Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: alphaTub85E
Description: alpha-Tubulin at 85E
Alias: ALPHA 85E, CG9476, DTA3, Dmel\CG9476, Tub, Tub1D, a2t, aTub85E, alpha-Tub, alpha-Tub85E, alpha-tub, alpha-tubulin, alpha2, alpha2t, alpha85E, alpha85E-tub, alphaTub, alphaTub2, alphaTub84E, alpha-Tubulin at 85E, CG9476-PA, alpha tubulin, alpha-Tubulin, alpha-Tubulin 85E, alpha2-tubulin, alpha2tubulin, alpha85E-tubulin, alphaT, alphaTub85E-PA, alphatubulin, tubulin
Species: fruit fly
- do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome.
- Rolls M, Albertson R, Shih H, Lee C, Doe C. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1089-98 pubmed
- Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:481-500 pubmed..We tested the ability of the developmentally regulated alpha 85E-tubulin isoform to replace alpha 84B in spermatogenesis...
- Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
- Wakefield J, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. The drosophila protein asp is involved in microtubule organization during spindle formation and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:637-48 pubmed..both meiotic and mitotic divisions of asp mutants, microtubule nucleation occurs from the centrosome, and gamma-tubulin localizes correctly. However, spindle pole focusing and organization are severely affected...
- Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed..Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. ..
- Matthews K, Miller D, Kaufman T. Developmental distribution of RNA and protein products of the Drosophila alpha-tubulin gene family. Dev Biol. 1989;132:45-61 pubmed..At the protein level, two of the three previously unidentified products of alpha-tubulin genes (alpha 67C and alpha 85E) have been identified...
- Logarinho E, Bousbaa H, Dias J, Lopes C, Amorim I, Antunes Martins A, et al. Different spindle checkpoint proteins monitor microtubule attachment and tension at kinetochores in Drosophila cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1757-71 pubmed
- Zheng Y, Wong M, Alberts B, Mitchison T. Nucleation of microtubule assembly by a gamma-tubulin-containing ring complex. Nature. 1995;378:578-83 pubmedThe highly conserved protein gamma-tubulin is required for microtubule nucleation in vivo...
- Matthews K, Miller D, Kaufman T. Functional implications of the unusual spatial distribution of a minor alpha-tubulin isotype in Drosophila: a common thread among chordotonal ligaments, developing muscle, and testis cyst cells. Dev Biol. 1990;137:171-83 pubmed..mRNA from one of these genes, alpha 85E-tubulin, first appears in 6- to 8-hr embryos and persists, with marked fluctuations, through the end of pupal ..
- Kuchinke U, Grawe F, Knust E. Control of spindle orientation in Drosophila by the Par-3-related PDZ-domain protein Bazooka. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1357-65 pubmed..The PDZ domains of Bazooka provide several protein-protein interfaces, which possibly participate in the assembly of a multiprotein complex at the apical pole. ..
- Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed..Immunostaining of polo mutant cells with alpha-tubulin shows several abnormalities of the meiotic spindle, including a significantly reduced central spindle...
- Ben Yaacov S, Le Borgne R, Abramson I, Schweisguth F, Schejter E. Wasp, the Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene homologue, is required for cell fate decisions mediated by Notch signaling. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:1-13 pubmed..The nature of the Wsp mutant phenotypes, coupled with genetic interaction studies, identifies an essential role for Wsp in lineage decisions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. ..
- Eaton S, Wepf R, Simons K. Roles for Rac1 and Cdc42 in planar polarization and hair outgrowth in the wing of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1277-89 pubmed..During hair formation, the apical microtubules that point distally elongate and fill the emerging wing hair. As the hair elongates, junctional proteins are reorganized on the proximal and distal edges of each cell. ..
- Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Sedat J, Alberts B, Agard D. Microtubule nucleation by gamma-tubulin-containing rings in the centrosome. Nature. 1995;378:638-40 pubmed..gamma-Tubulin is the only component of the PCM that is so far implicated in microtubule nucleation...
