Honjo K, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Induction of cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent medium-term memory by appetitive gustatory reinforcement in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7905-13 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, larval memory produced by the appetitive conditioning lasts medium term and depends on both amnesiac and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)...
  50. Reaume C, Sokolowski M. The nature of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R623-8 pubmed
  51. Preat T. Diverse mechanisms to remember various odors. Neuron. 2004;44:404-5 pubmed
    Two dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons express the Amnesiac neuropeptide and project onto mushroom bodies, the Drosophila olfactory memory center. In this issue of Neuron, Keene et al...
  52. Tully T, Cambiazo V, Kruse L. Memory through metamorphosis in normal and mutant Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1994;14:68-74 pubmed
    ..We also show that similar training of the single-gene memory mutants dunce and amnesiac did not yield any detectable learning in larvae or memory retention in adults, suggesting that these mutations ..
  53. Peru Y Colón de Portugal R, Acevedo S, Rodan A, Chang L, Eaton B, Rothenfluh A. Adult neuronal Arf6 controls ethanol-induced behavior with Arfaptin downstream of Rac1 and RhoGAP18B. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17706-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Arf6 acts downstream of Rac1 and Arfaptin to regulate ethanol-induced behaviors, and we thus demonstrate that this conserved Rac1/Arfaptin/Arf6 pathway is a major mediator of ethanol-induced behavioral responses. ..
  54. Hallem E, Carlson J. The spatial code for odors is changed by conditioning. Neuron. 2004;42:359-61 pubmed
  55. Dubnau J, Chiang A, Tully T. Neural substrates of memory: from synapse to system. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:238-53 pubmed
    ..Our objective here is to offer a conceptually unifying perspective and to discuss this perspective in relation to an experiment analysis of memory in Drosophila. ..
  56. Ito S, Fujiyama Nakamura S, Kimura S, Lim J, Kamoshida Y, Shiozaki Sato Y, et al. Epigenetic silencing of core histone genes by HERS in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2012;45:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate a salient molecular switch linking epigenetic gene silencing to cell cycle-dependent histone production. ..
  57. Davis R. Physiology and biochemistry of Drosophila learning mutants. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:299-317 pubmed
    ..Five different genes in this pathway, amnesiac (a product similar to adenylate cyclase activating peptides), dunce (cAMP phosophodiesterase), rutabaga (adenylyl ..
  58. Hall J. The mating of a fly. Science. 1994;264:1702-14 pubmed
    ..Further behavioral mutations seemed originally to be courtship-specific, turned out not to have that property, and have led to a broadened perspective on the nature and action of Drosophila's sex-determination genes. ..
  59. Nighorn A, Qiu Y, Davis R. Progress in understanding the Drosophila dnc locus. Comp Biochem Physiol Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;108:1-9 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the recent developments in the understanding of the structure and function of the gene identified by the first and best-characterized of these mutants, the Drosophila dunce mutant. ..
  60. Hasegawa E, Kaido M, Takayama R, Sato M. Brain-specific-homeobox is required for the specification of neuronal types in the Drosophila optic lobe. Dev Biol. 2013;377:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Bsh is at least required for L5 specification. In the absence of Bsh, L5 is transformed into glial cells. ..
  61. Campbell J, Gu Q, Guo D, Nash H. Genetic effects in Drosophila on the potency of diverse general anesthetics: a distinctive pattern of altered sensitivity. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, P element insertions that co-map with several NEP loci have been shown to alter the fly's response to cocaine and ethanol, suggesting that common genetic elements are involved in the response to all three drugs. ..
  62. Waddell S, Quinn W. Neurobiology. Learning how a fruit fly forgets. Science. 2001;293:1271-2 pubmed
  63. Zars T. Behavioral functions of the insect mushroom bodies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:790-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, the mushroom bodies are necessary for context generalization in visual learning and for regulating the transition from walking to rest. ..
  64. Rothenfluh A, Heberlein U. Drugs, flies, and videotape: the effects of ethanol and cocaine on Drosophila locomotion. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:639-45 pubmed
    ..Surprising similarities between flies and mammals have begun to emerge at the behavioral, neurochemical and molecular levels. ..
  65. Emmons S, Lipton J. Genetic basis of male sexual behavior. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:93-110 pubmed
    ..It can also help us to gain an appreciation of how behavior is encoded by genes and their regulatory sequences. ..
  66. Mayford M, Kandel E. Genetic approaches to memory storage. Trends Genet. 1999;15:463-70 pubmed
    ..In these organisms, the effectiveness of genetic approaches in the study of memory has improved significantly in the past five years. Below we review these advances. ..
  67. Yu D, Feng C, Guo A. Altered outward K(+) currents in Drosophila larval neurons of memory mutants rutabaga and amnesiac. J Neurobiol. 1999;40:158-70 pubmed
    ..mM cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analog 8-bromo-cAMP in both Drosophila memory mutants rutabaga (rut) and amnesiac (amn) was significantly larger than that (50%) in wild type...
  68. Kim W, Jan L, Jan Y. Contribution of visual and circadian neural circuits to memory for prolonged mating induced by rivals. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:876-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus delineates parts of the molecular and cellular basis for LMD, a plastic social behavior elicited by visual cues. ..
  69. Preat T. Decreased odor avoidance after electric shock in Drosophila mutants biases learning and memory tests. J Neurosci. 1998;18:8534-8 pubmed
    The Drosophila mutants amnesiac, dunce (dnc), and rutabaga were isolated after associative conditioning tests, during which animals were trained to associate the presence of an odor with that of electric shocks (ES)...
  70. Davis R, Dauwalder B. The Drosophila dunce locus: learning and memory genes in the fly. Trends Genet. 1991;7:224-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the recent cloning and characterization of dunce counterparts from mammals has revealed that these too may participate in animal behavior and, in particular, in the regulation of mood. ..
  71. Liu C, Haynes P, Donelson N, Aharon S, Griffith L. Sleep in Populations of Drosophila Melanogaster (1,2,3). Eneuro. 2015;2: pubmed publisher
    ..well as sexual dimorphism in sleep pattern and sensitivity to starvation and a known sleep-disrupting mutation (amnesiac). Populations of flies, however, exhibit distinct sleep characteristics from individuals...
  72. Iliadi K, Knight D, Boulianne G. Healthy aging - insights from Drosophila. Front Physiol. 2012;3:106 pubmed publisher
  73. Gong Z, Xia S, Liu L, Feng C, Guo A. Operant visual learning and memory in Drosophila mutants dunce, amnesiac and radish. J Insect Physiol. 1998;44:1149-1158 pubmed
    Learning and memory of Drosophila mutants dunce, amnesiac and radish which were isolated originally from the classical olfactory learning paradigm are analyzed in an operant visual learning paradigm...
  74. Rosay P, Armstrong J, Wang Z, Kaiser K. Synchronized neural activity in the Drosophila memory centers and its modulation by amnesiac. Neuron. 2001;30:759-70 pubmed
    ..hours in insect saline and is strongly modulated in amplitude by the product(s) of the memory consolidation gene, amnesiac. It is also sensitive to pharmacological agents specific for several classes of ion channel and for acetylcholine ..
  75. Bellen H. The fruit fly: a model organism to study the genetics of alcohol abuse and addiction?. Cell. 1998;93:909-12 pubmed
  76. Meller V, Davis R. Biochemistry of insect learning: lessons from bees and flies. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;26:327-35 pubmed
    ..In spite of similarities, temporal, and possibly biochemical aspects of learning differ markedly between these organisms. ..