- Inbal A, Levanon D, Salzberg A. Multiple roles for u-turn/ventral veinless in the development of Drosophila PNS. Development. 2003;130:2467-78 pubmed..In the embryo, loss of VVL function results in increased apoptosis in specific es organs. Analysis of vvl mutant clones in adults revealed a requirement for VVL in the control of cell number within the bristle lineage. ..
- Riparbelli M, Whitfield W, Dallai R, Callaini G. Assembly of the zygotic centrosome in the fertilized Drosophila egg. Mech Dev. 1997;65:135-44 pubmed..gamma-Tubulin was also found in association with the posterior end of the sperm nucleus during spermiogenesis, but was not ..
- Fichelson P, Jagut M, Lepanse S, Lepesant J, Huynh J. lethal giant larvae is required with the par genes for the early polarization of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2010;137:815-24 pubmed publisher..We conclude that, despite sharing many similarities with other model systems at the genetic and cellular levels, the polarization of the early oocyte relies on a specific subset of polarity proteins. ..
- Mischke D, Pardue M. Organization and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. One member of the alpha-tubulin multigene family is transcribed in both oogenesis and later embryonic development. J Mol Biol. 1982;156:449-66 pubmed
- Major R, Irvine K. Influence of Notch on dorsoventral compartmentalization and actin organization in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:3823-33 pubmed
- O Farrell F, Kylsten P. Drosophila Anillin is unequally required during asymmetric cell divisions of the PNS. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:407-13 pubmed publisher..The net result of which is the formation of incomplete sense organs and embryonic lethality. ..
- Moussian B, Tång E, Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Drosophila Knickkopf and Retroactive are needed for epithelial tube growth and cuticle differentiation through their specific requirement for chitin filament organization. Development. 2006;133:163-71 pubmed..We propose a model in which Knk and the predicted chitin-binding protein Rtv form membrane complexes essential for epithelial tubulogenesis and cuticle formation through their specific role in directing chitin filament assembly...
- Hoyle H, Turner F, Brunick L, Raff E. Tubulin sorting during dimerization in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2185-94 pubmedWe demonstrate sorting of beta-tubulins during dimerization in the Drosophila male germ line. Different beta-tubulin isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for alpha-tubulin during dimerization...
- Andrés M, Turiegano E, Gopfert M, Canal I, Torroja L. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos. Genetics. 2014;196:1091-102 pubmed publisher..In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. ..
- Izumi Y, Ohta N, Itoh Furuya A, Fuse N, Matsuzaki F. Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:729-38 pubmed..We thus suggest that the two apical signaling pathways have overlapping but different roles in asymmetric NB division. ..
- Cullen C, Brittle A, Ito T, Ohkura H. The conserved kinase NHK-1 is essential for mitotic progression and unifying acentrosomal meiotic spindles in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:593-602 pubmed..NHK-1 itself is phosphorylated in mitosis and female meiosis, suggesting that this kinase is part of the regulatory system coordinating progression of mitosis and meiosis. ..
- Heuer J, Kaufman T. Homeotic genes have specific functional roles in the establishment of the Drosophila embryonic peripheral nervous system. Development. 1992;115:35-47 pubmed..Our results are suggestive of a role for the homeotic gene products in regulating genes which are necessary for generating sensory progenitor cells in the developing PNS. ..
- Galindo M, Pueyo J, Fouix S, Bishop S, Couso J. Peptides encoded by short ORFs control development and define a new eukaryotic gene family. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e106 pubmed publisher..Our results open a new avenue for the annotation and functional analysis of genes and sequenced genomes, in which thousands of short ORFs are still uncharacterised...
- Theurkauf W, Baum H, Bo J, Wensink P. Tissue-specific and constitutive alpha-tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster code for structurally distinct proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:8477-81 pubmedWe have determined the nucleotide sequences of all four Drosophila alpha-tubulin genes (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 4)...
- Donaldson M, Tavares A, Ohkura H, Deak P, Glover D. Metaphase arrest with centromere separation in polo mutants of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:663-76 pubmed..centrosomes that are associated with Centrosomin and the abnormal spindle protein (Asp), but neither with gamma-tubulin nor CP190...
- Raff E. Genetics of microtubule systems. J Cell Biol. 1984;99:1-10 pubmedIn most eucaryotes the tubulin genes comprise small multigene families with approximately equal numbers of genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, the structural proteins of microtubules...
- Battaglia P, Zito S, Macchini A, Gigliani F. A Drosophila model of HIV-Tat-related pathogenicity. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2787-94 pubmed..By in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrated that Tat specifically binds to tubulin via the MAP-binding domain of tubulin, and that this interaction delays the polymerization of tubulin and induces ..
- Lemos C, Sampaio P, Maiato H, Costa M, Omel yanchuk L, Liberal V, et al. Mast, a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for bipolar mitotic spindle organization. EMBO J. 2000;19:3668-82 pubmed..The defects observed in the mutant alleles and the intracellular localization of the protein suggest that Mast plays an essential role in centrosome separation and organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle. ..
- Kalfayan L, Wensink P. Developmental regulation of Drosophila alpha-tubulin genes. Cell. 1982;29:91-8 pubmedTranscripts from the four different Drosophila melanogaster alpha-tubulin genes were detected by filter hybridization experiments that used subcloned fragments from each gene as hybridization probes...
- Baker J, Theurkauf W, Schubiger G. Dynamic changes in microtubule configuration correlate with nuclear migration in the preblastoderm Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:113-21 pubmed..We propose that cortical migration is driven by microtubule-dependent forces that repel adjacent nuclei, leading to an expansion of the nuclear ellipsoid established by axial expansion. ..
- Leismann O, Herzig A, Heidmann S, Lehner C. Degradation of Drosophila PIM regulates sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2192-205 pubmed..Whereas these securins are known to form a complex with separins, we show that PIM associates in vivo with THR, which does not contain the conserved separin domain. ..
- Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes. ..
- Somma M, Fasulo B, Siriaco G, Cenci G. Chromosome condensation defects in barren RNA-interfered Drosophila cells. Genetics. 2003;165:1607-11 pubmed..We have used double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to deplete Barren in Drosophila S2 cells. Our analyses indicate that inactivation of barr leads to extensive chromosome condensation and disrupts chromatid segregation. ..
- Nicolai M, Delbecque J, Delachambre J, Lenoir Rousseaux J. Is tubulin the sole antigen recognized by a putative anti-bursicon antibody?. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;122:39-45 pubmed..Again, the isolated clones were found, after cDNA sequencing, to correspond to tubulin. Our results suggest that, although the 01C10 mAb could possibly still have a great affinity for a polypeptide ..
- Siudeja K, Srinivasan B, Xu L, Rana A, de Jong J, Nollen E, et al. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:755-66 pubmed publisher..We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, ..
- Röper K, Brown N. A spectraplakin is enriched on the fusome and organizes microtubules during oocyte specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:99-110 pubmed..Shot associates with the fusome and is required for microtubule organization. We suggest that it does this directly, via its microtubule binding GAS2 domain. ..
- Kylsten P, Saint R. Imaginal tissues of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit different modes of cell proliferation control. Dev Biol. 1997;192:509-22 pubmed..melanogaster development, but also reveals that at least one additional mechanism is utilized to control G2-phase length and thus cell proliferation in different developmental contexts. ..
- Berdnik D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Aurora-A is required for centrosome maturation and actin-dependent asymmetric protein localization during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:640-7 pubmed..aurA(37) mutant cells also fail to recruit Centrosomin (Cnn) and gamma-Tubulin to centrosomes during mitosis, leading to spindle morphology defects...
- Audibert A, Simon F, Gho M. Cell cycle diversity involves differential regulation of Cyclin E activity in the Drosophila bristle cell lineage. Development. 2005;132:2287-97 pubmed..Finally, we show that the fate determinant factor, Tramtrack, downregulates Cyclin E expression and is probably involved in the exit of the cells from the cell cycle. ..
- Santaren J, Van Damme J, Puype M, Vandekerckhove J, Garcia Bellido A. Identification of Drosophila wing imaginal disc proteins by two-dimensional gel analysis and microsequencing. Exp Cell Res. 1993;206:220-6 pubmed..As an illustration we present 12 of them: 8 corresponding to proteins already known in Drosophila and the 4 showing homologies with proteins of other organisms. ..
- Wagner N, Weber D, Seitz S, Krohne G. The lamin B receptor of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2015-28 pubmed..We conclude that dLBR is not a limiting component of the nuclear architecture in Drosophila cells during the first 2 days of development. ..
- Klein Y, Halachmi N, Egoz Matia N, Toder M, Salzberg A. The proprioceptive and contractile systems in Drosophila are both patterned by the EGR family transcription factor Stripe. Dev Biol. 2010;337:458-70 pubmed publisher..Similarly to the biphasic differentiation program of tendons, terminal differentiation of chordotonal attachment cells is associated with sequential activation of the two Stripe isoforms-Stripe B and Stripe A. ..
- Findeisen P, MÃ¼hlhausen S, Dempewolf S, Hertzog J, Zietlow A, Carlomagno T, et al. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2274-88 pubmed publisher..However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and ..
- Seshaiah P, Miller B, Myat M, Andrew D. pasilla, the Drosophila homologue of the human Nova-1 and Nova-2 proteins, is required for normal secretion in the salivary gland. Dev Biol. 2001;239:309-22 pubmed..The secretory defects in ps mutants provide a potential mechanism for the loss of motor function observed in POMA patients. ..
- Lin H, Spradling A. Fusome asymmetry and oocyte determination in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1995;16:6-12 pubmed..These observations suggest that fusomes help establish a system of directional transport between cystocytes that underlies oocyte determination. ..
- Audibert A, Simonelig M. The suppressor of forked gene of Drosophila, which encodes a homologue of human CstF-77K involved in mRNA 3'-end processing, is required for progression through mitosis. Mech Dev. 1999;82:41-50 pubmed
- Zhang G, Breuer M, Förster A, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. Mars, a Drosophila protein related to vertebrate HURP, is required for the attachment of centrosomes to the mitotic spindle during syncytial nuclear divisions. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:535-45 pubmed publisher..We propose that Mars is an important linker between the spindle and the centrosomes that is required for proper spindle organization during the rapid mitotic cycles in early embryogenesis. ..
- Cachero S, Simpson T, zur Lage P, Ma L, Newton F, Holohan E, et al. The gene regulatory cascade linking proneural specification with differentiation in Drosophila sensory neurons. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000568 pubmed publisher..In addition, it provides a paradigm for how transcriptional regulation may modulate the ciliogenesis pathway to give rise to structurally and functionally specialised ciliary dendrites. ..
- Wilson P. Centrosome inheritance in the male germ line of Drosophila requires hu-li tai-shao function. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:360-9 pubmed..Collectively, these results indicate that hts function is necessary for centrosome inheritance in spermatocytes as well as for male fertility. ..
- Sanchez F, Natzle J, Cleveland D, Kirschner M, McCarthy B. A dispersed multigene family encoding tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1980;22:845-54 pubmedWe have used cloned chicken cDNA sequences for alpha- and beta-tubulin to investigate tubulin gene organization in Drosophila melanogaster...
- Roos J, Hummel T, Ng N, Klämbt C, Davis G. Drosophila Futsch regulates synaptic microtubule organization and is necessary for synaptic growth. Neuron. 2000;26:371-82 pubmed..These data suggest a common microtubule-based growth mechanism at the synapse and growth cone. ..
- Dettman R, Turner F, Hoyle H, Raff E. Embryonic expression of the divergent Drosophila beta3-tubulin isoform is required for larval behavior. Genetics. 2001;158:253-63 pubmed..Drosophila beta3-tubulin (beta3) is a structurally divergent isoform transiently expressed during midembryogenesis...
- Meignin C, Dastugue B, Vaury C. Intercellular communication between germ line and somatic line is utilized to control the transcription of ZAM, an endogenous retrovirus from Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3799-806 pubmed
- Wei J, Hortsch M, Goode S. Neuroglian stabilizes epithelial structure during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:800-8 pubmed..Our data also suggest that Ig superfamily members have significant functional redundancy in maintaining epithelial polarity, with individual members playing subtle, unique roles during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
- Mollinari C, Lange B, Gonzalez C. Miranda, a protein involved in neuroblast asymmetric division, is associated with embryonic centrosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Biol Cell. 2002;94:1-13 pubmed..on purified syncytial centrosomes shows that Miranda is located on the pericentriolar material along with gamma-tubulin. Taken all together, our data indicate for the first time that Miranda belongs to a growing class of proteins ..
- Abdu U, Bar D, Sch pbach T. spn-F encodes a novel protein that affects oocyte patterning and bristle morphology in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:1477-84 pubmed publisher..Our results show that we have identified a novel protein that affects oocyte axis determination and the organization of microtubules during Drosophila oogenesis...
- Sampaio P, Rebollo E, Varmark H, Sunkel C, Gonzalez C. Organized microtubule arrays in gamma-tubulin-depleted Drosophila spermatocytes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1788-93 pubmedTo assess the role of gamma-tubulin in spindle assembly in vivo, we have followed meiosis progression by immunofluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy in gammaTub23C(PI) mutant spermatocytes...
- Kner P, Chhun B, Griffis E, Winoto L, Gustafsson M. Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination. Nat Methods. 2009;6:339-42 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate the microscope by video imaging of tubulin and kinesin dynamics in living Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in the total internal reflection mode.
- Delgehyr N, Wieland U, Rangone H, Pinson X, Mao G, Dzhindzhev N, et al. Drosophila Mgr, a Prefoldin subunit cooperating with von Hippel Lindau to regulate tubulin stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5729-34 pubmed publisher..These phenotypes are associated with reductions of tubulin levels in both mgr flies and mgr RNAi-treated cultured cells...
- Gandhi R, Bonaccorsi S, Wentworth D, Doxsey S, Gatti M, Pereira A. The Drosophila kinesin-like protein KLP67A is essential for mitotic and male meiotic spindle assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:121-31 pubmed
- Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed..These results reveal key steps in the assembly of the apical domain in Drosophila. ..
- Szafranski P, Goode S. Basolateral junctions are sufficient to suppress epithelial invasion during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:364-73 pubmed..Our results demonstrate that spatiotemporal patterns of basolateral junction activity directly suppress epithelial invasion by organizing the cooperative activity of distinct polarity and motility pathways. ..
- Martinez Campos M, Basto R, Baker J, Kernan M, Raff J. The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:673-83 pubmed..Moreover, the flagella in mutant sperm are nonmotile. Thus, D-PLP is essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella in flies. ..
- Yuen J, Read S, Brubacher J, Singh A, Whyard S. Biolistics for high-throughput transformation and RNA interference in Drosophila melanogaster. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:247-54 pubmed..These results suggest that biolistic delivery of dsRNA into embryos could be adapted for high throughput RNAi screens of early Drosophila developmental genes. ..
- McHugh B, Krause S, Yu B, Deans A, Heasman S, McLaughlin P, et al. Invadolysin: a novel, conserved metalloprotease links mitotic structural rearrangements with cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:673-86 pubmed..Thus, invadolysin identifies a new family of conserved metalloproteases whose activity appears to be essential for the coordination of mitotic progression, but which also plays an unexpected role in cell migration. ..
- Wu C, Sakai K, Saito M, Hotta Y. Giant Drosophila neurons differentiated from cytokinesis-arrested embryonic neuroblasts. J Neurobiol. 1990;21:499-507 pubmed..The cells of increased sizes in this culture system are more accessible to physiological and cell biological analyses and could facilitate future studies of the Drosophila nervous system. ..
- Ashley J, Packard M, Ataman B, Budnik V. Fasciclin II signals new synapse formation through amyloid precursor protein and the scaffolding protein dX11/Mint. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5943-55 pubmed..These results provide a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules are regulated and provide fresh insights into the normal operation of APP during synapse development. ..